Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "Germany"

See other formats


b D 




r>r^ ^^ ^^i'"^" University Library 

DD 90.B25 1921 

Germany / 

3 1924 028 189 953 

The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



1. Rome. By Arthur Oilman, MA. 

2. The Jews. By Prof, J. K. Hosmkr. 

3. Qermuij. By Rev. S. Baring- 

Gould, M,A. 

4. Oftithafe. By Prof. Alfred ]. 


5. Alexuidcr'a Empire. By Prof, 

J. P. Mahaffy. 

6. The Moors in Spain. 


By Stanley 
By Prof. George 


7. Ancient 'Egypt 


8. Hunftry By Pn>f, Arminius 


9. The Saraoeni. By Arthur Gil- 

man, MA. 
10, Ireland, By the Hon, Emilv 

ri, Chaldea. By Z^naide A Ragozin, 
12. The Goth*. By Henry Bradley. 

Aiivria. By Z^naTde A. Ragozin. 
Turlcey. By Stanley Lane-Poole, 
15. HoUand. By Prof, J. E, Thorold 


16 Mediseval France. By Gusta\'e 


17 Peraia. By S. G. W, Benjamin, 
18. Phoenicia. By Prof. G, RawlinitON 
ig. Media. By ZfnaIde A, Ragozin. 

20. The Hanaa Towns. By Helen 


21. Early Britain. By Prof. Alfred 

]. Chi K'LiL 
31. TheBarbary Oonairi. By Stanlp.y 

23. Ruasia. By W. R. Morfill, MA. 

24. The Jews under the Homans. By 

\v. D, Morrison. 

25. Scotland. By JOHN MACKINTOSH, 

Switzerland, By Mrs. Lina Hug 
and R, Stead. 
27. Mexico. By Susan Hale 
2^. Portugal. By H, M(jkse Stephens, 

29. The Normans. By Sarah Orme 


30. The Byzantine Empire. By C, \V, 

C. Oman. 
Sicily : Fhcenician, Greek and 

Roman. By the Prof. E. A. 

The Tuscan Kepublioa. By Bella 

Poland. By W. R. Morfill MA, 
Parthia. By Prof. George Raw- 

The AustraJian Commonwealth. By 

Greville Thegarthen. 





36. Spain. By H. E, Watts. 

37. Japan. By David Murray Ph D. 

38. South Africa, By George M, 


39. Venice. By Alethea Wiel, 

40. The Crusades. By T. A. Archhr 

and C. L. Kingsford, 

41. Vedio India. By Z. A. Ragozin. 

42. The West Indies and the Spanish 

Main. By James Rodvvay. 

43. Bohemia. By C. Edmund 


44. TheBalkans. By W. Mpller, MA. 

45. Canada. By Sir J. G. BOURINOT, 

4^^. BritiBh India. By R. W. Frazer, 

47. Modem France. By ANDRfi Le 


48. The Pranks. By Lewis Ser- 


49. Austria. By Sidney Whitman. 

50. Modern England. Before the Re- 

form Bill. By Justin McCarthy. 

51. China. By Prnf. R.K. Douglas. 

52. Modern England. From the Reform 

Bill to the Present Time. By 
Justin McCarthy. 

53. Modern Spain. By Martin A. S. 

H u M E 
54- Modern Italy. By Pietro Orsi. 

55. Norway. By H. H. Boyesen. 

56. Wales. By O. M. Edwards. 

57. Mediaeval Rome, By W. Miller, 

s8. The Papal Monarchy. By William 
Barry, D.D. 

59. Mediaeval India under Mohamme- 

dan Rule. By Stanley Lane- 

60. Buddhist India. By Prof. T. W. 


61. Parliamentary England. By Ed- 

ward Jenks, M.A. 

62. Medieeval England. By Mary 


63. The Coming of Parliament. By L 

Cecil Jane. 

64. The Story of Greece. From the 

Earliest Times to a.d. 14, By 
E. S. Shuckburgh. 

65. The Story of the Roman Empire. 

(B.C. 29 to A.D. 476.) By H. 
Stuart Jones. 

66. Denmark and Sweden, with Ice- 

land and Finland. By JON 
Stefansson, Ph.D. 
I 67 Belgium. By Emile Cammaerts. 

London : T. FISHER UNWIN, LTD., i Adelphi Terrace 

, . .^ ■■■ '" ■ X 


■ IS ■-^- ,'; •■ 

'%-'' ■:^-':'::^:-.\i 

(After Franz von Lenbach.) 




With the Collaboration of 







First Published . 


Second Impression 




Fonrlli ,, 






Seventli „ 

. igoi 


■ '907 



Tenth (2nd Edition) 

. 792/ 


Since Mr. liaring-Gould compiled this vivid and 
picturesque history of the German nation, the wheels 
of time have brought round to us one of the strangest 
revolutions of the modern chronicle. Germany was 
always interesting. Go back far enough, and you 
find that the tall, blue-eyed men of the northern 
forests were blood-brothers of the tall, b!uc-e_\-ed men, 
the Anglo-Saxons, who laid the solid foundations 
of our own [polity. Century by centLiry thty grew 
with fairly eijual pace. It was a German, Charle- 
magne, who put some order into the anarchy of 
early medieval Europe. It was a German con- 
federation, the Hanseatic League, which had the 
lead in restoring commerce to life. It was a German 
who invented paper, and another German who 
invented the press. Germans had a full share in 
the glorious architecture of the Middle Ages. A 
German, Luther, opened the great period which 
closed the Middle Ages ; and in the scientific, 
industrial, commercial, and literary work of the 
nineteenth century German)- had an eminent 

That was the situation when Baring-Gould con- 
ceived and wrote this book. It was written from 
first page to last in a spirit of high admiration, almost 


brotherly affection. There were writers in Germany 
who already began to speak of English jealousy 
and English calumny. The charge was groundless. 
Baring-Gould and nearly every other English writer 
on Germany saw in the rise of the German Empire 
only the prosperity of a sister-State, a gain to the 
world. Every chapter of this history — one of the 
most popular in English literature — is a reply to 
the untruth that England was educated by its writers 
into a fateful mood of hostility. 

We do not alter this tone of the book. We 
understand it. The work is still one of the most 
fascinating sketches of the development of Germany 
that the general reader can peruse. But we complete 
the work ; and the completion makes quite intel- 
ligible the contrast of the admiration of yesterday 
and the very different mood of to-day. Germany 
was changing at the very time when Mr. Baring- 
Gould wrote. The burly form of Bismarck threw 
a grim shadow over it. A soulless militarism was 
perverting it. Prosperity was begetting greed, not 
content. A sinister figure had just mounted the 
throne. Mr. Baring-Gould clung to the promise 
of Germany's past, and saw not the menace of these 
things. ~ They hardly entered his stage. In this 
new edition we carry the story through the later 
years of Bismarck and the reign of William II. It 
is now a story of a "rise and fall," an intelligible 
story. The text has been slightly modified on 
page 395, and the last few pages have been expanded 
into a sketch of German history to the year 19 14. 




z \ 

2 / 


' - [ ' 


■,-i \ 

/ -^ X ( 

.^ JJ 


~ "^ 

'■^ ^^f 


-■ H 

^ -I tu _. 

, o 

n 5 




The First GERNrANS, . . . . . . i-6 

In\'aders from the North, [ — The Romans defeated, 2 — 
Marius at Aix, 4 — 'I'he xictor)' o\cr the invaders, 6. 


What WAS Old Germaw Like ? . . . 7-14 

Hill-country and plain, 7 — Traces of earlv inh.iliitants, S — 
The Germans spearmen, Q — llie Swabians, 10 — Freemen 
and slaves, 11 — Donar and the other gods, i; — S. Xoth- 
burga, 14. 


How Hermann Mei' the Romans, . . . 15--J 

Cetsar in tiaul, 15 — Herniann's thoughts, — \'arus and Ins 
legions, 18 — "Cii\'e me back inv legions !" -O — Thu-'ncUia 
captured, zi — Hermann tlie typical German, 2^ 


The Fierce Huns Appear, .... 24-28 

Tuss in the Corner. ::4 — People fr(,>m Northern Asia, 26 — 
The Niebelungen Lied, 27 — .\ttila dies, 2S. 


The Migrations of the Tribes, . . . 29-33 
Wasps in a beehive, 29 — Goths, West Goths and Slavs, 31 — 
The Burgundians and Franks, j^. 


Clovis, King of the Franks, . . , 34-42 

Confusion, 34 — The cathedral at Rheims spoiled, 35 — Clo- 




tilde wooed by Clevis, 37 — llaptism of a son of Clevis, 38 
— Clovis prays, 39— The Allemani beaten, 40— Three thou- 
sand Franks baptised, 41 — Clevis dies, 43. 

The Mayors of the Palace, .... 43-4S 

The Merovingians, 43, — Pepin the Short, 44 — Pepin dies, 45. 


The Germans Hear THE Gospel, . . . 46-51 

Irish manuscripts in Germany, 46 — Fridolin, the Irishman, 
48 — Boniface, the Good-doer, 50 — Pagans murder Boniface, 



A Man of Mark, ...... 52 -62 

Charlemagne, 52 — His kingdom, 54 — Wittekind flees to 
Denmark, 56 — Wittekind and the Saxons overcome, 57 — 
Charlemagne divides his kingdom, 58 — The Church under 
Charlemagne, 59 — Good acts of Charlemagne, 60 — Charle- 
magne crowned at Rome, 61 — His death, 62. 

The " Holy Roman Empire." . . 63-66 

The old Empire, 63 — Conversion of the Romans, 64 — Italy 
overrun by the Lombards, 64 — Who was Emperor? 65 — 
Importance of the idea of the Empire, 65. 

A King Pious but Narrow, .... 67-71 

Louis, the narrow-minded, 67 — Jutta accused of witchcraft, 

68 — War between brothers, 70 — Treaty at Verdun, 71. 


The New System of Government, . . 72-74 

How the Germans held their lands, 72 — How fighting men 

were furnished, 73 — The feudal system, 73. 


Trouble Coming, ...... 75-77 

Successors of Louis the Pious, 75 — The invasions of the 
Magyars or Hungarians, 76 — End of the race of Charle- 
magne, 77 


How Henrv the Fowler Ruled, . . . 78-84 
The great vassals elect the king, 78 — Conrad chosen, 79 — 
Henry the Fowler chosen, 80 — Tribute to the Hungarians, 
81 — Protecting the frontier, 82 — The Hungarians baffled, S3 
— Knighthood instituted, 83 — Rules of the Order, 84. 


The Hungarians Burst in Again, . . 85-93 

Bishop IMrich of Augsburg, 85 — Count K\hurg pii/zles the 
Hungarians, 86 — Otto conies upon their rear, 88 — ( )tto the 
Great crowned, 90. 

Some Trials ok a King, .... 94-105 

A plot against a King, 95 — The King's Guardians, 97 — An 
Appeal to the Pope, 99 — .\ Hand cut off, 103 — A broken 
heart, \q^. 


A Bad Son Makes a Strong King, . . loG-ioS 

How They FouGH'f THE Saracens, . . 109-112 

A great awakening, iii. 

How A New Dvnastv was Beglin, . . 1 13-119 

I'he two-headed eagle, 1 19. 


Frederick OK THE Red Beard, . . . 120-124 

Frederick Barbarossa !2) — Ilis arniv almost cut tn pieces, 
\22 — Henry the Lion under the ban of the empire, 12; — .\ 
crusade against Saladin, 124. 

A Cruel King Put TTxp^r ihe Ban . 125-135 

Terrible work in .Sicilw 12^ — .\ child-king, 127 — The junver 
of the nobles, 129 — Trouble from the inijierial idea, 13 f — 
Another crusade, 132 — Pope against emperor, 133 — The em- 
peror excommunicated, 134 — A prince in a cask, i^v 



xxii. page 

The Robber-Knights, .... 136-140 

Germany's ruined castles, 136— Noljles and knights quarrel, 
13S— Wliat work the knights did, 139— Lordly innkeepers, 


How -jHE Germans Wrote Romances, . 141-145 

The Minnesingers, 14T — The old heroic legends, 142 — Gun- 
thur and Kriemhikl, 143 — Brunhilde quarrels -with Kriem- 
hild, 144 — Attila, King of the Huns, marries Kriemhild, 


How the Cities Gained Power, . . 146-147 

Guilds and hereditary burghers, 146 — The Hanseatic 
League, 147. 


A Good King from a Swiss Castle, . . 148-150 

The castle of Hapsburg, 14S — Rudolph founds a dynasty, 

Did William Tell Shoot ? . . . . 151-153 

Albert of Hapsburg. 151 — William Tell, 152 — The battle of 
Morgarten, 153. 


The Golden Bull, 154-163 

Henry of Luxemburg chosen emperor, 154 — Ciyil war, 156 
— The election of emperor settled by the Golden Bull, 156 
— Wenceslas comes to the throne, i ^S — His savage hounds, 
159 — Huss appears at Prague, iGo — The one-eyed leader of 
the Hussites, 161 — Saxony wasted, 162 — Bohemia and the 
country generally pacified, 163. 


A Sleepy King, 164-170 

The Austrian house of Hapsburg comes into power, 164 — 
The Graubiinden, 166 — PeasanLs with p'tchforks, 166 — 
Wheat fields ravaged, 167 — Maximilian the Handsome, 168 
— The Flemings revolt, 170 — Maximilian a prisoner, 170. 



Ul'.TVVEEK 'IHE Ol.l) AND 'J H E NeW, . . 172-I7S 

Haii::- llurgkmnir'.-, wood-cul^, 172 — Maximilian a bound-aiy- 
sioic, 174 — A fiict at Worm--, 175 — An imperial posi-nffice, 
1 76— Trouble wiih the 'Furl-, ^. 1 76^MuTiey g'^ing to the 
I'upe, 177 — Too much ambition, 17S. 

Mf.n Begin id Print Books, . . . 179-181 

\Va(er-mark^, 179 — Tlie invenlii>n of printing, 171) — Tlie 
Itiljlc jjrintctl, l3'j. 


A GrE.\T SlIR IN TIIK ChURLH, . . 1S2-18S 

I'.cgiiiiiing of rroteslaiUisni, 1S2 — Tlie I'l.^pe want.^ iiiunc)', 
1S3 — Indulgences, 1S4 — Martin I .ullicr appears, 185 — lusti- 
ficalion hv faith, 1S6 — Archl)is}i(j|-is in armor, 1^3. 

W'.ALi.EH Cities anfi i heir Import.^nce, . iSg-iyj 

Cities liegin to 1)C inipi irtant, I S9 — 1 imijer lumse^, I 3o — 
(ilass winilows, 191 — Stables under the houses, i',t — r>eaiily 
lif the cities, i()2 — Street lights, 193 — Music and singing, 



HiGir German and Low, .... 196-19S 

How C'lermany is divided, I9(j — 1 he lull cotintr\- and [dains, 
196 — How Lnther hxed the literary dialect, I97 — Compari- 
son with England, 19S. 


A Mighty Emperok, ..... 199-20.^ 

Charles the Fifih and his traits, 199 — His ambition, 201 — 
Another diet at Worms, 205 — The princes seiz* church 
property, 204. 

How the Peasants Waked up, . . 205-210 

The new ideas permeate society, 205 — Gathering straw- 
berries and snails, 206 — Little Jack and Black Hoffman, 



207 — Hacked to pieces, 207 — Terrible deeds, 20S — Shall the 
chains \z re riveted? 209. 


The Sad Fate OF Bernard Knipperdolling, 211-220 

Meyerbeer's opera, 211 — League against the Catholics, 271 
— MUnster converted to the Gospel, 212 — Anabaptist trou- 
bles, 213 — Vagaries, 214 — KnipperdoUing > death, 217 — 
Titles t,> tradesmen, 218 — MUnster reverts to Catholicism, 


How THE Protestants Protested, . . 221-231 

The Reformation at Zurich, 221 — A diet at Spires, 221 — 
The Protestants uncompromising, 222 — Council at Trent, 
225 — Victory for king Charles at Mtihlberg, 225 — Maurice 
rewarded by Charles, 226 — Maurice unmasks, 227 — The 
Pacification of Passau, 22S — The Pope jealous of King 
Charles, 228 — Death of Charles V., 230. 


Thirty Years of War about Religion, . 232-239 

Persecutions on both siiles, 232 — Gloomy Rudolph II., 233 
— The Protestant Union and the Catholic League, 233 — A 
High Fall, 235 — Vienna besieged, 235 — A battle at Prague, 
238 — The Winter King, 239. 


A Bohemian Gentleman, . . , 240-246 

Count Tilly comes to the front, 240 — Albert of Wallcnstein 
appear";, 2^2 — Bethl'_n Gabor disbands hi-, troops, 244 — ■ 
Wallenstein baffled, 244 — He retires to Bohemia, 2tfo. 


A Swedish King in Germany, . . . 247-256 

Gustavus Adolphus appealed to, 247 — Dreadful scenes in 
Magdeburg, 247 — Outrages by the Swedes, 250 — The em- 
peror appeals again to Wallenstein, 251 — Wallenstein's 
magnificence, 252— Gustavus attacks the Bohemian gentle- 
man, 253— A difficult retreat, 254 — A battle at Lutzen, 254 
— What two Scotchmen and an Irishman did, 256. 



PeavE After thf. Long War, . . . 257-259 

The Peace of ".Vestphalia, 257 — llie Relch.^ta^' or Imperial 
Diet, 25.3 — How Ihe population decreasc^l, 258. 

Two Strokes t.y a Man in Yellow, . 260-264 

The lon^ reiyn of Leopold, 260 — Rhinclanrl wasted by the 
I'Vench, 2'')i — The man in yellow, 261 — The Turks stirred 
up, 263 — Two great men, 263. 


A Nor.LK RiiLLR, ...... 264-267 

Tlie Great ]''.lcctor, 2(4 — His pedigree, 265 — ,\ fortunate 
escape, 266 — Tlie Swedes take t.) Ilight, 2O7. 


BriTERL\' FioimNo the Turks, . . 26S-269 

Prince Kugcue a|ipcars, 26.S — I.oiiis X I \". attempts to t;ain 
J^ugcnc o\'er, 2(}Cj — The Prince wins iii^ soldiers' hearts, 209. 


All EuROTE AT War, ..... 270-274 

A claim to the crown of S|)ain, 270 — begins in Italv, 
271 — The battle of Plenlieim, 271 — .Marlborough in tlv.' 
Netherlands, 272 — Kamilies and L'udenarde, 274 — Rastadi, 


Powdered Wins and Patches, . . . 275-277 

Rococo, 275 — .-V strange " deformity," 276 — Threatrical stat- 
ues, 276 — Manufacturing " nobles," 277. 
The Troubles OF A Noble Queen. . . 279-2S2 

War with Maria Theresa, 279 — In spite of the Pragmatic 
Sanction, 2S0 — Rude royalty, 2S1 — Insolence of king Fred- 
erick, 2S2. 


The Queen's Baby Boy 283-287 

" Moriamur pro rege nostro Maria Theresa," 2S3— .\ briei 



reign, 2S 5— Frederick the Great uneasy, aS^-An angry 
prince, 2S7. 


The Hardships of a YoUx^jg Prince, . . 288-292 

Doings in a " Tabagie," 2SS— Royal whimsies, 2S9— A flying 
prince, 290 — Close confinement, 291 — A reconciliation, 292. 


The Armv of Cut-and-Run, . . . 293-295 

A confederation against Prussia, 293— The battle of Ross- 
bach, 294 — The charge of Seidlitz, 295. 

Old Fritz Repairs Ruins, .... 296-300 

Terrible results of the war, 296 — Traits of the king, 208— 
Anecdotes, 299 — Frederick the Great, 300. 

The Doings of Two Hundred Princes, . 301-305 

Culture nearly extinguished, 30I^^^anufactured towns, 
302 — Mannheim described, 303 — A palace at Wurzburg, 

Good King Joseph, ..... 306-311 

Character of Joseph II. , 306 — Arbitrary reforms, 307 — Con- 
dition of the peasants improved, 308 — Religious orders put 
to work, 309 — A visit from pope Pius VI., 310 — A tottering 
throne, 311. 


Genius Comes TO THE Front, . . . 312-317 

Lessing breaks away from foppery, 312 — Goethe and Schil- 
ler appear, 313 — Weimar a German Athens, 314 — Schiller's 
Robbers^ 315 — Other writers, 316 — Music improves, 317. 

An Up- turning in France, . . . 318-327 

The fashion to be vicious, 31S — Influence of America, 319 — 
The Third Estate, 320 — Storming the Bastille, 321 — The 
peasants rise, 322 — The Jacobins and Robespierre, 324 — 
Louis XVI. e.xecuted, 32^1 — Marie Antoinette executed. 327. 



The Man from Corsica, . . , 328-339 

The P'irst Coalition, 328 — Girondists guillotined, 329 — End 
of the Reign of Terror, 330 — Napoleon advances into Italy, 
331 — Threatened in the rear, t,-},z — Treaty of Campo Formio, 
333 — Nations like children, 334 — France prepares for more 
war, 336 — The French in Fgypt, 337 — The Second Coali- 
'i'J"' 337 — Battle of Hohenliiiden, 33S — Peace concluded at 
Lunevillc, 339. 

Napoleon as Emi'eror, . . , . 340-34.7 

Napoleon wins popular favour, -540 — The Empire estab- 
lished, 341 — The Third Coalition, 341 — Battle of Auster- 
litz, 342 — Peace of Pressburg, 344 — I'russia chastised, 345 
— Austria against Napoleon, 346--Peace of Vienna, 347. 


The Heroes OF THE Tyrol, . . . 348-3:;7 

Hofer the Landwirth, 34S — His picturesque dress, "^49 — " It 

is time!" 350 — A secret kept, 3:;! — Herg Isel, 353 — The 

woman with the cask, 354 — Austria abandons the T}toi. ■?:7. 


The March on Moscow, .... 358-36 

Napoleon against England, 35S — Against Russia, 359 — The 
retreat from Moscow, 361 — Napoleon deserts his own armv, 


Napoleon Falls and Germany Rises, . 362-366 

Hope in Europe, 362 — Germany roused, 364 — Bliicher wins 

success, 365 — Napoleon's last victory on German soil. 366. 


The Battle of the Nations, . . . 367-372 

A foreboding, 367 — The position of Leipzig 368 — How the 
battle there began, 369— Victory apparently for the French, 
370 — All lost, 371 — " It was a glorious victory ! " 372. 

Napoleon Chfckep, 373-37? 

Napoleon refuses peace, 373 — He is forced to renounce the 
French crown, 375 — The First Peace of Paris, 375 — Sudden 
return ot Napolenn, 376 — A second abdication after Water- 
loo, 377 — The Second Peace of Paris, 378 — A new partition 
of Europe, 37S. ^^ 

xviii CONTENTS. 

LXIir. r*r,E 

Germany for Freedi.^m, . . 379^3^3 

Men desire more freedom, 379— The Holy Alliance, 3S0— 
The Bursche ischaften 381— Memoirs of Baron Trenck, 382 
— The Zoll-verein, 383. 

Another Revolution, , . . • 384-387 

Louis Philippe flees to England, and Touis Napoleon ap- 
pears, 3S4 — f^very German state in commotion, 3S5 — A 
National Assembly at Frankfort, 386 — Frederick William 
IV. declines to be emperor, 386 — The peasants rise again, 
but government keeps the upper liand, 3S7. 

A Quarrel, ai;(.)ut T^^o Duchies, . . 388-394 

Schleswig-Holstein, 38S — Denmark crushed, 390 — General 
Benedek makes a mistake, 391 — The battle of Koniggratz, 
392 — The Peace of Prague, 394. 

A Terrible Struggle with France, . . 395-414 

A dispute over the throne of Spain, 395 — Napoleon III. 
declares war, 396 — The contending armies, 397 — The French 
routed at Worth, 398 — Great agitation in Paris, 399 — The 
l)osition of Metz, 400 — Masterly plans and movements, 402 
— The Gernrans occujTy Giavelotte, 403 — A battle there, 
404 — MacMahon in a corner, 405 — Defeat at Sedan, — Napo- 
leon surrenders, 406 — Rapidity of the movements, 408 — The 
Germans at Versailles, 409 — The siege of Paris, 410 — Gam- 
betta in a balloon, 410 — Gambetta'r operations, 412 — Peace, 
413 — The Commune, 414. 


The New Empire, 415-420 

William, king of Prussia, crowned KDiperor at Versailles, 
415— First diet of the new Empire, 416— The Constitution, 


'"^"ER 1871, 421-432 

I'",conomic crisis, 421— Russian-Turkish War, 422— Triple 
Alliance, 424— Internal policy, 425 -Tlie Kultur-Kampf, 
426— The rise of Socialism, 428— The Poles, 429— Alsace 
and Lorraine, 430— Colonial policy, 431 — Death of William I. 
and Frederick III., 432 

cox TEXTS. 


I. XIX. 


TiiK Last Phase, 431-442 

The new Emperor, 433 — Dismissal of lii^marck, 434 — Progress 
of Socialism, 434 — kise of the X'avy, 435— The lioers, 436 — 
China, 437 — The Morocco cmbroilnient, 438 — liosnia and 
Ilerze^'ovina, 439 — The Kmperor is warned, 440 — Prepara- 
tions for the Great War, 441 — The Sociftlists become 
imperialistic, 441 — A nation in arms, 442 


4 4: 


The larger proportion of ilie illustratluns in lliis volume are based 
upon the excellent desit^ns in the comprehensive and authoritative 
" iJeulsche GeschichtL," by I,. Siatke, io the j^nbli-hers of whicli. 
Messrs. \'elhagen ^: Klasing, of Itielefeld, \\e <iesire l-.) exjiress our 
cordial acknowledgments. 






ANCIENT (.;\ uwei.lini; ( peri 




C.K.SAR ........ 






I o 
I I 









A JUDGMENT OF GOD . . , , . 



diadem of charlemagne 

Charlemagne's signature . 

silver pieces of charlemagne 

st. michael, the patron saint of the empire 

election of a king ..... 




CLERGY ....... 



barbarossa's palace at KAISERWERTH 

seal of otto iv, . 

monumental lion to henry the lion 


















HENRY VI. .... . 






IN \2,y- 








VILL.VGE FAIR, I53O . . . . 

woman's costume, 161 II CENTURY 







Tin; BAN 





1 69 




2 1 2 




BERLIN IN 1660 ...... 











LIAM III. ....... 





METZ (map) ....... 










Tin: iTKST (:i;kma\s. 

(i;.c. 1 13-102.) 

Ix the year 113 hL-fnrc Christ wa^ boni, Uic iiilia!)- 
itants of Nortlicni Ital\- were startled tn see multi- 
tudes of sawage men sittini; i">n their L;aa'at shiekls, 
sliootinL;" (.lo\\-n the sno\\- slopes of the Alps upon 
them. The}- liad fair hair, thick and hai',;" ; some had 
shaf^gy red liair. The\- ^\-ere tall, sti'oiiL;- men ; their 
eN'Cs were blue. Ihe}' wo|-e the heads of Avoh-es 
and bears and o.xen ein tiuir helmets, the latter 
with the horns ; .and others aL;aiii liad the wings of 
eaL;les s])reatl, and fastenetl to their iron c.qis. Who 
were these? T1k_\- belonged lo twu elilTei'ent races, 
and s})oke dilTerent l.inL;u.i_L;es ; and though both 
AN'crc fairdiaired, )et one set ot men \\as taller, 
sturdier than the other. 

Tliesc invaders called themsel\"es the Lindjri aiKJ 
Tcutoncs. They Iiad !i\-ei-l side by side in the Swiss 
valle>-s till the valleys c^add no longer support 
them, and then the\- burst their wa\- o\-erthe snowy 
iiasses til conquer and colonize the sunii)- jilains of 

At the present day the mountains of Switzerland 


will not support all its inhabitants. The men go 
out as masons, and waiters, and pastry cooks, and 
clock and watchmakers, and the girls as nurses and 
cooks. In those days they went out only in one 
^\'ay — to fight and conquer themselves new homes. 

If you were to travel through Switzerland to-day 
you would find that in one canton French is 
spoken, in the next German ; that in the town of 
Freiburg, French is spoken in the lower and Ger- 
man in the upper town. This is because two dis- 
tinct races live together in Switzerland now, as they 
did 113 years before Christ. The French-speaking 
people represent the Cimbri and the German-speak- 
ing people represent the Teutones. The Welsh call 
themselves Cymri, which is the same as Cimbri. 
They belong to the same great Keltic family. The 
Germans call themselves Deutsch, which is the same 
as Teut-ones. 

The Romans sent armies against these warriors 
who came down on Italy from the snowfields, but the 
Cimbri and Teutones defeated them. They fought 
with desperation ; starvation was behind in their 
mountain valleys ; they must conquer or die. They 
destroyed the villages they came upon, they took 
and burnt the cities, they overran the plains. They 
killed the horses they took, and hung their cap- 
tives to trees as sacrifices to Wuotan, the god of 
the air, after whom Wednesday (Wuotans-tag) takes 
its name. Italy was filled with dismay. If the 
Cimbri and Teutones had known how to profit by 
the terror they inspired, and by their victories, they 
ivould have soon taken Rome ; but they turned to 


tlie West, and poured along tne beautiful Riviera 
road into the south of what we now call France. 
This gave the Romans a little breathing time ; a 
great arm}- was assembled, and placed under the 
command of their best general, Marius. He pur- 
sued the wild men into Gaul, and formed a strongly 
fortified camp on the Rhone. Thence he watched 
them. His soldiers were at first too much afraid 
of these great men with their animals' heads, — their 
faces peering out of the jaws of wolf and bear, — to 
be trusted to meet them in battle, but after awhile 
they became accustomed to the sight. The wild 
warriors despised the Roman soldiers, and as they 
ate up the produce of the land where they settled, 
they divided, and the Cimbri went off again, like a 
swarm of bees, back through Switzerland and Tyrol 
into Ital)'. Then the Teutones also turned to go 
back into Italy. When they did this, Marius came 
out of his camp and follov/ed them. At the right 
moment he fell on the Teutones near Aix, and in a 
tremendous battle completely defeated them.'"' Ma- 
rius drove the men back to their camp. "Then," 
says the historian, " the Teutonic M'omcn rushed to 
meet them with swords and cudgels, uttering hid- 
eou.s howls ; they drove back their fl}'ing country- 
men, upbraiding them as cowards ; they assailed 
the pursuers as enemies, beating down the swords 
of the Romans with their bare hands, and allowed 
themselves to be hacked to pieces rather than yield." 
In the mean time the Cimbri were in the valley of 

* See " The Story of Rome," pd. iSi, 1S2. 



the Adigc, coming clown by Botzcn and Trent into 
Italy. As the river incommoded them, they rolled 
great rocks into it, and hewed down pines and threw 
them across and made a great dam, so as to enable 
themselves to wade across. 

Marius left the battle-field of Aix and came with 
his arm}' across the northern plains of Italy, and 
caught the Cimbri near Verona. He planted his 
own men so that the blazing August sun should 
shine in the faces of the enemy, and that the wind 
should carry the dust and sand into their eyes. 
The first ranks of the Cimbri had tied themselves 
together with ropes, so as to bear as a compact mass 
upon the Romans ; but this arrangement was a fail- 
ure, the dead men falling, dragged down the living. 
The Romans gained a complete victory ; and the 
poor Cimbric women, when they saw their husbands 
and brothers slain, ran themselves through with 
swords, or hung themselves to the poles of their 
wagons, rather than become the slaves of the con- 

Such was the end of this great invasion of Italy. 
It is interesting to us, because this is the very first 
time we hear of the Teutons or Germans. Their 
first appearance was in 113, and the two great de- 
feats took place in 102 before Christ. 



Germany, )-ou must understand, is divided into 
Upper and Lower German)-. Ujiper (Germany is 
a hill)' countr)' ; Lower German)' is a dead, sand)' 
flat. In primeval times, when the Germans first 
colonized the country, it was covered with vast for- 
ests of oak and pine, and where there \\'as much rolled 
stone, with birch. Out of tlic forests rose the moun- 
tain ranges of Smith or L^pper German)-, like islands. 
In Lower Germany there were many bald patches 
of heathery waste, and marsh)/ tracts strewn with 
lakes. The great rivers rolled through the \-alle)-s 
and plains, changing their courses and lieaping up 
piles of rubble. 

The great valleys were first colonized where the 
richest pasture land was, and onl)- little b)- little did 
the inhabitants thin the forest and creep up among 
the hills. 

Was it one great famih" of races — the German— 
that occupied the northern plains and the val- 
leys among the hills ? That we cannot think. 
Over the northern plains are found strewn great 
burial mounds, containing within them passages 
made of stones set on end, and huge stones above. 



The peasants call them linns' grax'es. The)' are 
not, hn«-evei% the graves of Huns, but belong to an 
unknown raee \\'hich occupied the shores of the 
Baltic and the Northern Sea before the Germans 
came into the land. In the South there are no 
such graves, but there are other traces of a peo- 
ple strange to the Germans, and these are the 
names of rix'crs and mountains, such as Pegnitz, the 
ri\'er on \\iiieh Niirnberg stands, and Kar\\'endel, a 
mountain in the Bavarian highlands, and the Schar- 
nitz pass. These point to a Sclav population, that 
is, one related to the modern Russians, and Poles, 
and Bohemians. But there is another trace of an 
earlier people in German}' besides mounds and 
names. It is found in the old laws of the German 
tribes. B}' these laws we learn that there was a 
race of serfs, — conc|uered people who tilled the 
land, — and the pure-blooded conquerors were not 
allowed to intermarry with them. If a German did 
so, then he lost his rights as a free man, and all his 
children were slaves. That law remains to some ex- 
tent in force still in Germany, but it has lost its or- 
iginal meaning. Now a prince cannot marry out of 
the princel)' families. If he does, his wife is not re- 
garded as a princess, and his children have only 
their mother's rank. Originally this law, which 
is found among all the old races of Germany, was 
passed to keep the grand Teutonic blood pure. 

However, if )'ou tra\el in Bavaria, or Baden, 
you will see that the greater number of peasant 
men and women have hazel eyes and dark liair. 
That shows they are not pure-blooded Germans; 


they liavc fiouiiiLj in their \-eins the blood of th.e 
conquered race. 

The Germans \\'ere so called from the spears 
they carried. The name means ,S[jear-men, but they 
called themseK'es Dentscheii, ox. as the Romans 
rendered the name, Teutiines. This name comes 
from an old German woial that sim[jl\' means "the 


Tlie)' were divided int" a ;-;i'eat many tribes, of 
which we must mention the principal. 

The Chatti lived in Hesse, and ]ia\e ne\er moved 
thence. The present Hessians are the lineal de- 
scendants of the old Chatti. 

The Saxons li\-ed in ilolstein and the Angles in 
Schleswig. They have spread since the veil first 
rises on their history. The Saxons and Angles in- 



vadccl Britain, and the English, or Anglo-Saxon 
]3coplc, arc their descendants. 

South and east of the Saxon-s lived the Suevi, or 
Swabians. The)' have shifted far to the south and 
Saxons now occupy their lands. To them be- 
longed the branches of the Marcomanni, or March- 
men, who lived on the Rhine at iirst, the frontier of 
the Kelt, and also the Longobards, 
who were on the Middle Elbe. 
Later, these latter deserted their 
home and conquered the North of 
Italy, which is called after them, 
Lombardy. The Goths lived or- 
iginally near the sources of the 
Vistula. Akin to them were the 
Vandals and the Burgundians. 

What is remarkable is, that the 
races in the South had very differ- 
ent ways of living from those in 
the North. The Suevi were a war- 
like race. They had no settled 
homes, no fixed fatherland. The 
^^,j,j,u land was divided among them by 
lot every year, and so changed 
owners annually. One part of the people went out 
yearly to war, and the rest remained at home and 
tilled the ground. Those races which were in the 
North had, however, the land given to the great 
men, who lived on their farms, ruling their serfs : 
and they handed on their lands to their sons. Even 
to this day the different systems show. In West- 
phalia, for instance, you will sec fine farm-houses, 

SAXDN ( 1)1 ON' 1ST 



as ill I'.n-laiiil, the same in 1 lM].-,i(_iii, and the fields 
ari- ]ie(lL;e<l about. JSut in the Smith it is not S'.i. 
The fann-houscs are all gathered t'jy'ether in little 
villaL;es, and )'ou cannot sec a hetlye an\"\\here. 
'ihe old inhabitants of (.jennaii)- were di\a\led 

A (a-KM\N I'lilINill.. (l;'>MAN l'Kl;hi|i-) 

into two L;"reat classes, the free and tlie enslaved. 
The free were di\-ided into the L;"reater and lesser 
iiobilit)-, and the\- alone were allei\\ed to bear 

The oil! (ierman reli,L^"ion was \-er)' like that of 
tlie Norwegians. The)' regarded W'otan as the 
chief of tlie gods, lie had one l'VC in his fore- 
head, which was the sun. lie was the god of 
the hea\-en. and the air, and men and horses were 
sacrificed to him b)- being hung np in trees. The 
German pe.isants still remember him, but do 


not thinlv nf him any more as a god. They tell of 
a Wild Huntsman, who is heard of a night gallop- 
ing over the forest tops, blowing his horn, with 
fire-breatliing dogs going before him, and a white 
owl fleeting on spread ^\•ings with eyes like moons. 

Another of their gods ^\•as Donar, whom the 
Norsemen called Thor. He is the Thunderer, and 
is armed with a hammer, which he flings at his en- 
emies; but it alwaj's returns to his hand. After 
him the Germans call Thursday (Thor's-day), Don- 

Among the goddesses were Freyja, from whom 
we get the name of Friday (in German, Frei-tag), 
and Hertha, the goddess of the earth. Another was 
\-ariously called Hulda, Bertha, or Horsel. She 
was a kind goddess, loving children, and was really 
the moon. She was represented as taking to her 
the souls of all little children who died, and nurs- 
ing them. These \\ ere the stars, and the moon and 
the stars \\cre supposed to be the gentle Hulda, 
with her crowd of little children's souls gathered in 
heaven about her. She was also called Nothburga, 
the " helper in need." You shall hear how old 
heathen stories linger on to the present day. In 
Tyrol there was, in the 14th century, a peasant 
girl called Nothburga, who was so good that she 
came to be regarded as a saint. The old tradi- 
tions about the goddess were still hanging about 
in men's minds, and they came to associate them 
with this peasant girl, wdio chanced to bear the 
name of the moon-goddess ; so ^\•hen they made 
pictures of her, they represented her \\\\.\\ a silver 

(The Capitolinc Museum, Rome.) 


rrescent. Then, \\lien they had forgotten all about 
the goddess, they invented a story to account for 
the silver crescent in the pictures, and they told 
how S. Nothburga liad one da)' thrown up her 
sickle into the sky whilst reaping, and that there 
it had hung. 


now HERMAXX >;i;t the RUMAXS. 

(a. I,. 9.) 

Ar.oiiT fifty years after tlic defeat of the Cimbri 
and Tcutones the Rdmaiis came a secmid time 
into contact ^\■ith tllc Germaris. Juhus Ciusar, tine 
of the [greatest and most famous of Roman gen- 
erals, ^\•as L,fi>\-ern(ir nf tj.iul. The Marchmen had 
crossed the Rhine under tlieir prince, Arir)\istus, 
or, as lie vould be caUed by his own pei)jile, i\r- 
bogast, and established theniseh'es in ISurgnndy. 
Julius C:csar dnive them back o\-er the Rhine, 
A\duch he also crossed re[ieatedl\- ; but his succes- 
sors, Drusus and 'rii)ei'ius, were the fust to suliju- 
gate a portinii eif (jermany between the fvhine ami 
the W'eser. 

There was a tribe called the Cherusci. iiccuindng 
the south of what is nnw llanri\-er. Their chief, 
named licrmann, had been taken to Rome during 
the time of Drusus, probabi)' as a hostage. He had 
carefull)' studied liis Latin lessons there, but he 
ne\'er forgot the words that he had been taught at 
Ids mother's knee, ami was alwa^'s proud that he was 
a German. As he read history, he learned how the 
Romans had achie\ed their power, and he seems 



to have thought that his own people might accom- 
phsh noble deeds if only they 'A'ould unite and 
stand as one nation before the world. 

Hermann saw that the Romans were rich and had 
colonies all over the world, but he knew that they 
were gay and pleasure-seeking, and lived to a great 
extent in cities, where every sort of dissipation 
abounded. As he looked towards his German 

woods he reflected up- 
on the difference be- 
tw een his captors and 
the active and liberty- 
lo\ing people who 
d\\ elt there in humble 
VfflEi'&j>i^ v^rari i m^Kic^'v Village homes, where 
'^rf*?^^^— ■'=^'* 11m "^ lo\e bound the father 

to the mother and 
<-tiAK, united the children to 

both, and where, as a great Roman writer said 
(casting reproach upon his own countrymen and 
women), it was not fashionable to do wrong, and 
no one smiled at \\zc. As he grew up these feel- 
ings became stronger. 

After a time Hermann returned to Germany, and 
found the people ready to listen to his advice and 
follow liis leadership. In the course of events the 
Romans sent a general, named Varus, to look after 
their interests and assert their power. He knew 
how Hermann had been educated and, little suspect- 
ing the hot thoughts that were v^^elling up in his 
patriotic heart, ventured to take him as his coun- 
sellor and guide. Hermann saw that his moment 

(.;i-:rma_\ hokskmix noiiriNG r<'M\x i.lgiuxN'^. 
tFrom the C\>Iunin <■{ Antuoiuus. in Rome.) 


had come, and took advantage of this circumstance 
to draw Varus and his great army into the hilly re- 
gion of the Teutobergcr Forest, where he rightly 
thought that the numbers and the strong bodies 
of liis fellow-countr)-men would be more than a 
match for the better drilled and heavil)'-armed co- 
horts of the invaders. 

It was the autumn of the j-ear 9 A.D. There 
were no roads, and Varus was obliged to cut down 
trees to make a wa}' for the slow march of his army- 
Almost before he knew it he found himself in a 
trap. To add to his dismay and confusion a great 
storm arose. The mountain torrents, swollen by the 
rain, overflowed their banks ; and ^\•hilst the Ro- 
mans, encumbered by their baggage and by hosts of 
camp-followers, and wearied b}' the toilsome way, 
passed in irregular columns through the wet marshes 
and narrow vallej-s, the thunders of the German war- 
cry suddenly burst upon them from all the hills 
around, and they were struck down by showers of ar- 
rows that seemed to drop from the clouds. Panic- 
stricken, and not knowing A\-hich way to turn, they 
halted, and were, as in a moment, surrounded by the 
hosts of their assailants, who were perfectly at home 
in the most intricate passes. 

All day long the battle raged, and then the invad- 
ers tried, under cover of darkness, to throw up a 
protecting earthwork, but they were too much worn 
to accomplish anj'thing. Hundreds were lost in the 
morasses ; their eagles \\'cre taken from them ; they 
were entirely ^\'ithout provisions, and it was plain 
that there was no safet>' but in retreat. The only 


question Avas which direction they should take. 
Inch b}- hich they gave Avay, but very few escaped 
to tell the story of the fight in the terrible German 

Varus, who had marched into the treacherous 
fastnesses as if bound on a holiday excursion, threw 
himself on his own sword in despair, and when the 
news reached the great emperor, Augustus, that his 
arm)' had been dcstroj-ed,— the arm}- of the proudest 
people in the world, the people who were then chief 
among the nations, — he clothed himself in mourn- 
ing, let his hair and beard grow, and cried again and 
again in the bitterness of his heart, "Varus, Varus 
give mc back my legions i " The capitol was stirred 
as it had been Avhen, after " tearful Allia," the Gauls 
threatened the city, ior the people thought that 
the victorious Germans A\'ould surely march that 
wa)-.* Hermann had no such plans ; he did not fight 
for conquest, but for freedom ; he had the first vis- 
ion of a united Germany. He had A\-on indepen- 
dence for his native land, and had put a stop to 
Roman conquest in one cjuarter of the globe. He 
had given the nations of German blood an example 
that A\'as to bear fruit on the peaceful field of Run- 
nymede, when the English barons wrung the Magna 
Charta from King John ; for it was from the region 
in which Hermann fought that our ancestors came, 
and we may take pride in him and in the great statue 
erected in his honor hundreds of years after his day 

*Ki>r some account of tlie terrible victorv of tlic G-iuls over the 
Ivuiruins at the river Allia, see ■' I'he Story of Roine," pp. lor, i-jG. 


(In Florence.) 2 I 


by the princes of Germany on the culminating point 
of the Teutoberger Alps. 

Hermann's wife '\\as Thusnelda, daughter of an 
old chief named Siegast, who was friendly to the 
Romans. She -was renowned for her beauty as well 
as for great patriotism. Her spirit was rather like 
that of her husband than that of her father, for 
Siegast had treacherously warned Varus to be on 
his guard against Hermann, and when opportunity 
came he even delivered up his daughter to her coun- 
try's enemies. The feelings of the Germans was 
strong against such a man, so strong, in fact, that 
Siegast was attacked, and only found safety by flee- 
ing to the enemy. A few years later Thusnelda and 
her son adorned a triumphal procession in Rome. 

It ma)' well be imiagined that Hermann was 
strengthened in his hatred of Rome by the loss of 
his wife and son ; and when, five years after the de- 
feat of Varus, another army was sent against the 
Germans, he met it with a strong force and effectu- 
ally resisted it. Once and again the attempt to con- 
quer the land failed, and at last the effort was aban- 
doned. When there was no longer fear from that 
quarter Hermann suffered the fate of many others 
who have striven to do good for their fellow-citizens. 
Like Camillus, Manlius, and the Gracchi among the 
Romans, his motives were not understood. Hii 
own people rose against him, and at the early age of 
thirty-seven he fell by the hands of his near rela- 
tions. It was reser\'ccl for a Roman historian to 
speak his praises and for after ages to raise his mon- 
ument. Tacitus says that it was his honour to have 

TIJK irAXIXO RO.^r.lX roWEK. 21 

successfully met the arms of Rome in the pride of 
its imperial power, and to hci\-e had \\\z pagans 
chanted ir. the songs of liis countrymen. He be- 
came the t)pical War-man, the " Man of Hosts," the 
deliverer of (jermany, and he was remembered b\' our 
own Anglo-Saxon ancestors after they had removed 
to the British Isles. Hermann and Thusnelda stand 
out as the re[)resentatives of the true love Ijetwecn 
liusband and \\'ife, for which the carl\- (jermans 
\vere celebrated. 

After this the Roinans held possession of a very 
small portion of the soil of (ierman)-, which they 
called the Titheland. It la\' between the Danube, 
the Main, and the Rhine, and was protected by a 
moat and wall, -with towers at interxals. The \\-all 
was a mound with palisatles at tlie top. The 
traces are still to be seen, and are called b}' the peo- 
ple "The Devil's Walls." 




In the year 375 a great change began in the posi- 
tions of the peoples who were settled in Germany. 
A game of puss-in-thc-corner was played there on a 
very large scale, and with no laughter, but many 

The cause of this was the appearance of the 

The Huns, or Calmucks, wandering shepherd 
tribes, were natives of the North of Asia, and in- 
habited the vast plains between I\ ussia and China. 
They had no houses. They lived in tents, in which 
they also stabled their horses. From being con- 
stantly on horseback their legs were crooked. They 
were short men, broad shouldered, with strong, mus- 
cular arms ; had coarse, thick lips, straiglit, black, 
wiry hair, little, round, sloe-like eyes, yellow com- 
plexions, and sausage noses. They were filthy in 
their habits ; their horrible ugliness, their disgusting- 
smell, their fcrocit)', the speed with which they 
moved, their insensibility to the gentler feelings, 
made the Goths, with whom they first came in 
contact, belie\-c they were half demons. They ate, 


GEKMW CAl-rni:. (i;(_.m\N I'lJ;;,.!.,) 
(Frum Statue in Witkan Museum.) 



drank, slept on horseback. I'heir no less jiideous 
wives and children followed them in waggons. They 
ate roots and raw meat. The}' seemed insensible to 
hunger, thirst, and cold. 

In the year 375 after Christ they crossed the 
Volga in countless hordes, and poured down on 
Germany. The East and West Goths, unable to 
resist their numbers and sa\'ager}', deserted their 
lands on both sides of the Dnieper, and, crossing the 
Danube, descended into the Roman empire with the 
entreaty that the)' might be accommodated \\'ith 
lands there. 

At last these barbarians spread over Dacia, which 
has since been called after them Hungar)', where 
they were well content to ramble o\'er the grassy 
plains that reminded them of their Asian steppes. 
But about the middle of the fifth century there rose 
among them a prince of ver)' remarkable character, 
called by the Romans Attila, and by the Germans 
Etzel, but -who ^\'as best pleased to be called " The 
Scourge of God." This man murdered his own 
brother, so as to unite the sovereignty of the Huns 
under himself. He is introduced in the Nibelungen 
Lied, the great national epic poem of German)'. 
Kriemhild, the widow of Siegfried, and daughter of 
a king of the Burgundians, was married to Attila, 
Her dearl)^ loved husband, Siegfried, had been mur- 
dered treacherously by order of her brother, the Bur- 
gundian king, Gunther, who was jealous of him. 
When Kriemhild became Queen ot the Huns she 
persuaded Attila to invite her brother and all his 
nobles to Buda, and, unsuspicious of evil, they ac- 



ceptcd the invitation. Ikit tlic queen meditated 
revenge for the .slaying of her dear Siegfried, and 
when her brother and the n.-blcs were banqueting 
her guards fell on them. There was a furious fight, 
the palace caught fire, and Kriemhild saw her 
brother, and all those \\\\o had c..unselled and as- 
sisted in the murder, perish h\ s\\(;rd and flame. 
After that she died herself. The slor}' is only ])0ssi- 
bly founded on fact. History tells us nothing about 
this deed of rex-encre. 


In the year 451 Attila broke up his camp at 
Buda and marched \Wst, at the head nf an enor- 
mous liost of Huns. They o\'erian' the South of 
Germany, crossed the Ivhine, ami ixsuhed tn con- 
quer their \\-a\' to th.e Atlantic. I'hose ^\ho could 
not escape were either killed or had to jmn the 
army. But the Franks, tlie West Goths, the Bur- 
gundians, ami the Romans unite^l in one great host 
under the general Aetius, and ^\ ithstood the on- 
:?laught of the Huns in the plains of Chalons on the 
Marne, The battle -was furious, and ended in the 


defeat of the Huns. Attiia was forced to retire 
^vith the loss of half his men, and the Western Em- 
pire was sa\-ed. 

Next year Attiia descended into Italy, but re- 
treated toward his own country and died through 
the bursting of a blood-vessel, A.D. 453. 



A'ljii may well imagiivj that the arrixTil of the 
Huns was like the intrmUiction of a wasp into a bee- 
hi\'e. It created an en(jrmniis commotion, and 
man\' of the German races chaiiLjetl their habitations. 

About the midtUe of the thiial centui'v the numer- 
ous (German tribes hatl unitetl into yreat confedera- 
cies. The most impi:irtant of these were — I. The 
Allemanni ; 2. The Franks , 3. The Saxons : 4. The 

1. The Allemanni ^ve^e so calletl from the custom 
of those in the South to own land in common. To 
this da\', in Switzerland and ISaden, there is much 
common land belongini; to the parishes, as well as 
forest and ([uarr\-, and this goes b_\' the name of the 
AUmend. The Allemanni li\-ed in the South of 
German)', in the Black Foi'est, and in German 
Switzerland, and in Wiirtemberg, about the Lake of 

2. idle Franks occupied the banks of the Rhine 
and the Main, to Niimberg. The Ripuarian Franks 
lived on the Rhine, the Salic Franks on the river 

3. Tlie Saxorjs spread o\-cr a great part of North 




Germany, takinL; the places vacated by the Lom- 
bards and the ];ur;^fundians. 

4. The Goths T,\'ere (h\-ided b)- the Dnieper into 
tile East Goths ((Jstrogothsj and the A\"est Goths 
(Visigoths), and ivere the mcist cultureii of the Ger- 
man peoples. The)' had been coiu'erted to Chris- 
tianity b>' a bishop named Ulphilas, \\ho translated 
the ])ible into old (iothic, and jiis translations of the 
Gospels, written in silver letters u\\ a jjur]jle ground, 
is still preserved, and is one of the treasures of the 
library of Upsaki in Swetlen. 

1 he appearance of the lluns in German}' created 
the utmost confLLsion. v\s alreMd)- said, the (^)stro- 
goths crossed theDanulje and enteretl the Riiman 
Empire. After awhile the)' m.ide themseh'es mas- 
ters of Ital)', umlertlle famous King Theodei'ic. 

The Visigoths, or West (ioths, descended on the 
South of (jaul, and made Toulouse their capital. 
The Vandals left their old home between the Elbe 
and Oder, inwided Spain, crossed ox'er to Africa, 
and formed ,-i kingdom on the north, with Car- 
thage as their capital. Ihe i\ngles and a portion of 
the Saxons took ship in 449 for Britain, \\hich the)' 
conc|uered. The Longobartls, or Lombards, deserted 
the old water)', peat)' region ab(.Hit the Middle Elbe 
and descencied on the North of Ital)'. The Burgun- 
dians left their lionies between the Oder and the 
Vistula, and formed the l^urgundian kingdom be- 
tween the Rhone, the Saone, and the range of the 

As the Germans deserted the cold, sand)' plains of 
North Germany, the Sclavs from the north-east crept 

(Triumphal Arch at Rome.) 



after Ihcin, .-md occupied all Pomcrani.i, Mecklcn- 
burL,^ and Oldciibur;^. 

Those (jerman per)[)lc's \v]\i> Iiad left Germany 
settled down in their new countries anions; popula- 
tions more civilized than themseh es, and so they 
[gradually accjuired their habits, and lost their own 
lant^aiage and jjcculiar institutions, ex'eii their Ger- 
man appearance and characters. Tluis the)- dis- 
appeared, sinking into, and becoming absorber! b\-, 
the pjeople the)- coiKjuered, and the ISurgundians, 
Goths, Vandals, and l.ombards disajjpear com- 
pletely. The h'ranks, ^^h^] had spread inti) Northern 
Gaul, ga\'e to it the new n.ime lA France, but ceased 
on its soil to be Cjermans. 



The Franks had extended themselves over the 
north of Gaul. They had a capital at Tournay, but 
they had gained power over what we now call 
Normandy. There was none to resist them. Gov- 
ernment in Gaul had fallen into confusion since 
the fall of the Roman Empire. The Salic Franks 
came from what is now called Lower Franconia, 
and take their name from the river Saal, which flows 
into the Main. It is a bare and not a productive 
country, and so a portion ot the Franks pushed their 
way into Belgium, and Flanders, and Normandy. I 
am using, you must understand, modern names. 
Thirty years after the battle of Chalons the Franks 
were not united into one nation ; there were several 
tribes of their name, independent one of another. In 
the year 48 1 Clovis became king of the Salic Franks 
in Belgium. The French call him Clovis, the old 
Germans, Clodwig, which is the same as the modern 
German Ludwig, and the French, Louis. He was 
fifteen years old when he became king, a proud, 
cunning, ambitious man, but with some natural good 
qualities. Hi" determined to extend his power, so 




he led his men ayainst the Roman governor of 
Soissons, dr(jve him out, and took the place, ^\■hicl^ 
he thenceforth made liis capitah lie and his people 
were payans, and wdieii tliey tuok a town they plun- 
dered the churches. (Jn one of his exijeditions he 
took Rheims, and when the sjjoil of tlie Cathedral 
was brought out and spread before the king and his 
nobles, the bishop of the place, Remigius, came to 
Clovis, and entreated that cme beautiful chalice might 
be spared from the plunder, for tlie service of the 
altar. Clovis rei)lied that b\' tlieir rules all the 
spoil was divided into lots, and then hits were drawn 
for each division. Ibiwever, if the chalice came to 
him, he would return it to the bishrij), who had 
written him a kind letter, full nf good advice, when 
he was made king. ]5ut as S. Remigius urged his 
recjuest very earnestl)', the king turned tn his chiefs 
and asked them to grant him the goblet o\'er and 
above his proper share. .Ml cunsented but one 
man, who suddenly swimg his axe, and brought it 
down on the precious cup, sa}"ing, " Xn ! I \<\\\ not 
consent ; all shall share alike." The king bore the 
affront without a ^\•ord. The man Inul acteil within 
his right. 

A year after Clovis held a grand parade, at which 
liis nobles were to show their equipments. After 
having passetl all in rc\iew, and examined their arms, 
the man came \\\\o had refused to give up the 
chalice. He was a truculent, ill-conditioned fellow, 
and his harness was rust}- and dirty, and when he 
showed the king his battle-axe it was not clean. 
Then Clovis threw it down, and when the man 


stooped lo pick it up the kiiiy raised his axe and 
cleft his skull, s:i)'iiiy, " Tims didst thou to the 
chalice of ]\heiiiis." It was an act of revenge, but 
the king was careful to act \\ithin his right. The 
man was bound t<j appear at the jjarade w ith all his 
ecjuipnients in perfect order. 

Clovi.v heard that Gundebald, King of Kur'Tund\' 
had a niece called Clothild, atGeiiexa. Gundebald 
had murdered Iier hither antl her brnthers, wIkj stood 
in his way to the throne. Now Cl.)\-is was a xery 
crafty man, and he \\ anted ti> pick a cpiarrel witii 
(jundebald, so as to get Imldof ]-'>urgund\-. Sc) he 
resolved to niarr)- Clothild and make her quarrel his 
own ; but he did not want to marr)' lier if she was 
not \'er)' beautiful. Sn he ga\e his ring to a friend, 
a Roman, called Aurelian, and told him to go 
in disguise to Geneva, and see Clothild, and if she 
were reall)' beautiful to gi\'e lier his I'iug and get 
jiers in excliange. Aurelian dressed himself in rags, 
ami M'ent to Genexa, and knocked at her do(.>r and 
begged for food. C'lothild at once in\ited him in, 
and brought water, and liegan herself to x\ ash hi.s 
travel-stained fee .'. WdiiKt slie was thus engaged 
Aurelian stooped and wliispci'eil into liei"ear, " Lad\-, 
f must s|ieak to ^-ou in secret." 1 hen he showed 
her the ring, and said. ' Chnis, King of the I-'ranks, 
rrsks for you in marri.ige." ClothiM considered a 
moment, then drew- off her own ring an.d ga\e it to 
Aurelian. "Go back," she said, "to your master, 
and tell liim if he takes me he mu-^t carry me away 
as fast as he can iK', for my uncle has a friend called 
.\ridius, now away, -wlu". ^\\\\ ad\-ise him not to give 



me to Clovis." Then Aurclian hasted back to 
Soissons, and Clovis sent to Gundebald and asked 
for the hand of his niece. Gundebald, glad to be 
rid of her, consented that she should go. So Clo- 
thild started from Geneva. Clovis had sent a sort of 
waggon richly decorated for Clothild to travel in. 
She went in it some little wa)-', and then became 
uneasy. She got out and said to the Frank lords 
who attended her, " I pray you give me a horse and 
let us leave the waggon in the road, and ride at full 
gallop, night and day, till we get out of Burgundy." 

She was right. After the consent had been given 
Aridius returned to Metz, where Gundebald was, 
and the king told his friend what he had done. 
Then Aridius exclaimed, " This is no bond of friend- 
ship, but the beginning of strife. Send troops at 
once in pursuit and bring A'our niece back. ' 

The king did so, but was too late. The}^ came 
on the deserted waggon, but Clothild had escaped. 
The consec[uences were ^\'hat Aridius had predicted. 
Clovis made war on Gundebald and made him his 
tributary. Clothild bore a son to Clovis. She was 
a Christian, and she begged her husband to let the 
child be baptized. lie consented, but the boy died 
soon after. " There," exclaimed Clovis, " that is 
what comes of l^aptism." After some time she bore 
him another, and had much ado to get this one bap- 
tized. Soon after this boy also fell ill, and Clovis 
was very angry. But A^'hcn the child recovered he 
began to think that perhaps Christian baptism was 
not as dangerous as he had supposed. Clothild 
was a very pious woman, and she often spoke to her 

c/.or/.s rKA vs. 


husband abnut Christ, but he did not seem to pa)- 
much heed to her words. 

At last, in the year 496, the Allcmanni, — that is, 
the Germans of the Black Forest and Switzerland, 
and the Vosf^^cs — burst into the territories of the 
Franks, and Clovis march' 'd against them and met 

I'.liniurj ■T11liri/ll(''ll)tl;'li,l'lil;ir^'.ll'li*^i^ 
(Column nf Marcus Aurcliu^ at Kumc.) 

tncm in the pkun of Tolbiac. now^ called Zulpich, 
near ColoL^iie. He liail with him Aurelian, whom 
he had made Duke of Rlclun. The battle was go- 
ing ill ; the Fh'anks were wa\ering and Clo\"is "was 
anxious. Then Aurelian. who rode near him, sud- 
denly- exclaimed, " My lord, there is no hope for 
us now but in the God cf Queen Clothild.' When 
CIo\-is heard this he droppetl the reins, and holding 
up his haJids to hea\'en cried, '" Christ Jesus, \\hom 



Clothild believes in, I have called on ni)- gods, and 
they have withdrawn from me. Help thou mc ! " 
Then the tide of battle turned : the Franks recov- 
ered confidence and couray,-e ; and the Allemanni, 
beaten, and seeing their king slain, surrendered 
themselves to Clox'is. 

When Clovis was on his way back he came to 
Rheims, where the old bishop, Rcmigius, was, who 
had written good advice to him when he was a boy, 

(CoUimn of Trajan, Rome.) 

and who had asked for the chalice. The king was 
touched by the danger he had been in, and thank- 
ful for the victory. His wife came to him to 
strengthen his good resolutions, and lie resoh'ed to 
become a Christian. We have a very interesting 
and curious account of the baptism of King Clovis, 
written by Hincmar, \\\\o was Bishop of Rheims 
some years after the death of Remigius, and who 
pr()babl}' took it from an account b\' an e)'e-witness. 
"The bishop," he sa)'s, "went in search of the 
Icing at earl)' morning to his bed-chamber, in order 
that he might communicate to him the truths of 



the (jobpcl before liis mind was occui)ied with secu- 
lar cares. The chamberlains received him with 
c,rreat respect, and they went into tl;e chapel of S. 
I'eter near the palace. When the bishop, the king, 
and the queen had taken their places on the seats 
prepared for them, the bishop began his instructions 
on the way of salvation. Meanwhile, preparati(jns 
uere being made ahiiig the road from the palace to 
the baptister)- ; curtains and \Mluable stuffs were 
hung up; the houses on both sides of the street 
were dressed out ; the bajitister}- was sprinkled with 
balm and all kinds (jf ))erfume. The j)rocessioi"i 
moved from the palace; the clerg\- led the way, 
carrying the Gosj)els, the cross, and the banners, 
and singing hj-mns. Then came the bishop, lead- 
ing the king by the hand ; after him the cpieen ; 
lastl)' the people. On the road the king is said to 
iiave asked the bishop if was the l^ingdom of 
heaven promised liiin. 'Ni',' answered the prelate. 
• it is the begimiing of the road to it ! ' When the 
Iving baretl his heail C)\ er the baptismal A\',itci', the 
bishop thus addressed him : ' lieiul thy he.ul, .Sic.ini- 
brian,'''" adore ^\•hat thou hast Inirnetl, burn what 
tliou hast adored ! ' " Three thousand I'raiikish 
men, together with women and children, were jjap- 
tized the same da)'. 

Though Clo\is liad jioned the Christian Church 
he was but a poor Christian, lie led a life of war, 
ind was brought under n(_^ other Christian influence 

* Clinis bilciiigcJ to tlic trilic ot Sicambii, wIulIi \va? in the P'raiil; 

-2 CLOl'lS, A/iVG OF THE J-'K AAA'S. 

than that of his wife, and lie did not think it manly 
to give car to her best advice. 

The Ivipuarian T^ranks had their capital at Co- 
logne, and their king was Siegbert. Clevis sent to 
the king's son this message: "Your father is old, 
and lame of a leg. When he is dead I will be your 
friend, and you shall be king." That stirred up the 
young man to kill his father treacherously one day, 
as the old man was walking in a beech wood. Then 
he sent a messenger to Clovis to say that his father 
was dead, and that he would send him some of the 
old king's treasures. But when the wicked son was 
showing the messenger of Clo\-is the precious things 
in the treasure-house, he came to a great battle- 
axe. " See," said the young man, " this was my 
father's weapon." 

" And so does it avenge its master 1 " said the 
messenger, and he brought it down on the young 
man's head, and clo\'e it. 

After that, the realm of the Ripuarian Franks fell 
to Clovis, as well as that of the Salic Franks, and 
Burgundy and a large portion of Gaul. 

He died in 511, at Paris, which he had made his 
capital ; and he left behind him a great Frank king- 
dom, which was divided between his four sons. 


rilK M.W'ORS (iF Till-; I'ALACE. 


The successors of Clovis, called, after an earlier 
Frank kin<^. Merovintjians, were ^\■eak creatures. 
They left the management of their kingdom to their 
Mayors of the Palace, and onl)' showed themseh^es 
to their people once a yea;', at the March parliament, 
riding on a car drawn b}^ oxen, after an old h'rank 
custom, \\earing their fair hair down to their waists, 
combed out and adorned ■with crowns. As the}- 
did nothing but eat and drink and enjo)- themsehes 
they went b\' the name of the sluggard kings, and 
all the real power was in the hands of the Mayor of 
the Palace for the time being. 

Among these ma)-ors, Pepin nf Heristal made 
himself conspicuous. His home was near Spa, in 
the prett)- ^\•ooelland country about Liege. He 
made the ofhce hereditary in his family. His he- 
roic son, Charles Martel, or the Hammer, was still 
more famous, because he utterly routed the Arabs 
in a great battle at Tmns in 732, -who had con- 
quered Spain and the south of France, and threat- 
ened the whole of P^'ance. 



Ilis SOUS, Pepin the Short and Karlomann, suc- 
ceeded him, but Karlomann resigned his autliority 
into liis brother's hands, and, tired of fighting, 
entered a monastery. I'epin had niucli to do ; the 
Saxons, Bavarians, and Arabs were all menacing or 
re\'olting, and he had to ffy from one part of the 
kingdom to another, defending its frontiers, and get- 
ting no help from the stupid sluggard king at Paris. 
At last, impatient of the farce, he sent this question 
to the Pope : " Who is king, he \\\\o governs or he 
who wears the crown?" " Ide \\\\o governs, of 
course," answered the Pope. " That is myself," said 
the little man with a great will ; "so the sluggards 
shall go to sleep fore\-er, " and he sent the last of 
them, Childeric HI., into a monaster}-. Then his 
nobles put their shields together, and the little man 
was seated on a chair, on their shields, and they 
marched with him thus, shouting and raising their 
shields as high as they could, thrice, round the par- 
liament, and then he was anointed by S. Boniface, 
Archbishop of I\f ainz, A.D. 752. Pepin did not forget 
that he owed a debt of gratitude to the Pope for the 
answer he had given to his question, and when, 
shortly after, the Pope sent to complain of the 
trouble occasioned by the Lombards, Pepin crossed 
the Alps, chastised the Lombards, took from them 
all their territory about Rome and gave it to the 
Pope, to belong to him and to the bishops of Rome 
forever. That was the beginning of the Papal 
sovereignty. "The States of the Church," as they 
were called, remained under the sovereignty of the 
Popes till 1 87 1. 

,-; .\ /;■;/■ A'/.\'i 


Pepin died in 'J<'<'^, and left Ijehind hin: two sons, 
Charles and Karloniann. The latter died a few }-ears 
after, and then, with tlie consent of the great nobles, 
Charles became sole kins.''. 


IN VK:^■^^^UKK of a tii^Hof i;v a king. 
(Frum a Codt.v in Si. Dmcr, ) 



Where should you suppose that the earliest Irish 
manuscripts are to be found? Not in Ireland, but in 
Switzerland and Germany. The reason of this is 
that the Irish were the first preachers of the Gospel 
in Germany. In the 6th and 7th centuries a 
perfect passion to do missionary work fired the 
monks of Ireland. In dreams and ecstasies they 
thought they saw the barbarous Germans crying to 
them from the gloom of their sombre pine woods 
to come over and bring them light. Then they got 
into rude boats of wicker-work covered with tanned 
hides, and paddled, or were blown across, to Eng- 
land. They traversed England and took boat 
again, and pushed up the Rhine, and Scheldt, and 
other rivers, till they found places where the people 
were all heathens, and there they established them- 
selves and taught. In 590 S. Columbanus ap- 
peared at the court of Guntram, King of Burgundy. 
He came from Ireland, and he established himself 
at Luxeuil, under the Jura, and when he was driven 
out he settled himself at Bobbio, in North Italy. 
His disciple, S. Gall, made himself a home in Switz- 
erland, in a forest, where he had difficulty to hold 
his own against the bears. He preached at Bre- 




fi-enz at the head of the Lake of Constance, ana 
threw the idols he found there into the lake. An- 
other Irishman, called Fridolin, planted himself at 
Seckingen, an island in the Rhine, under the slopes 
of the Black F'orcst. Another, Beatus, made him- 
self a home in a cave in the face of a precipice, 
above the Lake of Thun. Another, P~intan, who 
had been carried off by pirates and taken to Bel- 
gium, escaped from them, mounted the Rhine, and 
made Rheinau, near Schaffhausen, the place whence 
he taught the heathen. Foilan and Ultan, two 
Irish brothers, established themselves on the Meuse. 
Kilian, Colman, and Totnan made Wiirzburg the 
centre from which they taught, and there Kilian 
was martj-red. Frigidian went further, and died at 
Lucca. Fursey preached among the Franks at 
Lagny, a little north of Paris. 

Thus it was that Christianity was brought among 
the Allemanni and the Franks. The Sa.xons were 
still heathen ; so were the Frisians, who occupied 
the present Holland. 

But though Christianity was brought into the 
heart of the land, and here and there a bishopric 
was established, everything was in disorder in those 
disturbed days, and in some places Christianity died 
out for want of a succession of missionaries ; and the 
Church was constituted according to the Celtic form, 
the rule being in the hands of abbots, and in entire 
independence of Rome. 

Then it was that S. Boniface, or, as he was called 
in his Devonshire home, Winifred, sailed from Ports- 

(Tltlo-Pace of Missal in Bamberg Library.) 



mouth for Germany, with a band of devoted men. 
He found that the Christianity there was among the 
Germans was not at all of the pattern of the Roman 
church and the Latin races. So he went to Rome 
to ask the Pope to authorize him to bring the 
German church into submission to the Papacy. 
Furnished with authority, and consecrated and 
appointed Archbishop of Mainz, and having re- 
ceived the name of Boniface, " Good-doer," from the 
Pope, he returned to Germany, and sent home to 
England for helpers. Many came, men and women, 
and he planted them where were most suitable cen- 
tres. At Geismar, in Hesse, stood a huge old oak, 
dedicated to the god Donnar. The heathens made 
pilgrimages to this oak, and even converted 
Christians regarded it with religious awe, and told 
wonderful stories about it, and visited it to hear 
oracles from its dark whispering branches. One 
day when there was a great assembly at this oak on 
a festival of Donnar, Boniface went boldly to the 
place, unattended by armed men, but with an axe 
in his hands, and before all the pagan crowd began 
to hack at the tree. The)^ drew back in dismay, 
expecting lightning to fall and consume him. Bon- 
iface did not rest till the oak was cut down, and fell 
with a crash. Then the heathen recognized the 
powerlessness of their gods, and their faith in them 
fell with the oak'. 

Bonitace did n(jt content himself with preaching. 
Pie said that the only wa)' in \\'hich the Germans 
could be made good Christians ^\'as to civilize them ; 
accordingly, he established schools and monasteries 
where he could. The monks tau^rht, but did not 

TjiE MONKS a;; farmers. 


teach only ; they drained the morasses, feUed the 
trees, jjlouj^hed the soil, sowed corn, planted fruit 
trees, and carried on various trades. Those ^\■hom 
they converted they settled in cottages round their 
monasteries, and so, in time, these settlements grew 
into towns. 

But along with much good work, Boniface had re- 
course to very questionable jjroceedings. He harried 
the Irish missionaries, bringing charges against them 
true and false, and using e\'ery effort to turn them 
out of the spheres where they had worked so well. 

When ]>onil^ace ^\■as ok.l he went to carry the Gns- 
pel to the heathor J'risians. The pagans fell upon 
him and murdered him in the j'ear 755, A.u. 




We come now to one of the greatest men of all 
times, Charles the Great, son of Pepin the Short, a 
man who has left his mark on history for all times. 
Charles — (called by the French Charlemagne) — was 
great in many wa)'s, whereas most great men are 
great in one or two. He was a great warrior, a 
great political genius, an energetic legislator, a lover 
of learning, and a lover also of his natural language 
and poetry at a time when it was the fashion to 
despise them. And he united, and displayed, all 
these merits in a time of general and monotonous 
barbarism, when, save in the Church, the minds 
of men were dull and barren. 

From 769 to 813, in Germany and Western and 
Northern Europe, Charlemagne conducted thirty- 
two campaigns against the Saxons, Frisians, Bava- 
rians, Avars, Slavs, and Danes ; m Italy, five 
against the Lombards ; in Spain, Corsica, and Sar- 
dinia, twelve against the Arabs ; two against the 
Greeks; and three in Gaul itself, against the Aqui- 
tanians and Bretons. In all, fift}'-three e.xpedi 
tions in fort}--five years, amongst \\'hich those he 


(.From ihc pjintint; b. Dlirer.) 

c;_| A MAN OF MARK. 

undertook against the Saxons, the Lombards, and 
the Arabs were long and difficult wars. 

The kingdom of Charles was vast ; it comprised 
nearly all Germany, Belgium, France, Switzerland, 
and the North of Italy and of Spain. He had, in 
ruling this mighty realm, to deal with different 
nations, without cohesion, and to grapple with their 
various institutions and bring them into system. 

The first great undertaking of Charles was against 
the Saxons. They were still heathen, and were a 
constant source of annoyance to the Franks, for 
they made frequent inroads to pillage and destroy 
their towns and harvests. 

In the line of mountains which forms the step 
from Lower into Upper Germany, above the West- 
phalian plains, is one point at which the river Weser 
breaks through and flows down into the level land, 
about three miles above the town of Minden. This 
rent in the mountains is called the Westphalian 
Gate. The hills stand on each side, like red sandstone 
door-posts, and one is crowned by some crumbling 
fragments of a castle ; it is called the Wittekinds- 
berg, and takes its name from Wittekind, a Saxon 
king, who had his castle there. Wittekind was a 
stubborn heathen, and a very determined man. In 
772 Charles convoked a great assembly at Worms, 
at which it was unanimously resolved to march 
against the Saxons and chastise them for their in- 
cursions. Charles advanced along the Weser, 
through the gate, destroyed Wittekind's castle, 
pushed on to Padcrborn, where he threw down an 
idol adored b}' the Saxons, and then was obliged to 




return and hurry to Italy to fight the Lombards, who 
had revolted. Next )'ear he invaded Saxony again, 
He built himself a palace at Paderborn, and sum- 
moned the Saxon chiefs to come and do homage. 
Wittekind alone refused, and ficd to Denmark. No 
sooner had Charles gone to fight the Moors in 
Spain than Wittekind returned, and the Saxons 
rose at his summons, and, bursting into Franconia, 
devastated the land up to the walls of Cologne. 
Charles returned and fought them in two great bat- 
tles, defeated them, erected fortresses in their midst, 
and carried off hostages. Affairs seemed to pros- 
per, and Charles deemed liimself as securely master 
of Saxony as Varus had formerly in the same 
country, and under precisely the same circumstances. 
Charles then quitted the country, leaving orders for 
a body of Saxons to join his Franks and march to- 
gether against the Slavs. The Saxons obeyed the 
call with alacrit}', and soon outnumbered the 
Franks. One daj', as the armj' was crossing the 
mountains from the Wescr, at a given signal the 
Saxons fell on their companions and butchered 

When the news of this disaster reached Charles 
he resolved to teach the Saxons a terrible lesson. 
Crossing the Rhine, he laid waste their country 
with fire and sword, and forced the Saxons to sub- 
mit to be baptized, and accept Christian teachers 
Tliose who refused he killed. At Verdun he hati 
over four thousand of the rebels beheaded. At 
Detmold, Wittekind led tlie Saxons in a furious bat- 



tic. 111 \\hiLh iiuillicr Ljaiiicd the xiLtcn-y. In another 
battle, on the llasc, they were cornpletel)- rduted. 

Then Wittekinel submitted, came into the camp of 
Charles, and asked to be baptized. A little ruined 
chapel stands (.11 the W'itlekiiKKbcr--, .ib.ive the 
W'cstphalian (late, and there, ace M-eliiiL; to tr,iditii"ui, 
near the overturned ^\•alls of liis own castle, the 
stubborn lieathen bowed the neck to receive the 
yoke of Christ. Ch.irlcs' two nephews, the sons of 
Karlomann, \\-ere with Dc-^ideriLis, the Lombard 
k-inL(, and iJcsiderius tried to foi-ce the f'ope to anriiiit 

I II \ia.l.MAe\ K s Mi,\ \ I I 1:1 . 

them kint;"s of tlic T-'ranks, to he. id a re\-olt against 
Charles. W'licn the ^rcat kinu;" he.ird this he came 
o\'er the i\lps into Itah", dethroiu-d ])esiderius, and 
shut him up in a mon,ister\". 'linn he crowned 
liimsclf with the iron crown of tlie I.omb.inl kincjs, 
w]iich\\"as said to liax'C jjcen ni.ule out of one of the 
nails that fastened C'hrist to the cross. 

])ukc Thassiio of fS.uari.i Iiad ni.irrietl a tlau^hter 
of 1 )esi(.lerius, and lie refusetl t^i .ickiiiiwlcLlge the 
authorit)' of Cdiarles. He also stiia'Ci.! up the A\"ars 
who lix'cd in MunL;ar}- to inwule the hVankish 
rcahn. Charles marched aLTainst Tliassilo, dro\x- 

rg A MaiV of imaka-. 

him out of Bavaria, subdued the Avars, and con^ 
verted the country between the Ems and Raab — 
that is, Austria proper — into a province, whicli was 
called the East March, and formed the begin- 
ning of the East Realm (Oesterreich), or Austria. 

Charles also fought the Danes, and took from 
them the country up to the river Eider. 

When we consider wlrat continuous fighting 
Charles had, it is a wonder to us that he had time 
to govern and make laws; but he devoted as much 
thought to arranging his realm and placing it under 
proper governors as he did to extending its fron- 

Charles constituted the various parts of his vast 
empire — kingdoms, duchies, and counties. He was 
himself the sovereign of al! these united, but 
he managed them through counts and vice-counts. 
The frontier districts were called marches, and 
were under march-counts, or margraves. Count 
is not a German title ; the German equivalent is graf, 
and the English is earl. The counties were di- 
vided into hundreds ; a hundred villages went to a 
vice-count. He had also Counts of the Palace, who 
ruled over the crown estates, and send-counts 
(missi), whom he sent out yearly through the coun- 
try to see that his other counts did justice, and did 
not oppress the people. If people felt themselves 
wronged by the counts they appealed to these 
send-counts, and if the send-counts did not do them 
justice they appealed to the palatine-counts. 

Every year Charles summoned his counts four 
times, when he could, but alwa)'s once, in May, to 



meet him in council, and tliscuss the grievances of the 
people. i\s tile great dulccs wltc troublesome, be- 
cause so powerful, Charles tried to do ^vithout them, 
and to keej) them in check. lie ga\-e wlude princi- 
palities to Ijisliops, hojjing that the}' ^\-ould be sup- 
porters of liim and the cr(n\ n against the powerful 

He was als(j very careful for the g(.)iid government 
of the Church. He endowed a number of mon- 
asteries to serve as schools for bii\s and girls. 
He had also a cnllection of gooil, \\ Injlesome ser- 
mons made in (jeinian, and sent eojiies about in all 
directions, re(]uiring them tn be read to the people 
in church. lie in\ite-d singers .and musicians 
*^ri)m Ital\'tii eoine and improve the performance r)f 
divine ^\■orsllip, and two song-schools were estab- 
lished, one at Call, another at Metz. I lis Franks, 
he complained, had not much aptitude for music; 
their singing ^\■as li]-;e the liowling of 'wild beasts, 
or the noise made b}' the scpieaking, groaning 
wheels of a baggage \\agg(in o\er a stou)- road. 
Charles \\'.is particidarly interested in schools, and 
delighted in going into them and listening to the 
bo)-s at their lessons. One da\" -when he had paid 
such a visit he -was told that the noblemen's sons 
were much idler than those of the common citizens. 
Then the great king grew red in the face and 
frowned, and his eyes flashed. He callecl the j'oung 
nobles before him and said in thundering tones . 
"You grand gentlemen I you )"Oung puppets ! You 
jniff )-oursel\-es up with the thoughts of \-ourrank and 
wealth, and SLippose yeiu lia\e no need of letters ! I 

(^3 .-/ LIA.V OF MARK. 

tell you that your pretty faces and your high no. 
bilit}' are accounted nothing by me. Beware ! be- 
ware ! Without diligence and conscientiousness 
not one of )'ou gets an^'thing from me." 

Charles dearly loved the grand old German poems 
of the heroes, and he had them collected and 
copied out. y\las ! they have been lost. His stu- 
pid son, thinking them rubbish, burnt them all. 
Tlie great king also sent to Italy for builders, and 
set them to work to erect palaces and churches. 
His favorite palaces were at Aix and at Ingelheim. 
At the latter place he had a bridge built over the 
Rhine. At Aix he built the Cathedral with pillars 
taken from Roman nuns. It ^^'as quite circular, 
with a colonnade going round it ; inside, it remains 
almost unaltered to the present da)-. 

He -was very eager to promote trade, and so far 
in advance of the times was he that he resolved to 
cut a canal so as to connect the Main with the 
Regnitz, and thus make a waterway right across 
Germany, from the Rhine to the Danube, and sc 
connect the German Ocean with the Black Sea. 
The canal was begun, but wars interfered with its 
completion, and the work was not carried out till 
the present ccntur}-, by Louis I., of Bavaria. 

Charles was a tall, grand-looking man, nearly 
seven feet high. He was so strong that he could 
take a horseshoe in his hands and snap it. He ate 
and drank in moder.ition, and was grave and di"- 
nified in his conduct. 

In the year 800 an insurrection broke out in 
Rome against Pope Leo HI. Whilst he was riding 



i:) proccssinn his enemies fell un him, threw him 
from his horse, and an a\\'k\vard attempt was made 
to put out his eyes and to eut out his touL^ue. 
Then, bleedin_c,r and insensible, he was [Hit- in a 
monaster)-. The Duke of Spoleto, a h~rank, licar- 
\\\'^ of this, marched t'j Rome and remoi-ed the 
Wounded pope to Spoletei, w here he ^\■as wed nursed 
anel recovered his ej-esiyht and power of speech. 
Charles was very indignant when he heard of the 
outrage and he left the .Saxons, whom he was fight- 
ing, and came to Ital)- to inx'estigate the circum- 
stance. He assumed the (jffice of judge, and the 
guilty persons were sent into prison in ]'"rance. 
Then came Christmas Da\', the Cdiristmas i>f the 
last )-ear in the eighth centur_\- of Cdn-ist. Charles 
and all his sumptuous court, the uofjlcs and people 
of Rome, the wdlole clerg\- of Rome, were present 
at the liigh services of the birth of Christ. The 
Pope himself chanted the mass; the full ,assemt)l>- 
were wrapt in profound devotion. At the close 
the Pope rose, advanceil towards Charles with a 
splendid crown in his hands, placed it upon his 
Isrow, and proclaimed him Ca;sar Augustus, " Cod 
grant life and victor>- to the great emperor 1 " 
His words were lost in the acclamations of the 
soldiery, the people, and tlie clerg\-. 

Charles was taken completeh- b\- surprise. What 
the consequences would be to Germany and to the 
Papacy, how fatal tr. both, neither he nor Leo 
could 'see. .So Charlemagne became King of Ital)- 
and Emperor of the West— the successor of the 
Ca\sars o{ Rome. 

62 -4 ^'/.-^-V O/-' MARK. 

When Charles felt that his end was appruaciung 
he summoned all his nobles to Aix, into the church 
he had there erected. There, on the altar, lay a 
golden crown. Charles made his son, Ludwig, or 
Louis, stand before him, and, ii,i the audience of his 
great men, gave him his last exhortation : to fear 
God and to love his people as his own children, to 
do right and execute justice, and to walk in in- 
tegrity before God and man. With streaming eyes, 
Louis promised to fulfil his father's command. 
" Then," said Charles, " take this crown, and place 
it on )^our own head, and never forget the promise 
you have made this daj'." 

A few months later, Charles died (814). He 
was burietl robed in full imperial raiment, with a 
crown on his head, the purple mantle over his 
shoulders, girded with his great sword, the book of 
the Gospel:; on his knees, seated on a marble throne, 
and with a pilgrim's pouch at his side. He was 
buried under the dome of the church at Aix, and 
there to this day may be seen the great stone that 
covers his tomb, with nothing engraved on it but 
Carolo Magno. In the year 1 165 the tomb was 
opened, and the body found as thus described. 




Beeore we a;o any fuithcr with the history of 
(jcrmany it is ncccssar}' that w c should get some 
clear idea of the empire of which Charles the Great 
was constituted head when the Pope on Christmas 
Da)' crowned him in S. Peter's Church at Rome. 

The old Roman Empire, of which Augustus had 
been the first imperial head, had fallen into decrepi- 
tude, and Constantino had transferred the capital 
f-.'om Rome to Byzantium. Since his death many 
emperors had succeeded to the title, but none had 
been able to maintain the Empire in its ancient 
integrit)' and splendour. 

Before Constantino the Empire had been heathen, 
Rome and lier princes had been enemies of the 
Church, drunk witli the blond of the saints. But 
from the conversion of Constantino onward Rome 
and Christianit)- had formed so close an alliance 
that the names Ri_>nian and Christian had become 
almost s}'non}'mous. The emperors presided at 
councils of the Church, and protected the faith 
with edicts and with the sword. Thus the Empire, 
which had once been the bitterest foe of the Gos- 
pel, now became inseparabl}' connected with its 



y///;' ilOLY ROMAN hJl/'IRC. 

profession. The Empire became lioly, and a spe- 
cial sanctity \\'as thought to be attached to the 
emperor as temporal head of the great Christian 
body. " The successor of Mahomet inherited alike 
the temporal and the spiritual functions of the 
propliet. In the Mahometan system, Church and 
State neetled not to be united, because they had 
never been distinct. But closely as the Roman 
Empire and the Christian Church became united, 
one might almost say identified, traces still re- 
mained of the days when chey had been distinct 
and hostile bodies. The bishop's commission was 
divine, proceeding neither from the prince nor from 
the people. C)f such an organization the emperor 
might become the patron, the protector, the exter- 
nal rule, but he could not strictly become the 

Italy was overrun by the Tombards. The em- 
perors in Constantinople became weaker, less able 
to maintain their dignitj^ and to protect their do- 
minions. At last the imperial crown rested on the 
head of a woman, Irene, who had raised herself to 
power by deposing and blinding her own son. That 
a woman should occujiy the throne of Augustus was 
preposterous to the nations of the West, already 
indignant at the weakness of the emperors in By 
zantium. And then, Charles seemed to the eyes 
of those in Italy the grandest and most suitable 
figure to fill the imperial throne. The coronation 
of Charles was a revolt, a justifiable revolt of the 

* Freeman ; Historical lissays. "The Holy Roinan Empire," 


West against the feeble " rois faineants " of the 
East. As Pepin had been declared by the Pope 
the true sovereign instead of the sluggard Merovin- 
gians, so now the Pope declared the son of Pepin 
true emperor, instead of the sluggard Byzantines. 

Thenceforth, in the c)-es of the West and of the 
Church in the West, Charlemagne and his successors, 
who were crowned by the Pope, were regarded as 
the true emperors of the Christian world, the true 
successors of Augustus and Antoninus, as the true 
temporal heads of the Holy Roman I'lmijire. 

Not every king of Germany was emperor, but 
only such as were crowned by the Pope. The 
Pope claimed to be the spiritual head of the 
Church, the viceroy acting for Christ in His king- 
dom. Before His death Christ said : " He that hath 
no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one." 
Then the disciples said to Him, "Lord, behold, 
here arc two swords." And He said unto them, 
" It is enough." Upon this text a theory was 
founded that Christ gave to His Church, and to the 
Pope as the spiritual head of His Church, the two 
swords of spiritual and temporal power, but that, 
as it was inexpedient for the Pope in his spiritual 
capacity to wield the sword of temporal menace, 
he delegated it to a temporal sovereign, and that 
thus the Pope in sacred matters remained the 
spiritual ruler, whilst the emperor exercised the 
delegated authority in temporal matters. The 
Pope cut off with the sword of ercommunication, 
and the emperor with the sword of justice. You 
must bear this theory well in mind, or you will 



never get a right notion of what is meant by the 
Holy Roman Empire, and if you do not lay hold of 
this you lo6c the key to the history of Germany in 
the Middle Ages. 

(Sculpture in the Cathedral of Bamberg, 12th Century.) 



Louis, the son of Cluu-lcs the Great, resembled 
his fatlier in size, but hi that onl)-. He T.\as a nar- 
row-minded and irresolute man, cn\ iiil; \\ a}- to his 
violent passions and then beinj;- filled w ith remorse ; 
a man sincerely desirous of dnini;- what was ri^ht, but 
without self-control. He had iK.t the -enius (if his 
father to manaL;^ the threat enii^ire he had founded. 
One instance of his character -will slmw the sort of 
man he was. Louis had a nephew, I'lernard, son of 
his elder brother, Pepin, \\hom Charles the Great 
had made K\n<^ of Ital\-. He was susjiicious of 
Bernard and ordered him to appear before him at 
Chalons. Pepin was dead, and Bernard \\as dan- 
gerous, or might be, as a ri\-al. Bernard hesitated, 
so Louis got his wife, the Empress Larigard, to send 
Bernard his solemn assurance that he would be 
allowed to come and go in safety. Relying on this 
promise Bernard came to court, when Louis caused 
his e\'es to be torn out in so barbarous a manner 
that lie died a few days after. That \\-as in April, 
81 8. A little later the Empress L-mgard fell ill 
and died. Louis was passionately attached to her, 



and her death brouglit home to him the crime he 
had committed, and he was stung with remorse. 
Grief for what he had done never left him, and it 
made him earnest in his prayers and efforts to do 
good, so that he was given the name of " The 

His next wife was Jutta, daughter of a certain 
Welf, the Count of Bavaria, a clever woman, who 
at once did all in her power to reconcile the friends 
of the murdered Bernard. Louis had three sons 
by his first wife, Irmgard. Their names were Lo- 
thair, Pepin, and Louis. By Jutta he had another, 
Charles, who was his favorite. Before Louis 
married Jutta he divided his great empire into 
three parts, one for each of his sons by Irm- 
gard ; but when Charles was born, he wanted 
to make a change, and divide it into four, so that 
Charles might have a share. This made the three 
elder angry, and they rebelled against their father, 
seized him, and brought charges of witchcraft 
against their step-mother, Jutta. But this out- 
raged the feelings of the great nobles, and the peo- 
ple murmured threatcningh'. Lothair was obliged 
to let his father go. In his rage, however, he took 
the town of Chalons, which held to his father, 
burned it, and murdered the son and daughter of 
Duke Bernard, of Septimania, who was the adviser 
of his father and guardian of the little Charles. 
The poor girl was at school in a convent. He fast- 
ened her up in a wine cask and threw her into the 

Lothair's brothers, Pepin and Louis, were jealous 

(.Heidelberg' .M.S.i 



of him, and they leagued against him, under the 
pretext that they could not countenance his con- 
duct to their father. Thereupon, a new division of 
the empire was made, between Pepin, Louis, and 
Charles, to the exclusion of Lothair. 

The weak-minded emperor was thenceforth pow- 
erless. The rest of his reign was spent in vain en- 
deavors to reconcile his quarrelsome sons. After 
the death of Louis the Pious, which took place 
in 840, war broke out between the brothers, of 
whom, fortunatel}', there was now one less, for 
Pepin had died. But Pepin had left a son, with the 
same name, who inherited his kingdom of Aqui- 
taine. Louis — called, to distinguish him from his 
father, "The German" — and Charles wanted to 
snatch Aquitaine from him, but he "was supported 
by Lothair, his other uncle. 

A great battle was fought in S41 at Fontenay, in 
Burgundy, between Louis and Charles, united 
against Lothair. A hundred thousand men fell, 
and Lothair was defeated. He fled to Aix, where 
he melted up the great silver tables of Charle- 
magne into coin, and with bribes and promises 
stirred up the Saxons to a general revolt. In view 
of this danger Charles and Louis met at the head of 
their armies near Strasburg, and made a solemn 
alliance. The words of the oath have been pre- 
served. Louis and his soldiers took it in French, 
Charles and his in German ; and this is the earliest 
specimen we have of the French language, whicli 
was thus forming out of a mixture of the Gaulish, 
Latin, and German dialects, which were melting up 



and fusinc,'' in the country \vc now call France. 
This was in S42. 

Next }'car a treaty was concluded between all 
three brothers at Verdun, b)' which Lothair was 
granted the imperial crown, and the Netherlands, 
the Rhine countr)-, ]>uryundy, and Ital)-, -which was 
called after him — Lotharingia. That [jortion of his 
kingdom which afterwards came to be held to- 
gether was called by the hTench Lorraine. Louis 
the German was given all Germany cast of Lo- 
tharingia, and Charles, who was nicknamed " The 
Bald," had as his share all France west of Lotha- 

Thus, through the Treaty of Verdun in 843, 
Germany became an independent kingdom, and its 
history detaches itself from that uf h" ranee. 



As you have already heard, the North Germans 
had always been in the habit of holding lands and 
handing them on to their sons. This was not the 
case in South Germany ; there, no one had as much 
land as he could put his foot on. The land was 
held to belong to the community, and was parcelled 
out every year in lots among the various house- 
holders who made up a village. This was all very 
well in a rude state of society, but it was most in- 
convenient after agriculture had been introduced, 
and it was modified in various ways. 

The Frank monarchs combined the principle of 
the North German and the South German tenure. 
They proclaimed that all the land belonged to the 
crown, but the crown gave it back to the land- 
holders on certain conditions, to have and to hold, 
from generation to generation, so long as they ful- 
filled these conditions. These land-holders were 
the nobles, — barons. These barons, in like manner, 
parcelled up their land into farms and let the farms 
to farmers on the same condition, to have and to 
hold, from generation to generation, not to be dis- 
possessed so long as they fulfilled the conditions. 




The conditions were these : the farmers were 
bound to furnish so many fighting-men, and so much 
food to the baron, and to work for him so many- 
days in the }'ear. The baron on his part had his 
castle, and he was bound to furnish the king with 
so many fighting-men and to administer justice on 
the land of his barony. He was responsible to the 
count, and the count to the king. When a baron 
died without a son, his barony fell back to the 
crown, and was given a^\•ay to another. The count 
had to see that the barons administered justice ; 
and the scnd-counts appointed by Charlemagne 
went about the country seeing that the counts did 
their dut)'. This was the feudal system. Every 
man was bound b)- duties, and no man could call 
anything his own unless he discharged his duties. 

In the south of Germany, the nobles did not 
like this new system at all. Welf, Count of Ba\-aria, 
had a son, Henry. Louis the Pious, who had mar- 
ried Jutta, Welf's daughter, offered to give Henry 
some land on the new principle ; but the old Bava- 
rian forbade his son to take it. However, Jutta 
persuaded her brother to do as the emperor of- 
fered, which was that he should have and hold as 
much land as he could run a gold plough round 
whilst the emperor slept. When the old Welf 
heard that his son had done this he was so offended 
that he hid himself for the rest of his days in the 
Black Forest. 

You see by this feudal system no man could sell 
his property out and out; he could only sell it sub- 
ject to the king's consent, and subject to the duties 


it entailed, or pawn what he got from it, without 
freeing himseh' from the responsibilities. 

We shall see later how the towns wen? governed 

on the same principle. 


('840-91 I.) 

The successors of Louis the German were Charles 
the Fat, Arnulf, and Louis the Child. 

One day Charles the Great was looking from his 
window by the sea, when he saw some \\hite sails 
on the far horizon, shimmering alung like sea-gulls. 
Those who were in the room with him heard him 
sigh heavily. " Sire, what troubles )ou P " He 
pointed to the white sails. " I see a coming trouble 
there," he answered. The sails belonged to the 
Northmen. After the death of Louis the Pious, 
the incursions of the Northmen became indeed a 
trouble. In France, as \-ou know, the}' conquered 
and formed Normand)-. The}' made sad ha\'oc in 
England, and Alfred had hard battles to fight before 
he could drive them back : but there also they 
founded a kingdom in Northumbria. Charles the 
Fat was too laz}' to meet and fight the Northmen ; 
he bought them off with gold. This created general 
disgust ; a great assembly of the nobles and people 
was held at Tribur on the Rhine, and he was 
declared incapable of go\-erning and was deposed. 
His brother's son, Arnulf, succeeded him. He \\ as 



a good king, very courageous and active, but was 
cut off by poison after a short reign. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Louis, aged six. Under him 
Germany went through many years of suffering. 
The Magyars, or Hungarians, invaded the country 
nearly every year, ravaging it, plundering the 
churches, burning the towns, and butchering or 
carrying away into captivity the unhappy people. 
The Germans fought on foot with long two-handed 
swords, or with balls covered with spikes which were 
attached by chains or thongs to a stick, and which 
they swung about and brought down on the heads 
of their enemies. The Hungarians were mounted 
on fleet horses and were armed with bows, so that 
the Germans could not come to close quarters with 
them. Then the great vassals took advantage of 
the fact that the king was a child to enlarge their 
own dominions and reduce his power. "Woe to 
thee, O land, when thy king is a child," said Solo- 
mon of old, and Germany experienced the truth of 
his saying. One little anecdote of the times may 
be quoted. Ulric, Count of Linzgau, was carried 
away a prisoner by the Hungarians. His beautiful 
wife remained behind. She believed him to be dead. 
Years passed and she heard nothing of him. She 
refused to marry again, but lived quietly in her castle, 
doing good to all who were near. One day a poor 
beggar came to her door, dressed in rags, with bare 
and bleeding feet, and hair almost white. The 
countess at once came down to give him food, 
when, with a cry, he threw his arms round her neck 
and kissed her. The attendants rushed to interfere, 

corxr uLKic ketcka's. 


but he ^\•avcd them awa)' with his hand, and the 
tears ran down liis brown, furrowed cheeks. " Let 
mc hold her to my heart once more. I have suffered 
blows and famine these many years, and had no love. 
I am Ulric, yourlord." 

The young king died in 911, before he had come 
of age to rule, and with him ended the race of 
Charlemagne in Germany. 



From the time of the death of Louis the Child the 
crown ceased to be in the family of the great Charles. 
The great vassals elected the king. Though the king- 
ship was not hereditary, it was usual to elect the son 
or some near relative of the late emperor, so long as a 
suitable person was found in the family to hold the 
office. Also the kings, during their lives, did what they 
could to insure the succession to their own families. 
By this change one great advantage was gained ; 
the Germans made sure that they should be governed 
by able princes ; but, on the other hand, this great 
disadvantage came of it, that the vassals were able 
to make themselves too powerful, and to rule almost 
quite independently of the emperor in their own 
lands. The kings were obliged to bribe and favour 
the great nobles to secure them to vote for their sons, 
and so the central power of the crown was weakened 
and the unity of Germany dissolved. It must be 
remembered that the German kings claimed also to 
be kings of Italy, and, by virtue of their coronation 
by the popes, to be emperors of Rome. So they 
were crowned twice, once at Aix — in aftertimes at 




Frankfort, as kirif^s of Germany — afterwards at Rome 
as emperors. So tliey A\erc e\-cr distracted from 
wliat should have been their chief care, — to bring 
Germany into unity and subjection, — by the craze 
that they were the descendants of tlie emperors of 
Rome, and by tlieir efforts to re-estabhsh the great 
old Empire, not now as a pagan power, but, as they 
called it, a Holy Roman Empire, When I'upe Leo 
III., on Christmas Da\', Scxd, crowned and proclaimed 
Charles the Great as emperor, he did, without know- 
ing it, the greatest mischief he could to Germany. 
He diverted the ambitions of the kings of (Germany 
for seven hundred years from their pn>pcr cluties at 
home, and sent theni wild-goose hunting in It.d\-. 

The first king who was chosen, alter the dcith of 
Louis, M'as Conrad, a Frank duke. He got into 
contest with Henry, the )'oung Luke of .Sa.xon)'. 
Archbishop Hatto, of Mainz, sent Henr)- a present 
of a necklace for his throat, made of twisted gold 
formed to act like a spring, so that he could pass it 
over his head and it A\'ould close tight on his throat. 
Henry put it on, and the gold shrank so tight as 
nearly to throttle him. He had nc\er seen a spring 
coil before, and the chain had to be broken off him. 
He was \-ery angr\-, and declared that the bishop 
wanted to strangle him by this ingenious artifice. 
So he entered some of the bishop's lands with an 
army , thereupon the emperor marched to protect 
the archbishop. A battle was fought and the 
Franks were defeated. Then a peace was patched 
up. Not long after Conrad died, without leaving 
any sons. On his death-bed he called to him his 


brother Eberhard, and said : " My hours are num- 
bered. I know that no man is worthier to take the 
throne than my enemy, Henry of Saxony. Do not 
you think of yourself in opposition to the general 
good. We Franks have might, and strong cities, and 
all that royal splendour requires ; but something 
more than that is needed: great prudence and wis- 
dom, and that Henry has. When I am dead take 
him the crown and the sacred lance, the gold arm- 
lets, the sword, and the purple mantle of the old 
kings, and «p make Henry your friend. Tell him 
and the princes that my dying advice is, that he 
should succeed me." 

Directly Conrad was dead, the electors met and 
chose Henry. They sent Eberhard and others to 
announce his election to him, and found him out 
bird-catching, with a hawk on his wrist, in the Harz 
Mountains. He was thenceforth called " The 
Fowler." He obeyed the call of the nation without 
delay. The error he had committed in rebelling 
against the state he firmly resolved to atone for by 
his conduct as emperor. Of lofty stature, although 
slight and youthful in form, with a handsome face, 
a clear eye, and a pleasant smile, his very appear- 
ance won hearts to him. Besides these personal ad- 
vantages, he was intelligent, eager for knowledge, 
and had much good sense. His wife, Bertha, was an 
excellent woman, who wove and spun, and there 
are seals remaining that represent her spinning, 
seated on her throne as an empress. 

His first idea was how to protect the land from 
that incessant plague, the Hungarian incursions. 



He formed his plan, which was not hked by his 
nobles at first, because they did not understand 
what he aimed at. He bought peace of the Hun- 

(HciJelbcry MSS ) 

garians for nine years by promising them a yearly 
tribute. But this was not through cowardice ; he 
wanted to gain time. During those nine years he 
occupied himself in building strong fortresses dot- 


ted about along the frontiers, and filling them with 
munitions of war and well-trained soldiers. These 
were called burgs, and were placed under the com- 
mand of counts, called burgraves. Hitherto the 
Germans had not lived in walled towns, and had a 
great dislike to doing so. Henry ordered that out 
of every nine freemen who lived on their lands, one 
should be always on guard in the burg, and that the 
other eight should support him. By degrees, the 
Germans on the frontier saw what protection these 
burgs gave them, and they gathered about them, 
and closed walls round their collection of houses, 
and formed the walled towns of Germany. 

When the nine years were elapsed, and Henry 
stopped the tribute, he was ready for the Hunga- 
rians. They sent to him as usual the tenth year 
for the money, but he threw a dead mangy dog at 
their feet, and told them that was all they should 
have from him and his Germans for the future. 
The ambassadors returned with fury in their 
hearts, and the Hungarians poured over the fron- 
tier in two enormous hordes. They found them- 
selves troubled with the strong burgs, which they 
could not take, and which menanced their rear if 
they advanced. Moreover, Henry's men were full 
of confidence, for they could always fall back within 
walls if they found the Hungarians too strong for 
them. Henry had a great banner painted of St. 
Michael trampling on the dragon, with wings of 
blazen gold, and had it carried before his army. A 
furious battle was fought near Merseburg, and 
thirty thousand Hungarians were killed. The re- 

Kx/crmiooD ixstitcted. 


mainder ncd. The terror of tlic Hungarians now 
equalled that with which they had formcrl)- inspired 
the Germans. In their beUef, the Angel Michael 
was the German god of \ictory, and they made 
golden wings like those borne by the angel on the 
banner and fastened them to their own idols, in 
hopes thereby of making tliem like Michael. l-"rom 
the fact that Henry had been the builder or 
founder of so many cities that grew up abi'Ut his 
burgs, he got the name of Henry " the City liuilder," 
as well as "the Fowler." 

Another institution of Henr)''s a\ as the- knight- 
hood. There were at that time a good number of 
freemen, younger brothers nf thuse holding land, 
who hired themselves at diflerent courts, or who 
robbed on the highwa\'s. The)' did not know ex- 
actly what to di.i with themseK'es; there were not 
then many openings for men, and lhe\- ^\ ere too 
proud to serve as foot soldiers. Henr\' offeretl 
those who had been robbers a free partlon, and in- 
vited the rest to come and serve the empire. The)- 
were to be called knights, — that is, serxants of the 
crown, — and he organized them into a bijd)- of 
mounted cavalr)-, and imposed on them certain con- 
ditions, M'hich made the rank of a knight one of 
honour. The stor)- goes that llenr\- and some of 
his nobles -were discussing the prciofs required to 
show that a soldier deser\ed this rank. Then 
said Henr)-, " First, he must not, b)- word or 
deed, wrong the Mother Church." "Nor," added 
the Count Palatine Conrad, "nor hurt the Hoi)- 
Roman Empire." Then Berthold of Bavaria said 



" He must not be a liar." " Nor," said Hermann of 
Swabia, " have injured a weak woman." " No, nor 
run away in battle," said Conrad of Franconia. So 
these were made the laws of knighthood, to be true 
to church and country, true in everything, gentle to 
women, and couratjeous. 




Twenty-two years after the Hungarians had been 
defeated at Merseburg they once more burst into 
Germany. They were so numerous that they 
boasted that their horses \\'ould drink the ri\-ers dry 
and stamp the towns to dust. Tliey pushed up the 
Danube to where the ri\-er Lech joins it, and there 
turned south and followed up this ri\cr to the great 
and wealthy city of Augsburg. The\- had been 
disappointed of spoil. They had tra\ersed long 
tracts of rubble of \\hite limestone with willows 
sprouting between the stones; no rich towns, only 
poor villages, few and far between. The)- were hun- 
gry for spoil, and they knew that Augsburg would 
furiTish abundance. Augsburg stood on the great 
trade road from Italy into the heart of German)'. 
It was full of merchants who ■\\'ere as wealth)- as 
princes. It was an old Roman town, and had, no 
doubt, at one time been surrounded b)- A\'alls. At 
this time it had a \'er)' prudent bishop, named 
Ulric. For some time he had suspected mischief was 
brewing, before others were aware of the danger, 
and he persuaded the citizens to rebuild their walls. 



These were fortunately finished just before the 
Hungarians attacked the place. As soon as Ulric 
heard that they were coming he sent to his brother, 
who was Count of Kyburg,* and to Duke Burkhard 

(From an Illuminated &IS. in Bamberg.) 

of Swabia, to fly to his aid, and they hastily came 
into the city with their men before the barbarians 
appeared. There was a moat round the walls and 
the river Lech had been made to send a stream into 
it. This puzzled the Hungarians, and they stood 

* The family of the Couiit of Kyburg became e.xtinct in 1264, and 
their possessions passed first into the hands of the counts of Haps- 
burg and then to tlie House of Austria, one of the present titles of 
the Austrian emperor being Count of Kyburg. 

cFrum Lui I\-ury Carvin^^f in [he Hocel Cluny.) 




looking at the water and the walls beyond. Then 
their chiefs whirled their long ^\•hips and slashed at 
their men to drive them into the ditch, and force 
them through. A gigantic Hungarian stood on the 
bank blowing a horn. Then, all at once, a gate was 
opene^^l in the walls, a bridge ^vas dropped, and out 
rushed the weavers of Augsburg, armed with pikes, 
fell on the enemy, surrounded and killed their king, 
and went back in triumph, carr)-ing the shield of the 
king with them. Ever after, to this day, the shield 
has been preserved by the guild of the weavers. 
The Hungarians were detained outside Augsburg, 
unable to take it, and unwilling to leave it, till Otto, 
the emperor, the son of Henry, had collected an 
army and come swiftly upon them in the rear. 
Then a great battle was fought, on the loth of Au- 
gust, 955. The sun was blazing, and very hot. The 
great bare plain of rolled white limestones was glar- 
ing. The fight was a desperate one. Those in the 
city sallied out and helped the emperor. For some 
time the fate of the day was uncertain. Indeed, the 
German troops were wavering, when the day was 
turned by the heroism of the gallant Conrad of 
Franconia, the brother-in-law of the emperor. But 
he who saved the fortunes of the day was himself 
slain. Unable to bear the heat of the sun, which 
made his helmet burn his head, he took it off for a 
moment, and at that instant an arrow pierced his 
neck. A hundred thousand Hungarians fell ; others 
plunged, mad with fear, into the river, to escape 
the pursuit of the Germans, and the stream swept 
them away and drowned them, and along its course 


(Kkuii Htlirvs Miss.ll.) 



for many miles, among the willows and rushes and 
rolled stones, dead Hungarians were washed up in 
great numbers. Those who managed to get over 
the river were hunted in the bushes with pitch-forks 
and flails, and killed by the peasants without mercy 
like wolves. Never again did the Hungarians ven- 
ture an invasion of Germany. 

Otto I., called the Great, was the son of Henry 
the Fowler. He succeeded him in 936. He was a 
very fine man. Wittgkind, an historian of the 
times, says: "His demeanor was full of majesty. 
His white hair waved over his shoulders. His eyes 
were bright and sparkling. His beard was of ex- 
traordinary length." 

He was crowned at Aix, with great splendour, in 
the grand circular church Charlemagne had built. 
The gigantic crown of Charles the Great, the scep- 
tre, the sword, the gold-embroidered mantle, and the 
sacred lance were used. This lance was supposed 
to have been that employed by the centurion to 
pierce the side of our Lord ; and it was one of the 
things always put into the hands of the king when 
he was crowned. It is now at Vienna, in the treas- 
ury of the Ernpcror of Austria. Otto was seated 
on the throne of Charles the Great, which was cov- 
ered with plates of gold. He was anointed by the 
Archbishop of Mainz, and the great dukes and 
princes stood about him, invested with honorary ofifi- 
ces in the palace. The Duke of Lotharingia was his 
chamberlain, the Duke of Franconia his carver, the 
Duke of Swabia his cup-bearer, the Duke of Bava- 
ria his marshall, or master of the stables. Edith, 

(From an Illustrated Codex Title-Pape.) 



the daughter of Edmund, King of England, his wife, 
was crowned with him. When the dukes went 
home from the coronation they were pleased with 
the state, and thought to copy it, so they appointed 
counts under them to be butlers, and servers, and 
chamberlains, and marshals to them. Then those 
of the bishops who were princes did the same, and 
made these of^ces hereditary in certain noble fami- 
lies on their lands. Our word constable means 
count of the stables, and a sheriff is a count of a 
shire (shire-graf). 

If there were some pomp and state observed by 
Otto I. there was more introduced into the court 
by his son. Otto II., who married Theophania, a 
Greek princess, accustomed to the elaborate cere- 
monial of the court at Constantinople. Never had 
the Germans seen any one so lovely as this beauti- 
ful princess. She appeared among them as a 
being from another world. When she arrived, we 
are told that the trappings of her horse were en- 
riched with feathers and gold, her Greek dress was 
encrusted with jewels and embroidered over with 
pearls, and her hair was confined in a golden net. 
Yet all this splendor was outshone by the beauty of 
her features and the brilliancy of her eyes. She 
did, however, something better than introduce mere 
ceremonial. She brought in a love of letters, and 
she polished and refined the somewhat rough and 
boorish manners of the court. Otto I. was crowned 
King of the Lombards at Milan, and emperor a^ 


Otto II., and his son, Otto III., died after short 
reigns, and with Henry II., called "the Saint," a 
great-grandson of Henry I., the Saxon dynasty 
came to an end. 



The first king of the race of the Salic Franks 
was Conrad II. He and his son, Henry III., were 
good sovereigns, holding the reins of government 
with a firm hand. Unhappily for Germany, the lat- 
ter died in the vigor of manhood, and his son Henry 
was proclaimed king, at the age of six. We have 
come now to one of the saddest periods in the his- 
tory of Germany. 

Agnes, the empress mother, a good woman, was 
left by Henry guardian of his infant son, and regent 
during his childhood. She had not sufficient 
strength of character for what was required of her. 
She sought to rule the turbulent spirits of the age 
by gentleness and persuasion. 

Charles the Great had made some of the arch- 
bishops and bishops secular princes, that is, he had 
given them dominions over which they might reign 
like sovereigns, and he did this in the hope that 
they would stand by the throne against the violent 
and ambitious dukes. But his scheme answered 
badly. The archbishops of Cologne and Mainz 
were sovereigns, raising armies, making laws, im- 




posing taxes, exercising the power of life and 
death. Conscquentl}', tlieir minds were turned as 
much, if not more, to the ad\'anccment of their 
power as princes than to their duties as bishops. 
Indeed, it came to this, that tliey kept bishops under 
them, like curates, to do all their sacred functions, 
and devoted themselves to their secular duties as 
sovereigns. Moreover, because these great bishop- 
rics and archbishoprics were ]jrincipalities, tlie great 
nobles coveted them f(jr tlieir sons, and got the 
kings to give them to their sons when they got 
ordained, just for the sake of taking them, ^vithout 
the slightest regard for their fitness for a sacred 

Now at this time the Archbishop of Cologne was 
a man called Anno. He was not a great nobleman. 
Henry HI. had elevated him to the archbishopric 
in the hope of attaching him to himself and his 
house, but by birth he was a member of a small 
and needy family of gentlemen. When he became 
archbishop he was ravenous for power and wealth 
to bestow on his relations. He was not a bad man, 
but he M'as a greedy man, greedy of power. He 
and the Archbishop of Mainz thought that if they 
could only get hold of the )-oung king they would 
be able to squeeze what they liked out of him. So 
the)" made a plan to seize him. 

One Whitsuntide the Empress Agnes was spend- 
ing the pleasant spring weather on the island of 
Kaiserswerth in the Rhine. The trees were in their 
first leaf, and the buds were bursting. The two 
archbishops came to pay her a \'isit in a beautiful 



new ship with painted and gilded bows. After they 
liad dined they asked Henry if he would hke to see 
the boat. He was only too delighted, so they took 
him to where it was moored, got him on board, and 
then, at a signal, the rope was cut, the sail was 
spread, the rowers dipped their oars, and away 
darted the ship into tlic middle of the stream. Henry 
thought that he was going to be killed or put in 
prison, and jumped overboard, but the Margrave 
of Meissen, who was in the plot, jumped after him, 
and brought him back into the vessel. In the 
mean time, the empress ran along the beach wring- 
ing her hands and crying, and others shouted and 
stormed at the treachery ; but the archbishops 
did not care ; they pushed up the river to Cologne, 
and arranged that the king should spend half his 
time with Archbishop Anno and half with Arch- 
bishop Siegfried, of Mainz. 

The news spread like wildfire, and the whole of 
Germany was in agitation. The Archbishop of 
Cologne, who had charge of the king first, was 
obliged to bribe the great vassals right and left to 
stop their mouths, and this he did by making the 
young king give them estates which belonged to 
the crown, and to the bishops who rebuked him he 
gave other bishoprics, to keep them quiet. 

Anno was a hard, stern man, and he kept Henry 
under very severe discipline. He gave him no 
amusements, held him hard at lessons, and separated 
him from young lads of his own age who might have 
made agreeable companions. He was always cross, 
and scolding, and Henry acquired a perfect hatred 



of liim. It \vas much the same with the ^Vrch- 
bishop of :\[ainz. So the arclibisliop saw that he 
must put him with some one cKc. ^^■ho was a 

IMli:i;IAL AT eu^I,A|. 

( MEN K'l 111.) 

friend, and ^^■ould not act a^^ainst him. He 
therefore hamled him o\'er to Adalbert, Arch- 
bishop of ISremen. Now Adalbert \\-as just the 
opposite sort of man to Anno. He was \'ery fond of 
splendour, kept a _L;rand court, ate and drank of the 
best, and was a thriltless, t^ood-natured person. He 



allowed Henry to do what he liked, spoiled him, 
let him make friends with worthless young noble- 
men, and throw about his money on any folly, as 
he pleased. 

The consequence of this sort of bringing up — at 
one time treated with harshness, at another with in- 
dulgence ; at one time refused rational pleasures, 
then allowed every indulgence unreproved — was 
that Henry's natural good disposition was com- 
pletely spoiled. 

After he had been some years with Adalbert, 
Anno wanted to get him back again, as Adalbert 
was wasting, or allowing Henry to waste, all the rev- 
enues of the crown. So another plot was formed. 
A diet — that is, a parliament — met at Tribur, 
which was attended by the king, and the arch- 
bishop, and many of the great nobles. All at once 
the young king was surrounded, and ordered to 
dismiss Adalbert from his court or abdicate the 
throne. Henry was obliged to throw Archbishop 
Adalbert over. Anno was guilty now of a very 
stupid act. He forced the young king, when he 
was only sixteen, to marry Bertha, daughter of the 
Margrave of Susa, a plain-faced, uninteresting girl, 
whom he could not abide, and whom he treated in 
consequence with positive unkindness at one time 
and neglect at another. Moreover, it increased his 
detestation of Anno, so that Anno behaved in this 
matter imprudently for his own interests. On the 
king the effect was very bad, because, as he disliked 
his wife, he became more disorderly and subject to 
the leading of all sorts of persons, whereas, if he 



had had a wife whom he h;n-cd and who was sensi- 
ble, he miylit yradually have been brought into 
better wa)-s. ]5ut this was not all; his sons grew 
up to see their father rude and unkind to their 
mother, and they lost 
all respect and regard 
for him. What that 
led to, you shall hear 

No sooner was Henrj' 
his own master than he 
turned on those who 
had leagued ^\■ith Anno 
against him — and these 
were the Saxon nobles _^ 
— and treated them'o 
with contumely and 
scverit}' ; indeed, he 
drove them into insur- 
rection. ^\t last, un- 
able to endure his treat- 
ment, the}' appealed to 
the Pope. The Pope 
at this time was Greg- 
or)'Vn., a carpenter's 
pon, whose head had 
been turned by his ele- 
vation to the Papac}', and who was puffcLl up with 
pride and lo\'e of power. He summoned the 
emperor to come to Rome, that he might decide 
between him and the Saxon princes. Henry laughed 
at the summons. Charles the Great hd-d gone to 

in:.\uv \\. wrrn slki'ike .\xd 

I.MrtKL\L e.LullE. 
0" rum an Illuminaled .Manuscript.) 



Rome and called the Pope before him, and tried the 
case between him and those who had thrown him 
off his horse and tried to cut out his tongue ; and 
should he, the emperor, go and be tried by the 
Bishop of Rome ? He was then aged twenty-five, 
full of pride and in the plenitude of his power, 
lie at once called some of the bishops together at 
Worms, and, urged by him, they deposed the Pope. 
This was a very thoughtless act on his part. He 
had to do with a much cleverer man than himself, 
and Gregory was delighted that he had thus given 
him a handle wherewith to humble him. Gregory 
at once pronounced excommunication against him, 
that is, he cut him off from the Church as com- 
pletely as if he were a heathen, and bade all Chris- 
tians hold aloof from him. He released all his sub- 
jects from their allegiance and declared him un- 
worthy to reign. Henry only laughed at the sen- 
tence when he heard it, but the laugh died away 
on his lips when he saw the effect it wrought. He 
had behaved so badly in Germany, had been so 
despotic, had oft'ended so many — the powerful 
princes by his insolence, the good people by his 
disorderly life, and the general mass of the peo- 
ple by his neglect of good government — that they 
were glad to seize the excuse to fall away from 
him and give themselves a better emperor. 

Henry found himself deserted by every one but 
his despised wife Bertha. The great vassals pro- 
ceeded to elect Rudolf, Duke of Swabia, who had 
married his sister, to be emperor in his place. 

There was nothing for it, Henry thought, but for 

KrimlJ'll ol. sWMilA. 

LFrom his Totnb.j 



him to hasten to Italy and make his peace with the 
Pope. The winter of this year (1076) happened to 
be colder than any within the memory of man, 
and the Rhine remained frozen over from the 
middle of November to April, 1077. It was in 
this dreadful weather, about Christmas time, that 
Henr)' set off secretly, attended only by Bertha, 
his infant son, and a solitary knight. They crossed 
the Alps to the Lake of Geneva; then they trav- 
elled over the St. Bernard pass, and Bertha, whom 
neither danger nor distress could separate from 
her husband, was drawn over the ice seated on an 
ox-hide, whilst the emperor scrambled among the 
rocks like a chamois-hunter. 

The Pope was then in the castle of Canossa, sit- 
uated on a rocky spur of the Apennines. With the 
insolence of a beggar exalted to unlimited power, 
Gregory treated the humbled emperor ignomin- 
iously. He refused to see and absolve him till he 
had undergone a degrading penance. On a dreary 
winter morning, with the ground deep in snow, the 
king, the heir of a line of emperors, was forced to 
lay aside every mark of royalty, was clad in the 
thin white linen dress of the penitent, and there, 
fasting, he awaited the pleasure of the Pope in the 
castle yard. But the gates did not unclose. A 
second day he stood, cold, hungry, and mocked by 
vain hope. At the close only of the third day did 
Gregory receive and pardon him. 

But Gregory had now, for his part, done more 
than was judicious from his own point of view. His 
severity, and the humiliation of their king, roused the 


1 0.1 

indignation and excited the disgust of tlic Germans 
and the Italians ahke, and Henry found liimself 
now surrounded b\' those who "t 
had forsakx-n him. At the head / 
of an army he marched against 
liis brother-in-Liw, Rudolf of 
Swabia, who had assumetl the 
crown, and defeated him in a 
battle near Gera, on the I-.lster. 
When the duke was d\-ing, some 
one showed him liis right hand, 
which had been cut off by an 
axe. " It is well," said the 
duke, " I raised this right hand to 
heaven in token of ildclity w hen 
I took the oath of allegiance tn 
Henry. God has punished me 
aright by suffering it to be smit- 
ten off." 

Now it M'as Henry's turn to 
chastise the Pope. He crossed 
the Alps at the head of an arnn-, 
took Rome, deposed (iregor\-, 
■\\dio fled to Salerno, and ap- 
]5ointed another Pope in his 
room, who crowned him in S. 
Peter's Churcii, Emperor of the 
Romans, A.D. 10S4. 

Henry had now crtished his 
worst enemies, but the remain- 
der of his life was not to be spent in quiet. He 
had sown the wind and must reap the whirlwind. 


HtNKV \\. 

(From an IlluminaU'd MS ] 


His reign was very long, fifty years ; liis old age was 
embittered by the revolt of his own sons. Conrad 
rebelled against his father in Italy, and Henry in 
German}-. Conrad died before his father. 

It was in 1 104 that Henry, the best loved son of the 
old emperor, raised his hand against his father. The 
touching appeals of the emperor to his son having 
been disregarded, Henry IV. put himself at the head 
of his troops and marched against him, but discover- 
ing that he was betrayed by his followers, he fled in 
sorrow of heart. Then occurred an incident which 
has been versified by a German poetess. If ever you 
go up the Rhine, look at the ruins of the Castle of 
Hammcrstein. In it, at the time of which I am 
telling }'ou. lived a knight who had been true to 
Henry in all his troubles, but he was now very 
old and unable to take the field for his king. The 
knight was bitterly dissatisfied because he had no 
son, only two gentle daughters, and he could not 
abide to see them, as they were useless, he thought, 
whereas a son could have borne arms for the king. 
One night there came a knock at the castle door, 
and the old man was told that a stranger beeeed 
admission. He was shown in, and, lo ! the knight 
saw his white-haired sovereign, come to him for 
refuge from his enemies, begging for shelter, if only 
for a night. 

" Ah ! well is thee ! " said Henry, looking at the 
two daughters of his host, " well is thee that thou 
hast gentle daughters to cling to thee, to love thee, 
and cherish thee in th)' old age. I — I ]ia\'e had two 
sons, and both have risen against me." 

A BROKE.\ hEART. \q- 

Thc emperor was taken by his unnatural .son and 
shut up in the castle of Jiinyen, and was required by 
delegates from him to surrender the crown jewels. 
The aged emperor placed the crown of Charlemagne 
on his jiead, threw the imperial mantle over his 
shoulders, and holding the sceptre and orb, appeared 
before tlie messengers, and defied them to touch the 
ornaments worn by the ruler of the \\orld. ISut to 
these men nothing was sacred : the cr.jwn and mantle 
of Charlemagne were plucked off him, and carried to 
Mainz to adorn his rebellious son. 

The fallen emperor was given into the hands of 
Gebhard, Bishop of .Spires, wlio took a fiendish pleas- 
ure in humbling and tormenting him. lie kept him 
without sufficient food, so that the old emperor was 
obliged to sell Jiis boots in order to procuie bread. 
He was forbidtlen the use of a l)at!i, and of a bar- 
ber to shave him. At lengtli he found ways of es- 
caping to Liege, where the bisliop receix'ed him and 
treated him \\ith great kindness till he ilietl of ,i 
broken heart. I'rom his death-bed Henry sent his 
ring and sword to his son in token of pardon for his 



Henry V. married Matilda, daughter of Henry I. 
of England, but he never had any children. He 
saw clearly enough that there was no hope for Ger- 
many to become united and great so long as the 
dukes, and margraves, and archbishops were so 
powerful and independent, and his father's long 
minority, and the incessant contests that followed, 
had made them so strong that the emperor could 
do little unsupported by them. Accordingly, he 
directed his efforts to reducing their power. But 
now again appeared one of the fatal consequences 
of the gift of the imperial crown to Charlemagne by 
Leo II. The popes were afraid of the emperors. 
The kings of Germany, who were also kings of Italy 
and Lombardy, were tremendously strong, and the 
popes were afraid of being completely at their mercy 
and being forced to do just what the emperors 
ordered. So it became a part of the settled policy 
of the popes to stir up strife at home to keep the 
empire weak and occupy the emperor in Germany. 
In order to help the vassals to weaken Henry, the 
Pope excommunicated him, and his reign was spent 



iP'rom Ihe Ekkchard Manuscript. 



ill fighting- first one vassal, then another. He was 
sometimes victorious, sometimes defeated, and a 
fugitive, just as he had made his father a fugitive. 
In the end he died a disappointed man, havmg 
utterly failed to do what he designed. 


now TiiKV Foucirr the sai^acexs. 

It was CListomar}' in the Middle Ages for pious 
men to visit JcrusaJL-m and Jiutlilciicni, Id -^cc and 
pray at the spots ^vhcrc CJTrist was born, and died, 
and rose again. The 7Vral:is, i\lio ruled in S\-ria 
after the Romans liad li ist thai prM\iuee. did, nut dis- 
turb the pilgrims. ISut when the SeldJLics, a saxage 
Turkish race, cimquered Palestine, the Christians 
were oppressed and persecuted ; pilgrims were mal- 
treated, churches desecrated, and Sinmn, I'atriarch 
of Jerusalem, was thrcjwn down at thelcot of the 
altar, and his hair plucked out. 

A pious hermit, Peter of Amiens, saw these suffer- 
ings, when on a visit to Jerusalem; he returned tn 
Europe with an appeal from the patriarch to Pope 
Urban II. The Pope sent Peter into P'rance and 
through Italy to stir up the ]K-o])le to fight for the 
recovery of the Hol\' Cit}-. In 1095 the I'ope held 
a council at Clermont, in P'rance, and besought the 
faithful to take up arms to wrest Jerusalem from the 
hands of the unbelic\'ers. " It is the will of (rod 1 " 
shouted the crowd, and the\- hasted to fasten httle 
crosses of red cloth to their shoulders, in token that 



they enlisted in the enterprise. Thence these ex- 
peditions took the name of crusades. The first 
army started in August, 1096, under the generalship 
of Godfrey de Bouillon. When the host crossed 
over from Constantinople into Asia Minor it num- 
bered 300,000 fighting men. On its way through 
Asia Minor and Syria, privations, incessant fighting, 
and disease had thinned it so that when it arrived 
in the Promised Land only a tenth remained. This 
remnant, however, inspired to enthusiasm by the 
sight of Jerusalem, stormed and took the city. 
Godfrey de Bouillon was the first to leap from the 
walls into the town. The gates were thrown open 
and the Crusaders poured in, to massacre all they 
encountered. Godfrey de Bouillon was proclaimed 
King of Jerusalem ; but he refused to wear a crown, 
where the Saviour had been invested with a wreath 
of thorns, and for his title chose " Guardian of the 
Holy Grave." Next year, 1 100, Godfrey died, and 
his brother Baldwin took the government and the 
title of king. 

The new Christian realm was not, however, se- 
cured by the capture of Jerusalem. The city was 
repeatedly threatened ; and for its protection six 
great armies went out of Europe. Jerusalem fell 
back into the hands of the Saracens. With 
Ptolemais, or Acre, the Christians lost, in 1291, the 
last of their possessions in Asia. Thenceforth, the 
Holy Land remained in the power of the Turks. 
The conflict for the Holy Sepulchre lasted two hun- 
dred years, and cost Europe six millions of her best 
fighting men. Nevertheless, the Crusades were an 



advantage to the West. Minds were roused by 
contact with strange sights, interest quickened in 
geography, histor}', and natural science. A multi- 
tude of hitherto unknown products, as silk, sugar, 
spices, dyes, found their way into the West. More- 
over, some of the most turbulent spirits went out 

'^^^^ — * 

AN ASTKilI.iHa-.R 


of Europe, as by a voluntary banishment, to exhaust 
their powers of doing mischief in the East, and the 
nobility were so weakened that the cities were 
able to develop commerce and manufacture unim- 

During the period of the Crusades, chivalry be- 
came more and more a flourishing and organized 
institution. Knighthood was not inherited like 


titles ; it was granted to a man for his worth, after 
hard trials and proof that the aspirant deserved the 



(113S-1 152.) 

If }-oii l(M(j|^ on tlic map you u'ill 
sec that at Stuttgart the Jvivcr Xcckar 
comes from the cast and tLinis abruptl}- 
north, wlicrc it rcccix'cs another ri\-er the cast c.illed the Rems. X(Tw 
between the Rems and llie Xcckar 
rises a tableland of ^\vy limestone, and 
licre and there this plateau is c.qipetl 
"with the queerest hills, for all the world li]^c thim- 
bles [Hit down ]j)' g'iants on the table. These con- 
ical hills \\'ith stumpy tups an.' not of limestone ; 
the}' are \-olcanic, and ha\-e been dri\-en up through 
the lime b}' the fires in the heart of the earth. One 
of these is called Hohcnstaufen. You ^\■ill remem- 
berthat ^xhen Ilenr)- I\'. went oxer the iVlps in win- 
terto Pope Greg"or}' \'I I. one faithful knight attended 
him. This knight is said to ha\"e been I'rederick of 
Biiren. In consideration of his fitlelit}-, immediately 
that affairs seemed prospero\is. Henry created him 
Duke of Swabia, and ga\e him .\gnes, his daughter, 
to wife, lie thereupon built himself a castle on the 


hill I mention, and thenceforth called himself " Of 

There had been Frank and Saxon emperors , now 
there was to be a Swabian dynasty. 

(From an Almanac of the 12th Century.) 

In 1 1 38, at Mainz, Conrad, the son of, this Fred- 
erick of Hohenstaufen, was elected to be king of the 

Besides Hohenstaufen, the family had a town, 
Waiblingen on the Rems, and as people then took 
their names from their estates, they were called 
variously "of Biiren," "of Hohenstaufen," and 
" of Waiblingen "; but as Waiblingen was a town, 

(From a Minnesinger Manuscript of the i^lb Ccniury.) 



^\•hcreas the other places were only castles, they 
^\'ere commonly called the Waiblingers. 

There was a strong opposition party in Germany 
to the Swabians, and that ^\-as headed by the Duke 
of Ba\'aria. The Bavarian dukes ^\'ere called 
Welfs, from an ancestor of the name. This ■i\-as a 
very powerful family, which held both the duchies 
of Bavaria and Saxon)'. As the policy of the Pope 
was to weaken the power of the emperor, he sup- 
ported the Welfs. The Lombard cities also took 
the same side. In Italian mouths (unable to pro- 
nounce the W) Welf became Guelf, and Waiblinger 
became Ghibelline, and in Italy the Papal faction 
was called Guelf and the emperor's party was 
called Ghibelline. 

The Waiblinger family has long ago died out, but 
the Welf remains. It is represented by Queen Vic- 
toria of England and the Duke of Brunswick. It 
is one of the most ancient reigning houses that ex- 
ists. It dates back in unbroken pedigree to that 
old Welf, Count of Swabia and Bavaria, the father 
of Jutta, the wife of Louis the Pious, who sulked 
and hid himself in the Black Forest because his son 
took a feudal holding under the emperor. This 
Welf died about the }'ear 824. 

Conrad, the Waiblinger, did not succeed to the 
throne immediately after the death of Henry V. 
Lothair, the Saxon, was the next emperor, but Con- 
rad came to the throne on his death, and at once 
the contest with the Welfs broke out. During this 
contest the little town of Weinsbcrg lield out gal- 
lantly for the Welfs against the emperor. Exas- 




(From their Tomb ) 



perated at the persistency of their defence Conrad 
threatened to kill all the men when lie took the 
place. When at length Weinsberg was forced to 
yield, the provisions therein being exhausted, the 
emperor consented that all the women should be 
allowed, unmolested, to leave the place and to carry 
with them their choicest valuables. Then the gate 
was thrown open, and out through it, and down the 
hill to where Conrad sat before his tent, came the 
Countess Ida,* carrying her husband, Welf, on her 
back, followed by all the women of Weinsberg, 
carrying their husbands, and fathers, and brothers, 
and lovers on their backs. 

Some of the army of Conrad were angry, and 
wanted to stop this strange procession and kill the 
men, but the emperor was touched at the devotion 
of the women, and he answered, " Not so ; I gave 
my word, and an emperor's word must never be 

The Welf whom the Coimtess Ida carried was 
Welf VI., of Bavaria, uncle of the Duke Henry, sur- 
namcd the Lion, who was then only twelve years 
old. After that, Welf VI . was made Duke of Spo- 
leto and Margrave of Tuscany. 

Conrad was forced by public opinion, against his 
good sense, to head a crusade. He started at the 
head of a large army in 1 147 for the Holy Land, but 
his whole march was one of disaster and loss. As 
the Crusaders were crossing" a river near Constanti- 
nople, agents of the Greek emperor tried to count 

"^ She was a dautrhter of the Count Palatine of the Rhine. 



them, but after reckoniiit^ 900,000, desisted. Not 
one tithe of tliis vast horde e\er reached their des- 
tination. Tile)' died either of disease, star\ation, or 
by the swords of the Moslems, in .Asia Minor. 
Conrad returned home, in confusion and despon- 
denc)', to find that Welf and IIeiir\' tlie Lion ^\•ere 
stirring up a new revolt ayain^t him in Germany 
and Lombard)-. 

When lie was at Constantinople lie saw that the 
Byzantine emperor bore on his inn)erial standards 
a two-headed eagle, to represent the double empire. 
East and West, which had for a \\hile been unitetl 
under Constantine and his successors. Conrad was 
struck with the idea, and -when he came home he 
assumed the doubledie.uled eagle as the arms of 
his empires, and you will see it mi the coins of 
both the Emperor of Cierniaii)- and the Emperor of 
Austria at the present d.i\-. There is a stor)- told, 
— but it is, of course, oiil}' a stor_\',— that one of the 
grand dukes of Austri.i was out shooting in the 
Tyrol some )-ears ago, and the huntsman with him 
brought down an eagle. \Vlien the grand duke 
picked it up, " Why." said he, ■' what a queer 
eagle I It has only one head I " lie had seen the 
imperial eagle all his life on banners and coins, and 
thought all eagles had two necks and heads. 


(l 152-ngo.) 

Frederick I., or Barbarossa, was certainly the 
greatest and strongest of the German emperor: after 
Charles the Great. He pacified the Welfs by giv- 
ing Henry the Lion back the Duchies of Bavaria 
and Saxony, which Conrad had taken from him. 
But the great Welf duke was not grateful for this 
act ; he repaid it with treachery. 

If l^'rederick had only contented himself with the 
government and discipline of Germany all would 
have been well, but he could not forget that he was 
King of all Italy and Emperor of Rome, so that he 
continually crossed the Alps with armies to quell 
the revolts that broke out there ; and when he was 
in Italy disturbances burst forth in Germany, which 
forced him back to subdue them. Duke Welf VI., 
the uncle of Henry the Lion, in his old age became 
blind. He lived at Memingen, on the Lech, and 
was very extravagant. He invited all the noblemen 
of Swabia and Bavaria to come and eat, and drink, 
and dance for weeks at a time at Memingen. He 
got deep in debt, and the emperor helped him ; but 
his nephew, Henry the Lion, never sent him any 


(In the Cloister of St. Heno, Kciihcnliall.) 



money. When he died he left all his estates to 
tlie emperor. This made Henry the Lion furious, 
and he resolved to be revenged. Frederick called 
on Henry as his vassal to assist him in a campaign 
in Italy. Henry obeyed. At the Lake of Como 
P^rederick fell ill. Then Henry went to him and 
told him he would desert him unless the emperor 
yielded to his extortionate demands. The Lombards 
in insurrection were drawing near. The time was 
critical. Frederick entreated the duke to be true to 
him and his country. He even went down on his 
knees to entreat him, but Henry turned scornfully 
away. Then the Empress Beatrice raised her hus- 
band, saying, " God will help you, and remember 
the Welf's insolence some future day." A battle 
was fought with the Lombards, who far outnum- 
bered the faithful Germans. Henry withdrew with 
his men, and left Frederick's army to be almost cut 
to pieces. The emperor escaped with difficulty 
and returned to Germany, where the indignation 
against the treachery of Henry was so general that 
Frederick put him under the ban of the Empire — 
that is, outlawed him — and gave the duchy of Ba- 
varia to his faithful friend. Count Otto of Wittles- 
bach, who is the ancestor of the present King of 
Bavaria. The duchy of Saxony was divided, and 
to the Welfs nothing was left, after Henry the Lion 
had come on his knees and implored pardon of the 
emperor, but the territory of Brunswick, and it is 
thus, through the House of Brunswick, that the 
Oueen of England descends from the ancient Welfs. 


So that act of treacher}- at Como was the ruin of 
the greatness of the Welfs for many generations. 

In his old age Frederick made a crusade against 
Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, who had retal^en Jerusa- 
lem. As he was crossing a river Seleph he was 
carried off his horse by the current and drowned. 
When the news of his death reached Germany no 
one Avould believe it. There sprang up a story 
among the people that the red-bearded king is not 
dead, but sleeps in the Kyffhauser Mountain, sitting 
at a stone table, and that his beard has grown 
through the table. They say also, that in the hour 
of peril to Germany Frederick will start to life and 
come forth to be the deliverer of Fatherland. 



(i 196-1250.) 

Frederick the Red-Bearded was followed by 
his son, Henry VI., a cruel, hard man, who succeeded 
in making the rule of the Hohcnstaureii more hated 
in Italy than that of the earlier emperors. At 
Christmas, II94, the season of peace and t,n:)od-will, 
this cruel tyrant deluged Palermo with blood, on the 
pretence that lie had discovered a plot .against his 
supremacy. Bishops, nobles, members of the ro\-al 
family of Sicil)', none weie spared; some were 
hanged, some burned, others buried alixe." Kicli- 
ard, Count of Palermo, ^\•as tied to a horse's tail. 
dragged through the streets of Capua, then hung up 
by one leg to a gallows, till the emperor's fool, 
after two days of miser)-, put an entl to his pain by 
tying a great stone to his neck. In the midst of 
these scenes of liorror the Empress Constantia be- 
came motlier of a son, Frederick Roger, afterwards 
the Emperor Frederick II., and the last emperor 01 
the race. It would almost seem as if the judgment 
of Hea\'en, outraged by the crime of the father, was 

* A Count |ord.iii was placed on a red-hot iron throne, and a red- 
hot crown was nailed to his head. 




to follow the son. Two years later Henr)- -iNas dead, 
and the httle child succeeded to the crown, under 
the regency of his gentle and pimis mother. It 
would ha\-e been well for him had she li\-ed, but she 
died shortly after her husband, wlien Frederick was 
scarce four years old. The po,,r little king A\-as 
brought up among rough and ambitious nobles, in 

SEAL ' >F IJI I'.) IV. 

the midst of intrigue, \iolence, ami ci'ntlict, at Pa- 
lermo. He grew to be a \ery handsome, graceful 
)'outh, with a face full of intelligence, bene\olence, 
and nobilit}'. At the age of fifteen he v, as mar- 
ried to Constantia, daughter of IVter, King of Ar- 
ragon. The "wedding was performed \\\\.\\ great 
magnificence, but in the midst of the festivities, 
A\hilst bells were ringing, and soldiers parading, the 
jilague broke out. People fell ilead in the streets. 
Alphonso, the bride's brother, rose from table, 




staj:,r(,rcre(l from llic hall, and died. Others of the 
banqueters fell ill also, and before many hours had 
elapsed were corpses. Frederick and his young 
bride were obliged to fly. 

During his minority there had been sad disturb- 
ance in Germany. Two opposition emperors had 
started up, Philip of Swabia and Otto IV., of Bruns- 
wick, the son of Henry the Lion, and for ten years 
they had devastated Germany by their rivalries. 
At last, in 121 5, Frederick 
got the upper hand, and 
was crowned at Ai.x. This 
grandson of the Red Beard 
was an unfortunate mail' 
beset with difficulties, with 
a strong will ; and, al- 
though so great a man, he 
never did sjreat thinirs, be- 
cause his energies were ex- 
hausted in incessant CdUtest 
with the popes. It was the old sti'r\- o\-cr again. 
You must consiefer that in h'rance, in England, in 
German)-, the crown was not all-pdwcrful. The 
nobles were \-ery strong antl ninch inclined to ha\'e 
their own way, and their own way meant hghting each 
other, and disturbing the '\\holc land. In France, 
the kings, by a compromise with the ]ieople, got the 
upper hand and crushed the nobility. In England, 
the nobles, by a compromise with the people, formed 
a check on the power of the crown, and founded a 
constitutional monarchy ; but in Germany the great- 
est emperors squandered their talents and exhausted 

SILVER rn;cE hk utto iv. 


iFrom a Minnesinger MS. of the 14th Century.) 

TI/E IMPER/Af. IDEA. j , , 

the best strenglli of their country in pursuit of a 
fancy, and never learned by the experience of their 
predecessors to desist from the dangerous pursuit. 
Instead of turning their attention to the develop- 
ment of their country, to the curtaihiient of the 
powers of the nobility, to the establishment of their 
throne on enduring foundations, they were bewitched 
with the dream of a Roman-imperial ^\orld-mon- 
archy, which \\'as impossible to be realized wlien 
every nation was asserting more and more its charac- 
teristic peculiarities, and arriving at consciousness of 
national and independent life. The emperors -were 
always divided between distinct callings, as kings 
of Germany and emperors of Rome. I'lie Italians 
hated them, tlic popes undermined their puwers and 
invoked them in c<.iuntless difficulties at home and 
in Italy, so that they could not establish tlieir au- 
thorit)' as emperors, and neglected ti.i make good, nr 
were impeded in attempting to make good, tlieir 
position as kings in (icrmaii)'. The b.Lt in the fable 
was rejected by the birds because he \\as a beast, 
and by the beasts because he had wings as a bird. 

This, that I have insistetl on so strongly, must be 
borne well in mind by all \\\\o A\ould master German 
history. The imperial eagle lias t\\o heads, turned 
in opposite directions, and the lieads of the emperors 
shared this dix'ision and opposition. 

Frederick was now King of Lombardy, of Naples 
and Sicily, as well as King of Germany. The popes 
were very uneas)', feeling as though jilaced in a vice, 
and the\' naturall}' sought to dimini.^h the power of 
Frederick. One of the simplest expedients was to 


send him off crusading to the East, so they urged 
him to this, and got him to vow a crusade. Pope 
Gregory IX. had the satisfaction of seeing him start 
at the head of a great host, but fever broke out in 
it ; the pilgrims perished by thousands. Frederick 
himself fell ill, and his ship was obliged to put back 
to Italy, that he might recruit his health on the 
mainland. The Pope was furious in his disappoint- 
ment, and excommunicated the emperor. Freder- 
ick sent three bishops to the Pope to assure him of 
his illness. Gregory refused to receive them. That 
was in September, 1227. 

Next year, when Frederick was well, he started 
on his crusade. One would have supposed tliat this 
would have contented the Pope : but no ; he cared 
for the crusade only as a means to weaken the em- 
peror, and he picked a fresli excuse for continuing 
the excommunication of P'rederick. lie ordered the 
Templars and Hospitallers to liold aloof from him ; 
he forbade the paying of ta.xes to help him, and he 
did everything in his power to bring the crusade 
of Frederick to an ignominious break-down. Yet 
Frederick succeeded by tliis expedition in effecting 
more than any other that had had the advantage of 
the blessing of popes. By a treat)' with the Sultan 
of Egypt he recovered all the hoi)- places. He en- 
tered Jerusalem in triumph, took the crown of the 
Christian kings of Jerusalem from the altar of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and placed it on his 
head. ♦ 

After his return, the strife with the Pope began 
again. The Lombard cities were in revolt. The 



Pope had raised an army of mercenaries against him, 
who bore as insignia St. Peter's ke\'s, and were 
nicknamed accordingly the l<e)--soldiers. 

The emperor was nearl)' ah\a\-s \-ictorious, but 
a series of unhappy circumstances combined to 
embitter his life. His opjxjuents in Germany liad 
stirred up Ihs son Henry to revolt against him. 
hretlerick \\as forced to cross the Ali)s into Ger- 
man)- and quell the rebellion. Henry was deposed 

I'EASANl'S lIUU.UlNi; A \ I ILAl'. F, (iJl'U LENTCRY) 
(HcidclbLT^' .Manubcnpl.) 

and condemned to seven years' imprisonment in 
Ital\-. He dietl in prison before his father. 

Pope Innocent I\'., who succeeded Gregory IX., 
continued to resist the emperor, and for precisely 
the same reason. The claims of the German kings 
to be emperors did as much harm to the popes as 
to the kings thcmseh'es. for it di\'erted the attention 
of the popes from their spiritual cares to plotting 
how they might upset the emperors, or, at all e\'ents, 
curtail their authority. Innocent, afraid of tt- im- 



mense power of Frederick, fled to France, and excom- 
municated him again, and deposed him from all his 
offices. When Frederick heard this he laughed, and 
exclaimed, " Has the Pope deposed me ? Bring me 
my crowns that I may see of what I am deprived." 
Then seven crowns were brought him, the royal 
crown of Germany, the imperial diadem of Rome, 
the iron circlet of Lombardy, the crowns of 
Sicily, Burgundy, Sardinia, and Jerusalem. He put 
them on his head, one after the other, and said, " I 
have them still, and none shall rob me of them with- 
out hard battle." 

But the deposition and excommunication had its 
effect in Germany. It served as an excuse for the 
proud and ambitious to rise and set up an opposi- 
tion emperor. An old historian says of that time : 
"After the Emperor Frederick was put under the 
ban, the robbers rejoiced over their spoils. Then 
were the ploughshares beaten into swords, and the 
reaping hooks into lances. No one wont anywhere 
without steel and stone, to set in blaze whatever he 
could fire." 

Italy also was in insurrection. The emperor's 
son Enzio, was captured by the Bologncsc and im- 
prisoned. The old emperor, crushed by his trou- 
bles, died in the arms of his son Manfred, and was 
succeeded by his son Conrad, who reigned only 
four years, and was never crowned emperor. Con- 
rad left an only son, Conradin, not three years old, 
the one legitimate heir of the Red-beard and of 
Frederick II. 

As soon as Frederick was dead, the Poijc gave 



away the kingdom of Naples to Charles, Count of 
Anjou.* lie had no right \vhate\-er to do this, but 
he did it out of self-pjreservation, so as to liave some 
one on one side of him to assist him against the 
'vjcrmans. Conradin, ^\-hen aged sixteen, marched 
against the French holdmg Naples, to attempt to 
recover his kingdom, but was taken, and his head 
struck off, by order of the cruel Charles of Anjou. 
Enzio was still in pris- 

on in Bologna ; he was 
now the last of the IIo- 
henstaufen, and heir to 
all the seven crowns. 
He contrived to be hid- 
den in an empt)' wine 
cask, and thus to be car- 
ried out of the prison. 
But as he was being 
taken, one of his long 
golden locks fell out of 
the bung-hole, which 
had been left open that 
he might have air to 
breathe. This attract- 
ed the attention of the 
guards ; the cask was stopped, broken open. Enzio 
was enclosed in an iron cage, and there died in 1272. 
the last of the noble Hohenstaufen race, after a mis- 
erable confinement of twent\'-three vears. 

IlcjF IN RiiriES. 
(C^ii-lcx I'i irth Ceiuur\-. i 

* Brother of King Louis IX. of France. 



If you have travelled in German)' you will ha\'e 
noticed the abundance of ruined castles scattered 
over the country ; not a rocky hill, not a spur of 
mountain, but is crowned by one, not always large, 
some consisting of little more than one tower and a 
few outer walls, others possessing several towers. 
Most of these castles belong to the period of which 
we shall have need to treat, a time when there was 
no strong emperor, when the firmament was with- 
out a sun, and every little star set up to be indepen- 

When the Hohenstaufen race died out, the glory 
of the empire was gone from Germany. No Ger- 
man prince would take the crown ; all were afraid 
of it. Then the great bishops thought of electing 
a foreigner. Some chose Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 
brother of Henry III. of England, and son of King 
John ; others chose Alphonso, King of Castile, in 
Spain. Richard came to Germany very rarely ; Al- 
phonso not at all. It was as though there were no 
king in the land. This was the saddest time that 
ever was in Germany. Every one did what he liked. 
The fist and the sword decided between right and 





wrong. The princes and the cities were in constant 
feud. The Icnights made themselves strong castles, 
and lived in them on plunder and murder. From 
their fortresses they swooped down on the mer- 
chants travelling from town to town and robbed 
them, or levied on them heavy tolls. They went 
plundering over the level land ; they robbed the far- 
mers of their cattle, devastated their fields, and 
burnt their houses. 

Moreover, the neighboring nobles and knights 
quarrelled with each other and fought, so that the 
country was one battle-field. How Germany could 
have got through this terrible time but for two 
things it is hard to say. In the first place, the 
towns had become very strong. They had taken 
advantage of the crusades, which had drawn away a 
number of the knights, to buy their lands, and to 
become wealthy, and organize large bodies of fight- 
ing men. If, therefore, any knights proved trouble- 
some, and meddled with the caravans passing from 
town to town, they attacked their fortresses and 
burned them, and hanged the robber knights from 
their own towers. Then, again, the church inter- 
fered, and ordered that a truce should be kept from 
all fighting for four days in the week, that is, from 
Wednesday evening to Monday morning. This 
was called the "Truce of God," and whoever broke 
it became an outlaw. 

It is, however, a mistake into which travellers in 
Germany often and very generally fall, to suppose 
that all the castles were nests of robber barons, 
and that they always subsisted by robbery. The 



owners had certain duties which they fulfilled: 
those on the Rhine, and other rivers that are naviga- 
ble, maintained the towing paths, and kept rela\-s 
of horses or oxen to drag the boats against the 

(From a Drawing: ut 1100.) 

stream through their lands. For this a toll was 
paid. Those not on ri\'ers kept up the roads, and 
entertained tra\'cllers, and furnislied them with 
horses, and, if necessar)', an escort, till they left the 
lands over which these barons exercised sway, and 
for this the)' were paid something. 

The barons, in peacefid times, did not receive the 


travellers in their castles perched on high rocks, for 
indeed they did not care to live in them themselves 
except in times of danger. They had other houses 
below, in the little towns or villages, and over the 
doors of their houses they hung their shields ; so the 
travellers knew the houses where they might lodge, 
and where they could get a change of horses, by 
the shields, with the arms of the baron or knight. 
This it is which originated the signs hung above inn 
doors, signs of the red lion, the white hart, the brown 
bear, etc. The inn-keepers were the lords of the 
place. Now, if you happen to travel in the Tyrol, 
where old customs linger on, you may find that in a 
good many places the inn-keepers are still noble- 
men, and that the signs of their inns are still their 
coats-of-arms. If you go into the church-j-ards you 
will see the tombstones of the family of }'our host, 
with the arms, and with coronets over them, show- 
ing him to be a baron, or a count. I know a good 
many such inns. Elsewhere it is not so-; the houses 
have been sold, and though they still keep their 
signs, the signs have no connection with the new 



The Germans of the i jtli and 14th centuries 
were not only active soldiers, dcalini; and tak- 
ing; hard blows, but their minds \\ere as active as 
their hands ; and so it comes about that ^\ e ha\-e a 
scries of really t(rand poems that belonc; to tliis 
period, in the (lerman laiiL^uatje ; and not threat 
poems onI\', but also short and beautiful pieces. 
The ])oetic art ^^■as culti\'ated fn'st in I'roxx'iice by 
tlic kni!j;htsancl Ljentlemen, and those \\ hn ccmposed 
poems and sant,'' them \\ere called troubadours, 
wliich means "discoverers," finm troiii-cr, to find. 
They found out tunes as well as in\'ented poems. 
The Germans \\ere not sluw to follow the ex- 
ample ; their poets ^\'ere calletl " minnesingers," or 
" lo\'e-singers " ; because their lays \\<ixc mostly 
love songs. Some of their songs are beautiful. 
But the)' did not content themseK-es with short laj-s, 
they composetl also long poems. At first they 
took their subjects from abroad, from the stories of 
King Arthur and liis knights, and so some of the 
finest and longest of the metrical romances of this 
time ha\'e their scenes laid in Britain. But, fortu- 
nateh', the}- were not satisfied with borrowing from 



abroad, and they composed heroic poems on old 
German legends. 

Charles the Great had made a collection of the 
national poems, but this was destroyed by Louis 
the Pious. Though he destroyed the collection he 
had not destroyed the remembrance from men's 
minds, and the old stories lingered on and were 
passed from mouth to ear, from one generation to 
another, till at length the poets of Germany, about 
the time of which we are speaking, were induced 
to take them up, and invest them in new poetic 
garb, and give them a fresh spell of life. 

Of these old heroic legends there are several 
distinct cycles, or groups, belonging to different 
branches of the German family. 

The first of these is the Burgundian cycle, of 
Gunthcr the king, his \\'ife Brunhild, his henchman 
Hagen, his sister Kriemhild, and his brother-in-law 
Siegfried. This forms the topic of the grand 

The second of these is the Frisian cycle, to 
which belong King Hettel and his daughter Gud- 
run ; and on their adventures turns the noble Gud- 

The third of these is the Anglo-Saxon cycle, con- 
cerning Beowulf, the Jute king, and Wayland the 
Smith. This was never recast after the 8th cent- 

The fourth of these is the Lombard cycle, con- 
cerning kings and heroes of South Tyrol, and the 
Rose Garden of Laurin the Dwarf, above Botzen. 
This was put into form in twelve poems, which com- 

GVXTrrER Axn r.RuxmLD. j^, tlio IIcldcn-Bucli much later, in the 15th cent- 

The most famous of all these poems is the 
Niebelungen-Licd, a graiul epic in two parts, which 
may take rank beside the Iliad. It is the great- 
est monument of German national poetry in the 
Middle Ages. 

Gunther "was King (A the Burgundians. He lived 
at Worms. He had a beautiful sister called Kriem- 
hild. Awa>' in the North, at Xanten, on the Rhine, 
lived a Netherland king, Siegmund, who had a 
brave son called Siegfried. Siegfried had been 
into the Niebelungcn land, \\here he had slain a 
dragon and carried off a vast treasure the dragon 
guarded. He had, moreover, bathed in the dragon's 
blood, which made him invulnerable, except at one 
point between the shoulder-blades, where a linden 
leaf rested whilst he batheil in the blood. He 
heard of the beauty "f Kriendiild and came to 
Worms to see her. Now Gunther had heard that 
in Iceland was a jM'incess called Brunhild, \\ho was 
beautifLd, and wealth)', and strong, and would not 
marr}' any one who could not throw a spear, and 
heave a stone, and jump farther than herself. 
Gunther thought he ^vould like to make her his 
queen, so he persuaded Sicgfned to accompany him 
to Iceland, and help him to win her. Now, in the 
treasure of the Niebelungen \\'as a cap which made 
the wearer in\-isible. So Siegfried put on this cap. 
and stood behind Gunther and helped him to throw 
the stone and hurl the spear and leap. Thus Brun- 
hild was surpassed, and she consented to marry 


Gunther, and she did not know how he had been 

Wlicn Siegfried returned to Worms he was given 
Kriemhild to wife, and Guntlier brought home his 
queen. One day when Brunhild and Kriemhild were 
going to cliurcli Brunhild wished, as queen, to enter 
the door first, but Kriemhild thrust her aside, and 
mockingly said that she should enter first, as her 
husband had helped Gunther to win Brunhild, and 
without his aid she never would have become 
queen. Brunhild was furious and meditated re- 

Now, not long after this, a great hunt was to take 
place. Kriemhild was anxious about her dear hus- 
band ; she was afraid lest he should be wounded in 
the only vulnerable place. So she called Hagen, 
the henchman of Gunther, to her, and confided to 
him the secret, and made him promise in battle and 
in the chase to put his shield over Siegfried's back. 
She also marked a little red cross in his dress to 
show the place where alone he could be hurt. 

Now Queen Brunhild egged on her husband to 
have Siegfried killed, and they took counsel with 
Hagen. So, when they were out hunting, and 
Siegfried, who was thirst}-, stooped to drink at 
a fountain, Hagen ran him through with a spear 
^\'here Kriemhild had marked his garment. 

Then they took his body and laid it on the door- 
step of Kriemhild's house, so that, next morning, 
when she came forth early, the first thing she saw 
was her dead husband, stark and cold. 

After that she brooded on revenue. Haeen 


fcarccl what she might do, so he persuaded King 
Gunthcr to let him carr)' awa\' the Xiebekingen 
treasure and thnnv it intu the Rliine, lest she 
should use the wealtli to stir up enemies against 
the king. 

After some }'ears, Attila, or Etzel, King of the 
lluns, asked for her hand, and she consented to 
marr)' him. W'lien she was (Jueen of the Huns she 
got her husband to invite Gunther and Hagen to 
visit him at Jkida, on the Danube; and Gunthcr 
acce])ted the in\'itation against the ad\ice of 
Il.agen. W'lien tlie)' arri\ed at ]nida, and ^\ ere 
feasting in the palace, scjme armetl men, at the in- 
stigation of Kriemhild, rirshed upon the l! 
ans and began to ski)- them. A furious contest 
ensued, and when the ]5urgundians seemed tr> be 
gaining the upper hand Kriemhild had fire put to 
the fjaiupieting hall and set it in a blaze. The 
Burgundians fought their \\,i\' cut thruugh the fire 
and smoke, but were tid%'en. Ihcn Kriemhild sent 
an executioner to Gunther and his head struck 
off, and she carried her brother's heatl to show it tn 
Magen ; then ^^•ith .Siegfried's swurd she cut deiwn 
llagen himself, wlmse IkuuIs were bianul. 

^■\n old warrior, Jlildebrand, enraged at her per- 
fid)' and cruclt}', then smote her with his blade. 
And so the stor\- ends, amidst general massacre and 
in volumes of flame- 




As you have already heard, the cities had begun 
to flourish during the crusades ; they became busy 
nurseries of art and learning, as well as of trade and 
manufacture. By degrees they acquired great 
privileges and power, and some were made by the 
emperors "free cities," that is, they were under 
no princes, but under the emperor only. 

You will remember now that when Henry I. built 
the castles for defence against the Hungarians the 
noble families about were required to maintain 
some of their men in the fortresses throughout the 
year. In time these families became very domineer- 
ing. The towns grew in size and importance, but 
the families originally charged with the defence of 
the burg remained the holders of power in it, and 
managed the affairs of the town. When trades in- 
creased, each trade managed its own affairs by a 
ziinft, or guild, and the guilds combined against 
the noble burgers to obtain some share in the man- 
agement of affairs. After much rioting and fighting 
they carried their point, and so the council was 
formed of an Upper House of hereditary burgers, 
who in the 15th century were called patricians, 
and of a Lower House, to which members were 




elected. If you go to German}' and walk through 
the aisles and cloisters of the great town churches 
you will sec them crowded with splendid monu- 
ments, emblazoned with lieraldic achievements. 
These are the tombs of the hereditar\- patricians, 
men who held themselves as proudl}' as the coun- 
try aristocrac)' did in their castles. 

The troubles occasioned b)' the interregnum, the 
interference with trade, the wa)' in which the trav- 
ellers were plundered, became insupportable, and in 
1241 ilamburg and Lubeck agreed t(jgether to 
keej) order in their neighborhoods. Then Piruns- 
wick and ])remen joined, and at last a hundred 
towns were leagued together, and formed so strong 
a body that the disturbers of the public peace were 
cowed into order. This league ^\as called the 
Ilansa. It maintained armies and fleets, and even 
carried on wars with the kings of Norway and Den- 
mark, in which the I [ansa was victorious. Its fleets 
swept the sea of pirates, and its troops taught the 
robber knights to cultivate peace. 




At last the condition of affairs became so intol- 
erable that the German princes assembled to elect 
a new emperor, who might bring order out of the 
universal confusion. Their choice fell on Rudolph, 
Count of Hapsburg, a simple, courageous, and 
shrewd man. Hapsburg, or Habsburg, is a little cas- 
tle near Konigsfelden, in Switzerland. It was built 
in 1020 by Count Radbod of Altenburg, an ancestor 
of the family. The ruins still stand of this cradle of 
the Austrian imperial family, of which they were 
deprived by papal law one hundred and fifty years 
after Rudolph's elevation, and it has quite recently 
been restored to them, as a wedding gift, by the 
Canton of Aarau, on the marriage of Rudolph, the 
prince imperial, with a Belgian princess. From the 
broken tower the eye takes in at a single glance the 
whole original patrimony of the Hapsburgs,— an es- 
tate far more limited than that of many a British 
peer, — from which Rudolph was called to wield the 
sceptre of Charlemagne. 

The first act of Rudolph was to march against 
Ottocar, King of Bohemia, who had gained posses- 






sion of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola. A 
great battle was fought in 1278 on the Marchfeld, 
near Vienna, in which Ottocar was defeated and 
killed. Rudolph then appropriated to himself the 
duchy of Austria, together with Styria and Carin- 
thia, and the)' have remained ever since the patri- 
mony of the Hapsburgs. 



RlinOLPii's son Albert was not acktiowlcdfjcd 
emperor till he had defeated his rival, yVdolph of 
Nassau. .Vlbert \vas the second son. The eldest 
had died early, leaxing an infant son, John. Albert 
laid his grasp on the Ilapsburg count)- in Switzer- 
land, and refused to gi\e it up t<:> his nephew John. 

Albert was a stern, cruel man, ^^■h<) had been em- 
bittered by his disappointment at not being recog- 
nized as emperor immediatel)' on the death of his 
f.ither. Albert was not content with depri\-ing his 
nephew of his iidieritance, he tried to unite Schw\-z, 
Uri, and Unterwalden with his Swiss family posses- 
sions; but the simple j\lpine shepherds claimed to 
be free untler the imperial crown. TJicn Albert 
(.lespatclied governors to crush them into subjection. 
Among them \\'as Gessler, appointed to rule Uri. 
lie ti'cated the people \\ith great cruelt}'. At last 
the Swiss rose in re\'olt, and expelled the goxernors ; 
Gcsslcr was shot b\- William Tell. The story of Tell 
ha\'ing been ordered to shoot an apple off his son's 
head is fabulous, but there really was such a man, 
and he got his name of Tell i,Toll, Tulpel) from 
being half-witteil. When Albert heard of the 
revolt he was filled with fury, and resolved on 



administering to the rebels a terrible chastisement. 
His revenge, however, was prevented by his own 
death. He was journeying one day within sight of his 
castle of Hapsburgwith his nephew John, whom he 
had deprived of it, and some Swabian knights, when he 
crossed the river Reuss, and was separated from his 
retinue. John of Swabia, his nephew, and three 
others, all in the plot, were with him. No sooner 
had he stepped out of the ferry-boat, than, at a word 
from John, one of the knights clove the emperor's 
skull with an axe. The retainers on the further 
bank, terrified, took to flight, leaving their dying 
master to breathe his last in the arms of a poor 
peasant girl who happened to pass. 

'"* A peasant girl that royal head uj^on her boscm laid, 
And, shrinking riot for woman's dread, the face of death surveyed. 
Alone she sate. From hill and wood, low sank the mournful sun ; 
F'ast gushed the fount of noble blood. Treason his worst had done. 
With her long hair she vainly pressed the wounds, to staunch the tide, 
Unknown, on that meek humble breast, imperial Albert died." 

A direful vengeance was wreaked by the children 
of the murdered monarch ; not, however, upon tha 
murderers, for, with one exception, they had escaped, 
but upon their families, relations, and friends; and 
one thousand victims are believed to have expiated, 
with their lives, a crime of which they were totally 
innocent. Agnes, Queen of Hungary, daughter of 
Albert, and heir to his gloomy, cruel spirit, is said to 
have presided at the executions. When sixty-three 
unfortunate men were butchered before her, " Hah ! " 
she exclaimed, " now 1 bathe in May-dew ! " Al- 
though this is asserted by most historians, yet we 


arc ;_;lad to say that recent investigations by Swiss 
historians have completely disproved the part of 
y\gnes in the tragedy, and \\ e are rejoiced to think 
that such a stain does not rest on the character of 
the queen. 

The Swiss remained resolute in their cictermina- 
tion not to become serfs of the House of Ilapsburg. 
Leopold of Austria, six }'cars after his father's death, 
marched an army against them, but \\as completely 
defeated at Morgarten. Still more disastrous ^was 
the defeat of Leopold's grandson, Leojjold IIL, at 
Sempach, in 1386. Hut it took another battle, 
nearly a hundred )'ears later — that <A Morat, in 
1476 — to prme to the world that the time of fighting 
in armour on horseback was over; that men on foot, 
lightly armed, \\crc more than a match for knights 
clothed in steel. The weight of a charge of ar- 
moured men ^\■as great, but a knight, once dis- 
mounted and thrown down, la)- like a log on the 
ground, unable to raise liimself. ^Although the 
Swiss had proved their power to maintain their inde- 
pendence, it was not till the peace of Westphalia, in 
1648, that Switzerland was finally and fully separ- 
ated from the German i'Lmpire. 



On the death of Albert, the princes of Germany 
resolved again to commit the same blunder that 
they had made in electing Rudolph of Hapsburg, 
that is, to choose a petty noble and exalt him to be 
emperor. The little counts of Hapsburg had man- 
aged pretty well to enrich themselves, and make 
themselves very powerful. The choice fell now on 
Henry, Count of Luxemburg, a gallant knight, but 
that was all. He at once married his son John to 
Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Wenceslas, King 
of Bohemia. The usual fatal attraction of Italy 
drew Henry VII. over the Alps. Brescia stood out 
against him, and his brother fell under the walls. 
Then Henry vowed he would cut off the noses of 
all the men in Brescia when he took the town; but 
plague broke out among his troops, whilst famine 
ravaged the besieged. Then a compromise was 
agreed to. Brescia would open her gates, and 
Henry would content himself with knocking off the 
noses of all the male statues in the city. Shortly 
after he was poisoned, whilst unsuccessfully besieg- 
ing Siena. On his death, in 1313, discord broke out 




in Germany. One part}' elected Louis the Bavarian, 
tlie r)ther chose Frederick of Austria, son of Albert 
I. Louis belonged to the Wittelsbach famih'. 
which had got the duch)' of Ba\aria after the ex- 
pulsion of the Welfs. As neither would withdraw 
his claims, a long and tedious contest ensued, that 

lUKIIHKl) I'ANU" (15111 CLNlLiKV). 
(From a contcmporarv (."hroniclc,> 

lasted eight )'cars. till at Miihldorf h'rederick was 
defeated and taken and imprisoned. His imprison- 
ment, Iiowcvcr, did not bring peace, for his brothers 
continued the contest. Then Louis went to him 
in his prison, and Frederick promised that lie would 
resign his pretensions, and, if he ^\•ere unable to 
bring his brothers to agree to this, that he would 
return to jirison. On these terms Louis set him 
free. At the instigation of the Pope, who dreaded 
the power of the Bavarian, Leopold, brother of 



Frederick, refused submission to the coinpact. 
Tliereupon Frederick honorably returned to cap- 
tivity. Louis was touched by his integrity. He 
received him with affection and agreed to divide the 
realm with him. Thenceforth they reigned together, 
united with such cordial affection that they ate at 
the same table and slept in the same bed. Frederick 
died in 1330, and Louis in 1347. Then Charles 
IV., of Luxemburg, King of Bohemia, grandson of 
Henry VH., was elected. From him comes the so- 
called Golden Bull (1356). This takes its name 
from a golden seal (bulla) appended to the deed. 

The Golden Bull was issued to determine who were 
to elect the emperors, and reduced the number of 
electors to seven — the archbishops of Mainz, Cologne, 
Treves, and the temporal princes of Bohemia, Bran- 
denburg, Saxony, and the Palatine of the Rhine — 
the King of Bohemia as butler, the Palatine as sewer, 
the Duke of Saxony as marshal!, and the Margrave 
of Brandenburg as chamberlain. Frankfort was ap- 
pointed as the place where elections were to take 
place, and Aix as the place where the emperors were 
to be crowned. Sometimes you may see in muse- 
ums, sometimes in old curiosity-shops, metal plates of 
ancient German casting, with a circle in the middle, 
in which is seated a figure of the emperor, and 
round the rim seven medallions, in each of which is 
a figure representing an elector. The idea was, that 
as the sun was the centre of a system of seven plan- 
ets, so should the German emperor, the sun of the 
earthly system, be the centre of a political planetary 
world, of which those seven electors were to be the 




great luminaries. Charles hoped by this means to se- 
cure the imperial crown to his own family. He had 
already got the crown of Bohemia, and he was aim- 
ing to get hold of Brandenburg. He considered 
the Palatine of the Rhine easily managed. He was 
a shrewd man, and was the first to see the danger 
Italy was to the emperor, so he made no attempts 
to recover it for the empire, and he kept on good 
terms with the popes, who, thus relieved of anxiety 
for themselves, favored him. Charles did all in his 
power to aggrandize his family. He bribed the 
electors to choose his eldest son, Wenceslas, as his 
successor; he married his second son, Sigismund, to 
Mary, daughter of the King of Hungary and Poland, 
in the expectation of succeeding to those countries. 
Wenceslas, who followed his father, was, if not a 
madman, as little suited as one to be emperor. He 
was addicted to drunkenness and sports. At one 
moment he jested, at another burst into insane fits 
of rage. The Germans thought him a fool ; the Bo- 
hemians regarded him as a maniac. As he coveted 
the possessions of the Bohemian nobles he invited 
them to meet him at Willamow, where he received 
them under a black tent that opened into two 
others, one white, the other red. The nobles were 
introduced one by one, and were required to cede 
their lands, and receive them back as fiefs of the 
crown. Those who consented were sent into the 
white tent, where they were well feasted ; those who 
refused were dragged into the red tent and put to 
death. He was surrounded by savage hounds, which 
accompanied him to the chase, and constantly at- 



tended him. Of these the two largest shared his 
bedroom. (Jnc night his wife, Queen Joanna, a 
Bavarian princess, rose from her bed, when one of 

(From a wood-cut at Prapue.) 

tlie hounds sprang on her and so tore her that she 
tlied of the wounds. 

At last his uncles and brother .Sigismund, con- 
scious of the ruin into which his crimes and folk' 

j5o the golden bull. 

were hurrying the famil}-, seized him and imprisoned 
him in a castle in Austria. 

His brother Sigismund succeeded Iiim, a vain, 
arrogant, and deceitful man. Under him the great 
council of Constance was held, and the Hussite wars 

Not onl)' in the German Empire but throughout 
the whole Western Church the general disorder had 
affected religion ; discipline was relaxed, and abuses 
had crept in. IMoreover, there were at the same 
time three opposition popes, and some countries 
recognized one pope, some another, and others 
again the third. Accordingly, a council of the 
Church was summoned to assemble at Constance to 
put an end to these scandals. To restore unity to 
the Church the Council deposed all three popes and 
elected a new one, who took the title of Martin V. 
At this council appeared John Huss, a professor of 
the University of Prague, who had denounced the 
corruptions of the Church, and was bitterly opposed 
to the Church being endowed with temporal goods. 
This last ground embittered the bishops against him 
especially, and without a proper hearing, on the 
most frivolous charges — such as that he had main- 
tained the existence of four gods — he was con- 
demned and burnt. The flames of his pyre set Bo- 
hemia in conflagration. Huss had strongly opposed 
the withdrawal of the cup from the laity in com- 
munion. The cup was made the badge of the party 
of Huss, which was called after it Calixtine. The 
Bohemians armed, embroidered banners Avith a gold- 
en cup, met in tents, where they celebrated the 



communion and distributed it in buth kinds. Zis- 
kn" with tlic Flail," a man with one l)-(j, put himself 
at their licad, entered Prague, and flung the burgo- 
master and the councillors out of the windows of 
tlie town-hall, rjii tlie [iikes and pitchforks of his 
fuUovvcrs. k'rightful confusion followed. A part)'. 

John, COl'Nl' ZISKA, UK 1KUC/..NU\V. 
(From an cngr.-iving.) 

rrore extreme, separated from Ziska, and settled in 
an island of the Moldau. The one-C)'ed leader of 
the Hussites fell on them and cut them to pieces, 
with the exception of two. The strife which had 
begun about communion in two kinds soon became 
one of Bohemian against German, and the country 
ran with blood. The imperial arm\- was defeated. 
Ziska, at the liead of his Hussites, burst into Ger- 



man}-, besieged to«-ns, stormed castles, and butch- 
ered and burned without compunction. At Brod 
he burned two hundred people in the church, and 



(From a contemporary Chronicle.) 

an unfortunate man, who was secretary to the chap- 
ter at Prague, had his flesh torn off, and he was 
then roasted in a tar barrel. Saxony was wasted by 
the Hussites to the gates of Dresden. 



The free imperial cit\' nf Alteiiburc; fell into tlieir 
htiiids. The citizens who were taken with arms 
I'.ere tortured to death. Men, wi mien, and children 
were drawn into the blazini; cathedral and burnt b)- 
hundreds. The sick and infirm were thrown into 
hies made in the streets. "This is John Iluss's 
wake," said the Bohemians. " Oh ! " exclaimed (nie 
of tlic sufferers, " the Catholics burnt rjue goose 
(Ifuss, in Jjohemian, means a goosei iind j'ou are 
t;ivin<^f us the same." 

The fairest regions of German)', Pia\-aria, Fran- 
conia, as well as Saxon\' and Bohemia, were de\'as- 
tated, and the terror r>f the Calixtines surpassed that 
^\■ith which the Germans of old had regarded the 
Itungarian marauders. A splinter struck Ziska's 
remaining eye. Though blind, he still led his Huss- 
ites. On one occasion, having compelled his men 
to march day and night, thc\' murmured, and said to 
liini, " Although night and da\- be one to )-ou, the\' 
ai'e not so to us." 

" How ! \o\i cannot sec ! " exclaimed Ziska, " set 
fire to the \'illages and walk b}' the blaze the}' give." 

At last, in 1433, another council met at Basle, and 
iit it communion in both kinds was granted to the 
]kihcmians. Ziska was then dead. The country 
was worn out with war, and peace was proclaimed. 




The Hapsburg or Austrian house succeeded tliat 
of Luxemburg, having recovered the imperial crown 
on the death of Sigismund, and thenceforth it re- 
mained in their famil}', almost exclusively, till the 
dissolution of the German empire in 1806. Albert 
II. reigned but one year. He was succeeded by 
Frederick III. No emperor wore the crown so long 
as he, and none cared less for its duties than he. 
He often fell asleep whilst the most important 
affairs of the state were being discussed, which 
acquired for him the nick-name of "Emperor Night- 
cap." The robber-knights began again their dep- 
redations, quarrelled with and fought each other, 
as if there were no emperor above them to keep 
order in Germany. Huge bands of robbers swept 
the country, and Frederick bought them off. His 
discontented citizens of Vienna besieged him in his 
own palace. He had an adviser, Caspar Schlick, 
whose only idea of policy was to patch up a com- 
promise and put off settling difficult matters to a 
future day. Indeed, one may say that Schlick's 
doctrine was composed of two maxims, " Never do 

J 64 

i,Frum Froissart's ChruniclL i 



to-day what can be done to-morrow," and "Never 
do yourself what can be left to be done by an- 
other." This was just what suited Emperor Night- 

The peasants of the Rhoetian Alps asserted 
their independence, and formed a confederacy de- 
nominated the Grey-Band, from the grey frocks 
worn by the peasants, and this has given name to 
the canton of Grisons, or Graubunden. Their exam- 
ple was followed by Zurich and Schwyz. As the 
emperor was too lazy to take the field himself he 
invited a body of French mercenaries, called the 
Armagnacs, to invade Switzerland ; but though 
they killed fifteen thousand brave Swiss they lost so 
many of their own men that they retired dispirited. 
On the south-east the Turks threatened Ger- 
many. They created havock in Hungary, and en- 
tered and devastated Austria ; but Frederick did 
nothing to repel them. He amused himself in his 
garden, picking caterpillars out of his roses and 
catching slugs with buttered cabbage leaves, and let 
the Turks destroy the villages and harvests of his 

At last an Italian friar, S. John Capistran, put 
himself at the head of three thousand peasants, 
armed with flails and pitchforks, and fell on the 
Turkish host which was besieging Belgrade, when 
the town was hardly able to hold out another day. 
At the head of the peasants he routed the Turks 
and relieved the city. 

The Hungarians gave themselves a valiant king, 
John Hunyadi, and his son Matthias ; and the 



Bohemians placed themselves uneler the gallant 
George of Podjebrad. Ikit this did not trouble 
Frederick ; the loss of two kingdoms was nothing to 

His indolence so exasperated his -wife Eleanor, 
that she said to her son, ^Maximilian, one da)- in a 
fit of impatience, " On my word, if I thought )'ou 
would be like your father, I should be ashamed of 
being the mother of such a king! " 

I'Vitz the Palatine also rebelled against the em- 
peror, and built a tower to his castle at Heidelberg, 
which he named I'dout Kaiser (Trutz Kaiser), as a 
mark of insolence to P'rederick. The Margrave of 
Jladen and the Duke of W'ittemberg, ho\\c\er, 
marched against him, and, to ile\astate the har- 
vests of the Palatinate more completel}', tietl 
branches of trees to their horses' tails as the)- 
rode among the \\heat. The enraged peasants rose 
to a man and helped Fritz ; he beat the imperial 
army and took the duke and margrave prisoners. I le 
gave them a sumptimus entertainment, but placed 
no bread on the table. The prisoner-guests asked 
to have a little bread with their meat, "A'er)- 
sorry there is none," answered Fritz. " but you have 
spoiled all the corn, and so must do without." 

PVedciick was too laz\' to put his hands t(i the 
doors, turn the handles, and open them. He ^\•ent 
up tc^ them with his hands in his pockets and 
kicked at the doors till some one came to open 
them, or he burst them in. He hurt his foot one 
day b)' so doing, and as mortification threatened, 
the surgeons cut off his foot. "Ah, me," said P'red- 


erick, "a healthy boor is better than a sick em- 

P'ortunately for Germany, his son MaximiUan was 
the reverse of his father in everything. He was 
full of energy, intelligence, and with a noble heart. 

For once a good idea came into the dull head of 
Frederick ; but perhaps it was not his idea, his wife 
may have thought of it. This was the idea, to get 
Ihe sweet young princess, Mary of Burgundy, the 
only child of the duke, as wife for the gallant 
young prince. Maximilian was the handsomest man 
of his time ; he had bright, honest eyes, full of life, 
and long, fair, silky hair that fell over his shoulders. 
His nose was aquiline. If his face had a fault it 
was in the long lower lip, \vhich he inherited from 
his father, and which is called the Hapsburg lip. 
You see it in the pictures of most of the princes and 
emperors of that house. Perhaps you have been 
so fortunate as to see Albert Durer's engraved por- 
trait of the Emperor Maximilian, or to have seen 
his figure in bronze on the great tomb he erected 
for himself at Innsbruck. These likenesses were 
taken when he was much older, but we can see 
from them what a royal and noble face he had. 
Also, Mary of Burgundy was very lovel)'. She was 
as good ac she was beautiful. She was, moreover, 
heiress to all Burgundy and the Netherlands. The 
young Max went to Ghent to meet her. He 
rode into the town with a wreath of flowers over his 
long fair hair, with pearls twisted with the flowers, 
dressed in a suit of silver armour richly enamelled 
with gold, mounted on a .ine bay horse. Mary 

(From a Drawing in ihe Nuremberg Museum,) 



came to meet him, on a white horse with silver 
trappings. When they met in the street of Ghent 
both dismounted, and whilst the bells of the town 
hall and the churches rang, and the people cheered 
and waved their caps, the beautiful young prince 
and princess met and kissed each other. They 
were married in 1477, when Max was only eighteen. 
Unfortunately, a very few years later, in 1482, poor 
Mary was hurt by a fall from her horse when hunt- 
ing, and died of her injuries, in the bloom of life, 
but not till she had borne him a son, Philip, after- 
wards Philip I. of Spain. 

The death of Mary was the signal for a revolt 
in the Netherlands. The Flemings refused submis- 
sion to the Hapsburgs, and seized the person of 
the little Philip, whom they alone recognized as 
Mary's successor. A revolt broke out at Bruges, 
where Maximilian was taken prisoner by the citi- 
zens and shut up in the castle. His jester formed 
a scheme for his liberation ; he provided horses for 
flight, and a rope-ladder, by which Max might de- 
scend from the window of his prison. Then the 
jester plunged into the canal which encircled the 
castle, to swim across. But the town kept swans 
in the moat, and when these swans saw the man 
swimming, they rushed at him with their great 
flapping wings and beaks, and so beat and pinched 
and frightened the poor fellow that he made the 
best of his retreat. 

Max was kept a prisoner for four months, and 
was only set at liberty when he took a solemn 
oath not to chastise the citizens for having held 
him in bonds. 

I'KLl'i i;l> k 111. 
iFrom tile statue un his tumb at \'icnr,a.^ 




If ever you get a chance of seeing Hans Burgk- 
mair's "Triumph of Maximihan," look well and 
patiently at the series of 135 wood-cuts. It rep- 
resents the procession of the emperor after the 
fashion of an old Roman imperial triumph, with 
groups of figures depicting the different events of 
his reign. This was the idea of Max himself, who 
was filled with the old craze that he was the rep- 
resentative of the Caesars, the head of the earthly 
power, as the Pope was the head of the spiritual 
power. Before you hear the histor}' of the reign of 
Maximilian you must be told something about 
the set of pictures illustrative of his reign. Hans 
Burgkmair was ordered to make a series of draw- 
ings personifying the life, endeavours, and fame of 
the emperor; glorifying his "wars, conquests, and 
alliances, and giving testimony to the splendours of 
the Holy Roman empire, and the far extended 
possessions of the House of Hapsburg. Burgkmair 
began his work by making a series of miniature 
paintings on parchment, to the number of 109. 
Each of these was to be reproduced in two wood- 




cuts, so that the work, w hen completed, would have 
made 218 plates. However, \\hcn the wood en- 
fjravin^r was begun, the artist touched up and 
impro\'ed his designs, so that the engravings are 
nr)t exactly like the miniatures. The latter are all 
preserved in Vienna. The work was begun in 
1516, and was stopped forever b)- the de.ith cif the 
emperor in 15 19. Only a few proof copies had 
been struck off when the wood blocks, no one knows 
how or why, were dispersed. The few copies of 
the engravings were become very rare and fetched 
large prices, when some fort}' of the wood blocks 
were discovered in the castle of y\mbras, near 
Innsbruck, and then ninety-six more \\-ere found in 
the Jesuit College at Gratz, in Styri.u Thus 1 ^5 of 
the blocks have been recovered, but all search for 
the remainder has been in \ain. In the^ear, 1796 a 
few copies \\ere printed from the original wood 
blocks, and may still be had, but at a high cost. 
One or two of the plates have, howe\'er, been re- 
produced of late years. Perhaps the most beautiful 
of the groups is that of the three standard-bearers, 
three knights in armour, bearing the banners of 
the Archduchy of yVustria, a white fesse on a red 
field, of the Margraves with eagles, and of Styria 
with a panther. The faces of the knights arc noble 
and beautiful, and we can get an idea from them of 
what good and generous knights were in those 
days. Another plate represents a princess on 
horseback, attended h\ ladies, and the bridle held 
by gentlemen with laurel wreaths round their 
heads. It is supposed that the princess is Mary 


of Burgund)', and, if so, m'c can understand how 
Max loved her, and all his life long thought of her. 
The figure is graceful, and the face simple and 
sweet. Her hair is done up in a silk net, or cap, over 
which is a golden crown, but little, light ringlets 
curl dovrn from her brow on either side of her 
lovel)' face. She wears three gorgeous necklaces, 
ver)^ \\'ide, made of plates of gold set with jewels, 
and so fitted as to set, one round the throat, the 
next over the bosom, and the third over the shoul- 
ders. She \\'ears white linen sleeves gathered in 
twice between the shoulder and elbow. Her skirt 
is of the most superb silk and gold brocade, repre- 
senting pomegranates in the leaf, and bursting 
fruit and flower. The caparison of the horse is of 
red velvet, embroidered with gold pomegran- 
ates, and over the saddle is cast a mantle of 
ermine. The gentlemen leading her white horse 
have magnificent chains round their necks, and 
ermine tippets, short cloaks, and tunics richly em- 
broidered. They arc both shown turning their 
heads and looking back and up at the lovely girl- 
ish face, as if that was the thing best worth see- 
ing in the whole procession. ^ 

Maximilian married a second time Bianca 
Sforza, daughter of the Duke of Milan, but not 
till twelve years after the death of his dear Mary 
of Burgundy. He never really loved Bianca, who 
was a cold, hard woman, very proud, and without 
grace of mind or of disposition. 

Maximilian stands as a boundary stone between 
the old and the new, between the mediaeval and 



the modern times. He \\-as br;u'e and noble as a 
[perfect kniglit, the pattern of chi\-ah-\-, and he had 
an eayer and active mind, a hive of what is beau- 
tiful and what is good. He tried to imi)ro\e what 
was bad and decaying, and he would ha\-e dune 
more had the power been his to do so, but the em- 
pire was a magnificent sham. His father's \\'cakness, 
the growing power of the vassals, the hostility of 
tlie pojjcs had broken its strength, and he was 
hampered throughout his reign by his want of 
means t(i carry out those schemes which he planned 
for the gocjd of the countr)-. I'lven his enemies 
acknowledged his virtues and abilitw ( )nce when 
a courtier in the presence of Lriuis XI. of h'r.mce 
sneered at the emperor, and called him " the l!ur- 
gomaster of Augsburg," Louis, who \\as the bitter 
foe of Maximilian, answered, " Vou fool, to scolf at 
Max! D<1 )'ou not know that when this burgo- 
master pulls the bell all Cierman)' springs t(_i arms, 
and France trembles? " In ortler tt^ put an entl to 
the incessant quarrels which w ent on between the 
little princes and nobles, in 1495, at a diet or par- 
liament at Worms, the emperor made a law that 
no man sh.ould be suffered to redress his wrongs, 
real or imaginar)-, b\- \'iolence ; if he had a com- 
plaint against another, he must bring it before the 
imperial courts. In order to improve the admin- 
istration of justice the empire was divided into 
ten districts, or circles, — Swabia, Bavaria, Franconia, 
the Upper Rhine, \\'estphalia, Lower Saxony, Aus- 
tria, Burgundy, the Rhenish Electorate, and LIpper 
Saxony. Alaximilian wanted to organize and go\'- 


ern the empire through these divisions, but was so 
opposed that he was unable to carry out his idea. 

Under him the post was first arranged. An Ital- 
ian, Count de la Torre, was at his court, and he was 
entrusted with the organization of a postal system. 
This was gradually perfected, and was left under 
the control of the family which originated it, and 
which became princely, and was entitled Turn und 
Taxis. If you look through a collection of postal 
stamps you will see that the early German stamps 
bear the "Turn u. Taxis" and the arms of that 
family on them ; and the family only lost the post- 
office in late times, bit by bit ; the last control 
was taken from them in 1866. 

To manage the post-office in the empire was no 
easy task, as all the little princes and petty states 
and free towns had to be brought to agreement. 
The roads had to be put in order, post-horses pro- 
vided in relays along them, and the post-messengers 
had to be protected from robbers. As the empire 
comprised two thousand independent territories the 
Turn and Taxis family had enough to do. A great 
debt of gratitude is owed them by Germany, but 
the postal monopoly enriched them. They now 
possess large estates and several palaces from the 
profit of the post-office, which they held for three 
hundred years. 

The great enemies of Germany at this time were 
the Turks, the French, and the Pope. The Turks 
were a constant menace, and the emperor was 
obliged to call the princes together separately, and 
entreat for men and money wherewith to oppose 

MAKKIACi: 01- rilllJP AXn JOAWA. 


llicin. But they did not care ; the)- tliought that it 
was a long- \\a)' from Constantinople to West Ger- 
many, and there was ;)11 Hungar\' and Austria 
between. The l-'rench king was jeahais of the 
emperor because he had got liold nf ]!urgunil\-, so 
that Maximilian had foes on liis and west. 
iMiireover, Italy was disturbed, and he had to enter 
that \\ith a small arm)- — lie \\ as unable t(^ scrape 
tngetjicr a large one. Ihe I'Vench had uNerrun the 
North of Ital\-, and had carried ulT l''erdinand, King 
of Naples, ill ch.uns; but Maximilian could do noth- 
ing to i>pp' ise I"' ranee. 

The pojjes, moreover, -\\-ere draining ("jermany of 
mrmc)', and the\' kept the empire weak b\' embroil- 
ing it with other kingdoms, and b)- stirring up 
discord within it. 

Maximilian the happiness t(.> unite his son 
I'hilip to Joanna, the daughter of b'erdinand and 
Isabella (if Sp.iin, heiress of all ."-ipain, and of 
the ne\\-ly-tiiscii\-ered continent nf Anieric.i. More- 
'i\'er, b\' agreen-ient, the kingdnms of\' and 
Holu'n-iia. were re-unit(.-d under the- Ibai^^e of Ilaps- 
bui-g. Thus it did seem iikel}' that the empire w-oidd 
fulfil its dream and i-iecome a ^^■■ u'ld-w ide- so\-ei'- 
eignt)-, embracing all (ieiniam-, the Netherlands, 
Hurgund)', Italy, .Spain, antl America. This was 
llattering to the ;imljition of the i.'mi)eror, \\\\o did 
not see that it was re:dl_\- so.\ing- tiie seeds of ruin 
[ox the empire and for his o\\ n hiuise. When a man 
has a small capital he can manage a small farm, but, 
if he is amljitious, and tries to secure three and 
even four farms in the hopes of prospering on 



them, when he has not the means of properly culti- 
vating them, it is pretty certain that he will soon be 
bankrupt. Now this is precisely what the Haps- 
burgs were doing. Instead of contracting their 
ambition within their means, and trying to farm 
Germany well, they took on all these other farms, 
which they could not supervise, and which drained 
their money away, exhausted their energies, and 
distracted their attention. 

fFri"im his seal,) 


"MV.K ]!i'",(;iN TO ri;ixr I'.doks. 

Books liacl hitherto been ^\•rittcIl a\ ith the hand, 
aiitl this made them \-er\' costl)-. The\- were \\ rit- 
teii on parchment, on waxed tables, or <'in papyrus. 
At last a German, at the beyinniny nf the 14th cciit- 
ur)-, discovered how to make paper out of lincii 
rags. If \-ou hold paper sheets to the li^-^ht \-ou \\\\[ 
see that there are peculiar marks on them, called 
water-marks ■ these were (jriL;inall)- the batlLjes of 
the makers. The \er}' e.irliest of these marks is a 
circle \\ith a cross on it, and \\ as adopted b\' the 
first inventor in 1301. Man)- of the water-marks 
are the badges of noble tamilies. whose tenants 
maile the jiaper. Thus the letters V and Y, some- 
times separate antl sometimes conjoinetl, are the 
initials of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, and 
his wife, Isabella of I'ortugal. (~)ther s)-mbijls arc 
the fleur-de-lys, the unicorn and the anchor. 
Fiv/s' iiif> paper is so called because paper of that 
size was originally marked with a jester's cap anil 
bells, and J^ost paper takes its name from a bugle 
which was in use as a water-mark on paper of 
this size b_\' the manufacturers from 1370. It some- 
times appears on a shield, and in the 17th centur_\- 



is surmounted by a ducal coronet, in which form it 
is still used on ordinary writing paper. 

The first paper factories in Germany were between 
Cologne and Mainz, about the )-car 1320. In 
Nuremberg a factory worked b)' water-power was 
established in 1390 which was quite a novelty. 

Printing was discovered by John Gutenberg in 
1436. Already wood-cut pictures, and c\'en written 
sentences, had been printed, but no one had thought 
of making movable letters. At first the paper 
was pressed down on the engraved block, and 
printed on one side. The outlines only of figures 
were printed, and then they were painted in by hand. 
At last John Gensfleisch, of Sulgeloch, known as 
Gutenberg, which was the maiden name of his 
mother, saw how much better it would be to have 
movable types. As he was a poor man he went to 
a rich goldsmith, John Fust, of Mainz, and to Peter 
Schoffer, a professional copyist, of Gernshcim; to 
get help. Schoffer drew and wrote beautifully, and 
he was to design the letters, and Fust was to 
find the money for casting them. The}^ also 
invented printers' ink, and in 1457 issued the first 
printed book, the Latin psalter, and fi\'e years later 
the first printed Bible. Fust behaved very badly 
to the inventor. As soon as he had the secret, and 
saw that the experiments were likel)' to be success- 
ful, he asked Gutenberg to pay him back the money 
he had advanced him, and when he was unable to 
do this brought an action against him, and seized 
his printing-press and blocks. Poor Gutenberg was 

STO/n' or FAi'sr. 


forced to leave Mainz, aiiil tlicii Fust and Schoffer 
finished jirintini^ the Ijiblc without him. The 
rapidity ■with ■which Cftpies were turned out of the 
press, the exact resemblance one bore to another, 
created astonishment and suspicion, so that it was 
reported that Fust was ill leac^uic ■with the FJcxil, 
wlio helped him to multipK' copies ol the Bible. 
Thus came about the stor)- of John Faust, who sold 
himself to the Devil for wealth, a story which was 
afterwards used by the L^reatest of German poets 
as the foundation of the greatest of German 
pi jem.;. 



About this time began that first crack or schism 
in the Church, which, after a little while, spread and 
separated a large part of Christendom from the 
Catholic Church. This large part that separated 
itself was called Protestant, whilst that part which 
remained was called Catholic. This schism arose 
because there was great cause of discontent with 
the conduct of the popes, and this discontent was 
well founded. 

At last the Germans had come to sec that the 
Pope was the enemy to their national unit)-. But 
the popes were only so because they dreaded the 
power of the emperors, who claimed to be kings of 
Naples and Sicily, — and so had a claw cutting into 
the popes from the South, — and also to be kings of 
Lombardy and Rome, and so drove a long sharp 
claw into their hearts over the Alps from the North 
They did not want to be made the domestic chap, 
lains of the emperors, so the)- worked against them 
with might and main ; and as Germany «'as a very 
loosely compacted state, where every prince set up 
to be independent, and many of the bishops and 
some abbots were sovereign princes also, the popes 
were able to stir up confusion in Germany with the 



greates'i. ease. The archbishops and bishops had 
been made sovcreic;ns by Charles the Great, in the 
liopc that they would help the emperor against 
the other princes; but instead o[ that the)- were 
always ready at the call of the I'upe to head oppo- 
sition against the cmperoi'. The archbishops of 
Cologne and ?vlainz, of Tre\-es and Salzburg, the 
bishops of Wiirzburg, Eichstadt, Miinstcr, Pader- 
born, ]^ambcrg, etc., the abbots of Fulda, Berchtes- 
gaden, etc., \\'ere all indeijendent sovereigns, owing 
\ery slight obedience to the emperor, and the em- 
pire was reduced to little more than a high-sound- 
ing name, without cohesion. The emperor ^\■as 
head of the state, but the members moved inde- 
pcndentl}' of the head. The condition had become 
intolerable. Law, order, everything was in confu- 
sion, and suddenly Germain' woke to see its misery 
and resoh'e to bring it to an end, and, to begin, it 
determined to ha\-c done with the interference of 
the Pope, and to get rid of the archbishops and 
bishops and abbots ^\ho acted as his henchmen. 

It happened at this time that the Pope \\as in 
want of monc)' \\hcrewith to build St. Peter's 
Church at Rome, ^\hich he desired to make the 
most magnificent cathedral in the world, as became 
the Mother Church of Christendom. He set about 
it by the sale of indulgences. These -were farmed 
out to certain men, who went through Christendom 
disposing of them. In German)- appeared a Do- 
minican friar, Tetzel by name, who sold them in 
great quantities, and «as unscrupulous in the way 
in which he did it. trading on the ignorance and 

M 03 

W O 

5 'i 




credulity of the people, to the great scandal of 
right-feeling men. You must understand what 
indulgences really -were, because a great deal has 
been said about them \\diich is not true. Accord- 
ing to Catholic teaching, when a man docs that 
which is wrong two results fi-ill(>w: he becomes 
guilt)- in the sight of God, anil he incurs cuisi- 
quences to himself that arc painfid. l-'nr instance, 
if }'ou were to become drunk, ynu wnuld incur sin 
and suffering, the suffering being a headache. Xow 
the Catholic Church taught that all sin entailed 
suffering, and tliat however much the guilt might 
be put awa)', the sidfering remained to be 
through in this life or in the next. The Church 
taught that the guilt \\as expiated b}' true repent- 
ance, ^\dnch is matle up of tlirec parts, ci uitritii ui. 
confession, and amendment, l^ut though a man 
might be restored to God's fa\'or b}' repentance he 
was not let off the chastisemeni. The popes claimed 
the power of remitting the sulTering conseipient on 
sm, and indulgences were releases from these consc- 
(piences ; but tlu\' were onl\' granted coiulitionalK- 
on true rcpentanci_\ and this condition ^^ as alwa\"s 
printed or written (Ui them. Now it is easy to see 
wdiat use unscrupulous men would make (jf these, 
and it was a startling thing to see the popes claim- 
ing to grant them. 

A Wittenberg monk, named Martin Luther, 
wrote to the Archbishop of i\Iainz to complain of 
the harm done to ignorant people by the sale of in- 
didgences, and then he fastened up to the door oi 
the c.istle church at \\'ittenberg ninet\--fi\-e theses. 

I So 


or reasons ay^ainst indulgences, which he declared 
he \\as read}- to maintain in disputation. 

Tills was the beginning of the great strife which 
speedih- in\'oh'ed all A\'estcrn Christendom 


(From a Miniature by Lucas von Cranach.) 

But this was not all. Luther propounded a new 
doctrine, which was like a little packet of dynamite: 
wherever it was dropped it blew to pieces the 
whole structure of Catholicism. You will never 
really understand what the Reformation was unless 
you get hold of this. 

Hitherto, the Catholic Church had taught that no 

J I \s T/FfL A no. y DY FArrrr. i s ^ 

man could be certain of pardon for liis sins, of be- 
ing justified before God, and of eternal sahation. 
Everything was conditional. i\ man was pardoned 
his sins ?y he was trul)' sorry, // he c<jnfessed them, 
and // he did his utmost to make amends for the 
wrong done. Justification \\as the becoming per- 
fect])' giiod ami pleasing to God, and man ^^■as to aim 
at this all through life, with hard struggle, helped 
by divine grace, and the sacraments ^\•ere the 
means whereby di\'ine help w as gix'cn him to push 
on to perfection. So this, alsD, \\-as ci Mulitional. 
Lasth', salvation ^\•as certain to nunc "without final 
perseverance. Now, ^lartin Luther ^\•as a \'ery 
eager, anxious-mintled man, and lie could not be 
liappy unless he \\'ere (juite certain of pardon, justi- 
fication, and sah'ation. He suffered great (_hstri_-ss 
of mind, through fear of falling sjiort and losing 
heaven, knowing himself tn be a man uf \-iolent 
passions. All at once a new ielea struck him, \\hicli 
matle all easy and secure. If a man ft It that he 
^\'as pardonetl, justitied, and sa\-cd, then the certain- 
ty \\'as his. To this feeling of assurance that all 
was right he gave the name of faith, and called the 
change from a state of uncertainty to one of confi- 
dence, — justification b}' faith. Xo more condi- 
tions -were required, no more chance of fall re- 
mained. This doctrine made immense way; it \\as 
seized with eagerness. Of course it did a\\'a}', in- 
e\'itabl)', with sacraments and ^\'ith the priesthood, 
for help is no more needed by those "who are secure; 
but Luther did not fol]o^\• this to its legitimate con- 
clusion. If sacraments and pjriests were no more 


needed then bishops were also unnecessary'; and 
here the very thing was found which would enable 
the Germans to get rid of the bishops. That 
the bishops were of any good might well be doubted 
in Germany, where they lived in royal state, and 
neglected their spiritual duties or devolved them on 
others. If ever you go up the Rhine, look into the 
Cathedral of Mainz. There, along the red sand- 
stone pillars, you will see the monuments of the 
dead archbishops. They are represented on them 
clothed in armour, with spurs on their heels, holding 
a sword in one hand and a shepherd's crook in the 
other. On their heads they wear mitres surrounded 
by crowns. These tombstones give you an idea 
of what the archbishops were, in reality : secular 
princes, at home on horseback, clad in mail, and 
with only so much of the religious character about 
them that they bore the title and wore the insignia 
of spiritual princes. Now the Germans, knowing 
bishops such as these, only said with reason, What 
a farce this is ! These men are not pastors over 
their flocks, the)' are kings masquerading as bishops. 
Awa)' with them ! We have too many sovereigns 
already in Germany ! 



It was only about the beginning of the 15th cent- 
111)' tliat the cities of (jermaii)' rose to great im- 
portance, ami became remarkable for their stately 
buihlings, for their wealth and influence. 

They -were all enclosed within \\alls, -with a moat 
surrounding the walls. At interwals in the ring 
\\-ei-e towers of various sliapes. Indeed, the fancy 
was indulged of making all dilferent, so as to adel to 
the beaut)' of the appearance of the town. \'er\' 
few of the great German towns remain \\alled in 
with their towers, but some ha\'e these ornaments 
intact. ]\.atisbon had fifteen towers, \arii;iusl)' 
capped, making the distant \ie\v of the city a \ision 
of beaut)'. All have been pulled down but one. 

At the beginning of the 13th ceiitur)" the houses 
were all built of wood and plaster, and thatched 
with straw. But such fires ensued, consuming large 
parts of the towns, that the inhabitants were driven 
to build of better material, and to use tile (.)r slate 
instead of thatch. Nevertheless, a good man)' old 
timber and plaster houses remain. Indeed, e\'en the 
castles were only parti)' built of stone ; the)' were to 
a large extent composed of buildings of more per- 
ishable material. A little way up a tributar)' of the 

1 89 



Moselle is an old castle, Schloss Elz. It is one of 
the few castles that has escaped being destroyed. 
It has its tower of stone and walls of stone, but the 
principal buildings for the inmates, hall of banquet 

(From a Pencil Sketch in the Library at Erlangen). 

and bedrooms, are of black timber with plaster fill- 

At first, in the towns, only the churches and town- 
halls and other public buildings were of stone, but 
in the beginning of the 15th century the patricians — 

J/Olt-' (,/:A\l/,I.VS I-iRMhKI.y /.H'ED. 


that i^, the ruling; f.miili'j^ and nicrchanls, who were 
\XT\' wealth)' — began to bLuld tliemseh'es handsome 
stone liouses. I'Lven in such an important place as 
l'"rankfort-on-the-Main nearl)- all the h.ouses, down 
to the end of the I4t]i centur)', ^\■ere of combustible 
materials, and were without chimneys, the smoke 
escaping through a liole in the ru'if. Tlie streets of 
I'aris Were jja\-ed in 11S5, but though sume at- 
tempts at paving \\'ere made in (jerman)' in the 13th 
and 14th centuries, it was iKjt till later that they 
were systematicall)' [)a\'ed. Passengers picked 
their way in the mud as best they might. In the life 
of S. lilizabeth, the Landgravine of Thuringia, we 
read of how, as she \\as thus trying to get along a 
street in Eisenach, a rude woman pushed her I'ff 
the stepping-stone on wdiich slie had lighted, and 
she fell down into tile black slough and ^\■as 
splashed from head to foot. 

'idiere were not mail)' windows filled with glass 
l)efore the 15th ceiitur)'. E\'en at Zurich, where 
the town-hall \\'as liuilt in 1402, the \\andows were 
filled with oiled linen strained to frames. In Zurich 
tiie first fountain was erectetl in 1430, and this is 
about the date of most of the louiitaiiis tliat deco- 
rate so mail)' oL the Cjerman towns. The houses in 
the towns \\'ere \'er)' dilfereiit in plan from old 
English houses. Let me tell )'(_iu \\li,it I sa\v one 
sumnier's da)' at \'illingen, in the Black Forest. 
This i:^ r. '\\'alied town, the walls near))' perfect, with 
all the towers standing, but with the water let out 
of tlie moat, \\'hich is turned int'j gardens. When 
1 visited the place it was at the time of ha)' har- 


vest, and wains laden with hay were coming into the 
town. The old houses have very steep roofs, and 
the gables are towards the street, with a large door 
in the attic, and a crane over it. The chain from 
this contrivance was run down and the bundles of 
hay \\ere raised and piled up in the garret of the 
house, which served as a great hay store. Later, 
the corn would be brought in, and the flax, and 
stored away in the same place. The roof of the 
house formed the barn. Then the cows and horses 
were driven into the ground floor rooms — they were 
really stables, vaulted with stone, and to enter the 
house where the people lived one had to ascend steps. 
As the citizens of a small town were landowners and 
farmers they thus made their houses compact farm 
dwellings. That was how they managed in small 
towns. In large cities they used the roof for stores 
of merchandise and the basement for shops. 
When you ascend the stairs you find in these old 
houses that there is a great deal of room given up 
to passage, and that this passage is paved, and 
sometimes vaulted. It served as a place for the 
children to play in wet weather, and meals were 
also taken in it when the company was large. 
These corridors are called Laiiboi. The rooms 
open out of these corridors and are comparatively 
small. In old times, before fire-engines were in- 
vented, the only way by which fires could be ex- 
tinguished was with pails. The first fire brigade 
was established at Frankfort in 1439, ^^d the first 
fire-engine used at Augsburg in 15 18. 

We have many accounts from the 15th century 


fif the sijcial and architectural condition of tlic 
(jcnnan towns. Nuremberg especiall}-\vas regarded 
as the ideal of abeautiUil medircval town, and to the 
present day, with its stepped gables, solar windows, 
corner turrets, and rich sculpture, it retains more 
of its mediaeval character than an)- other town. 
Italians, however, declared that a more beautiful 
city than Cologne could not be found, a \'erdict we 
in the present da)' would be far from enchjrsing. It 
is now a collection of hideous and vulgar houses 
surmunding man)' preciously beautiful churches. 
The illustrious Frenchman, Montaigne, declared 
that vVugsburg was more lo\'el)' than I'aris. /Eneas 
.Silvius I'iccolomini (afterwards Pope Pius II.) could 
not fintl terms in which to praise the wealth and 
splendour of the (ierman cities. There is some exag- 
geration when he says, " Where is a German inn at 
which siher plate is not used? Wliat citizen woman 
— not necessarii)' noble — does not adorn herself \\ ith 
gold ornaments?" Of Vienna he sa)'s '. "The town 
lies in a crescent on the Danube ; the cit)' wall is 
5000 paces li-Mig and has double fortifications. The 
town pro[)er lies like a palace in the centre o[ the 
suburbs, several i^f which \\\a\ it in beaut)' and size. 
Nearh' e\'er)' house has something to slmw, some- 
thing remarkable in or about it. Each dwelling 
has its back court and front court, large halls and 
smaller, good winter apartments. The guest-rooms 
are beautifulh' panelled, richl)- furnished, and 
warmed with stoves. All windows are glazed ; 
some have painted glass, and ha\'e iron-\\ork guards 
against thie\'es. On the basement are large cellars 

194 ""--iLr.riD crrrEs AND tne/r /.vportaa^ce. 

and vaults, which arc devoted to apothecaries, ware- 
houses, shops, and lodgings for strangers. In the 
halls many tame birds arc kept, so that in passing 
through the streets one hears the sounds of a green 
pleasant forest. The market places and streets 
teem with life. Without reckoning the children and 
those under age there are 50,000 inhabitants and 
7000 students. Enormous is the commerce of 
traders, and enormous the sums of money here 
earned and spent. The whole district round Vi- 
enna is like one vast and beautiful garden covered 
with grapes and apples, and studded with the most 
charming country houses." 

There is, hov/ever, another side to the picture, 
^neas Silvius says : " By night and by day there is 
fighting in the streets. Sometimes the artisans are 
assailing the students, sometimes the court people 
are quarrelling with the citizens, and sometimes it is 
citizen who has sword drawn against citizen. A 
festival rarely concludes without bloodshed." 

You have heard how poetry and romance flour- 
ished with the nobles. The citizens did not cul- 
tivate these arts, they were too practical ; but they 
produced chronicles, and some of them were in 
verse. For instance, Gottfried Hagen, of Cologne, 
wrote a rhymed history of his city between 1250- 
1270. Many of the large towns of Germany pro- 
duced their chroniclers, and it is needless to say of 
what importance their writings are to the historian. 

But if the cities did not cultivate poetry they 
nursed music. They all had their master-singer 
guilds, and on Sunday afternoons the performers 


sanr^ in the towii-li.ill nr the churclic^. Prizes were 
i(ivcn for the best compositions. Tlic liigliest prize 
was a representation of Kincj Dav'id pla\'iii^' on the 
harp, stamped on a gold slate. The others consisted 
of wreaths of filigree wire of gold or silver. This 
performance was called " scliool singing." The last 
performance at Nuremberg was in 1770, and the 
very last of all at Ulin in 1S39. 



Germany is not divided by great rivers. It has, 
indeed, two main arteries, the Rhine and the Danube, 
the former flowing nortli, then west into the Ger- 
man Ocean, the latter flowing east into the Black Sea. 
The Rhine is a great main artery of trade, and 
always has been since Germany was civilized, from 
Mannheim to the mouth. Above Mannheim the 
river is too rapid and too full of shifting rubble-beds 
to be safely navigated. The Danube is only navi- 
gable below Linz. Above, it rushes at a pace so 
headlong that boats can be drawn against the stream 
only with infinite labour. If }'ou travel up or down 
the Rhine you pass numerous villages and towns ; 
but the Danube, between Passau and Linz, runs 
between ereat wooded hills, where scarce a village 
spire, hardly a castle is to be seen. The Danube 
and the Rhine, though their sources are not so very 
far apart, and though the violence of their streams 
is considerable, were not connecting links of trade. 
Trade passed along roads rather than rivers, and 
the dif^culty of navigation in the higher courses of 
the two great rivers did not tend to bring the peo- 
ples seated about them into commercial, social, and 
political unity. 


rilYSICAL DlVfsroX 


GLi'iTian)' is ph)'sically divided into twr grreat 
sections, dctcrmiiicil by elevation. If )'ou had a 
raised map of Oernian}-, marking the hills and 
plains, you ^\■Ollld see that all tlie North of the coun- 
try is one vast flat, and that the Sriuth is ele- 
vated. To the south are nunienius chains of 
mountains, fjr rather hills, and between these chains 
are elevated plateairs. The hill crmntr)' of (jerman\' 
is richer than the plain ci>untr\-. The latter is 
mostly santl)', pel)l)l_\', b'le;;-;)' land. Aloreox'er, the 
.Snuth is more blessed with a bright sky. All over 
the Hat Nnrth laud fogs from the cnld liiltic Sea roll 
and f'lrnia gie\- cun ip\-. The tirear)' plain, the dull 
sk)-, the ungrateful suil lia\ e cnmbined to make tlie 
N<u'th C'lermau less cheerfid than the German of the 
South. Moreover, the cnntjuering Sa.xons of the 
Northern plains found them peopled b)' plodding, 
sad, Sckuonic races. There is a certain difference 
in characteristic, therefore, between the German of 
the high land and the German nf the low land. 
I\Ioreo\'er, there is a difl'erence in tlialect. The low 
land German is called I'latt-Deutsch, — that is, fiat 
or Low-Dutch, — and tlie high land German is called 
Iloch-Deutsch, or High-Dutch. Dutch is Deutsch, 
that is, German. \\'e call the inhabitants of Hol- 
land Dutch, but the}' belong to the Low German 
race, and have no proper exclusive claim to that 

In mediawal times the literature was both high 
aiKJ low, according as the author of a book \ /as a 
High German or a Low German; but now-a-da)'s 
the literar}' and spoken language uf the nation is 



High German. This came about, to a great extent 
through Luther's having been a High German, and 
having translated the Bible into High German. 
There were earlier translations of the Bible than 
chat of Luther. For instance, there was one by a 
nonk of Halle, Martin Von Beheim, a very good 
translation, which no doubt formed the ground-work 
of Luther's more modern version. But the Refor- 
mation caused the Bible to be much more read 
than previously, and its language became familiar in 
every household in Protestant Germany ; and this 
ga\'e an immense advantage to High German. 
Moreover, at the period when German literature 
was taking its definite and final cast, the greatest 
writers issued from South Germany, so that now 
High German is alone recognized as the literar}' 

\\\ England there are many dialects, but no sin- 
gle dialect has, in like manner, imposed on the rest 
and become the literary tongue. The court and 
aristocracy in England have, ever since the court 
was Norman, had their own peculiar dialect. The 
dialect of English culture, and the literary language 
of the English people, is the language of the upper 
class of society ; whereas, in German}', it is the lan- 
guage of the upper elevation of the soil which has 
mastered all classes, and made court and aristoc- 
racy submit to speak and read in it as the sole dia- 
lect which is allowed to be regarded as literary. 




Charles V., thi; c,'randsijn of Maximilian I., was 
llic iiiiLjlit icst of the emperors since Charles the 
Great. He reic^neil ii\'er nmre lands tlian an\' other 
prince in Christendom. He was King of Spain, 
Naples, Sicih', ^Vustria, Him<_rar)', Pjohemia, and the 
Netherlands. In the New \\'(.)rld the col. jnies tliere 
established looked to him as their so\'ereii^ni, sc) that 
it ma\' be saiil his empire was 'ine on \\hich the 
sun ne\'er set. Yet his career ^^■;^s n'lt a happ\' one. 
His life was spent in fiyditin^; the Kin:,;' of I'rance, 
and the I'ope, and the Protestant princes of Ger- 
many, lie was not fond < if splendour ; he had not 
the beauty of Maximilian, but he \\'as a fine man, 
with dignit)' in his bearing. He had the long lower 
lip and underhung jaw of the Hapsburgs. His 
character was cold, and l:is demeanour gra\-e. He 
had a ready insight into men's characters, and, as 
Frescott sa\'s, " to the eml ot his reign he emplo)'ed 
no general in the field, no minister in the cabinet, 
no ambassador to a foreign court, no go\'ernor of 
a province whose abilities w^re inadequate to the 
trust which he im[)oscd on them. He placed im- 


^ "I'Tf tl l pivm f^mp 




i^\'V'M^ r 

(From an Engraving" by licham,) 


THE FOPirs BULL. 201 

bounded confidence in his generals ; he rewarded 
tlieir services with munificence ; he ne\er envied 
their fame, nor discovered an)- jealous)- of their 
power. There were, nevertheless, defects in his 
jjoiitical character which must considerabl}- abate 
the admiration due tij his extraordinar)- talents. 
Charles' ambition was insatiable, and his desire of 
being distinguished as a c<jnquer()r invoK'ed him in 
continual wars, which not only exhausted and op- 
])ressed his subjects, b>ut left him little leisure for 
gi\'ing attention to the interior go\'ernment and 
improvement of his kingdoms, the great objects of 
every prince who makes the happiness t)f his people 
the end of his go\ernment." ( )n the death of Maxi- 
milian the Austrian territories fell to Charles and 
his brother l'"erdinand conjtjinth' ; but as Charles 
was occupied in Spain, in 1521 he ceded to his 
brother Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and in 
the ensuing )-ear T\'rol. 1^\' this cession the House 
of Austria was di\'idecl into two separate branches 
— the Spanish branch, under Charles : and the Ger- 
man, untler I'erdinand. 

In the mean time the split in the Church was wid- 
ening. Pope Leo X., in 1520. issued a bull — that is. 
a deed — whereby he excommunicated Luther, or cut 
him off from communion with the Catholic Church 
as a heretic ; and all Christian princes and states 
were warned against his doctrine, and exhorted to 
arrest him and put a stop to his teaching. 

C)ne December morning, in the same }'ear, Luther 
made a pile of wood outside the eastern gate of 
Wittenberg and burnt on it [Jiddicl)' the Pope's bull. 




t^Krura a painting by Durcr. ) 


D/ET OF U'Ofn/S. 203 

He did this by the leper-hospital, on the spot where 
the rags infected with leprosy were burned, and he 
rlifl this to show his contempt for the Pope's bull. 
Next day he mounted the pulpit and said, "The 
burning of ycsterda)- \\-as a matter uf little import- 
ance; better were it had the liic consumed the 
I'upe, (jr rather the See of Rome. " 

To ])ut a term to the agitation of sjiirits Charles 
V^ called together a diet, or assembl)' of the states, 
at Worms. It met on Januar)- 6, 15JI. Luther 
was cited ti> appear at it, and the states prcparetl a 
long list of grie\ances against the I'ajjacy, which 
llie\' re(.]inred the emi)er(jr tri redress. 

Luther's journi,)' lu Worms was like a triumphal 
pnicession. Crowds assembled to see and cheer 
him ; on his airival at Worms liis apartments were 
thronged b)" persons of the highest I'ank. 

When he appeared before the diet he absolutely 
refusetl to recant his opinions. Charles foimd that 
man)' of the princes, notabl)' the electors of Saxony 
anil of tile Rhenish I'alatinate, faxdreil him. He 
was compelled t(_i wait till the latter had withdrawn 
from the diet before he ci.iuld pass an edict against 
Luther, placing him under the ban of the empire. 
As Charles had gi\'en him a promise ^of safe-con- 
duct he \\as dismissed immolested, with an impericd 
guard to protect him. As soon as I,uther had sent 
back the officer, he was taken charge of b\' some 
masked horsemen, sent by his friend and supporter, 
the Llector of Saxony, who carried him to the cas- 
tle of Wartburg, where he remained nine months 
in concealment. 

204 ^ MIGHTY EMPEK01<. 

Whilst there, a disciple of his, called Carlstadt, 
headed a mob of people and broke into the churches 
of Wittenberg, where they tore down the altars and 
destroyed the crucifixes and statues. This was go- 
ing much further than Luther approved, so he left 
his place of hiding and suddenly appeared at Wit- 
tenberg to stop the disorder. 

Other reformers appeared about this time, as Me- 
lancthon, CEcolampadius, and Zwingli. Melancthon's 
real name was Schwarzerde (Black Earth), but he 
turned it into Greek to sound grander. So CEcolam- 
padius' real name was Hausschein. 

The princes now began to la)' their hands on the 
church property. They turned out the monks and 
nuns and seized on their lands. They carried off the 
gold and silver vessels from the churches and melted 
them into coin to relieve their ovi'n necessities. The 
Margrave of Brandenburg was Grand Master of the 
Teutonic Knights. This was an order of warrior- 
churchmen, which had been instituted to hold the 
frontier against the heathen Sclavs. They had con- 
quered Prussia, and ruled it like princes. The mar- 
grave took advantage of his position to make him- 
self sovereign over Prussia, and annex the posses- 
sions of the order to his family. 

After the holding of the diet of Worms Charles 
had gone back to Spain, and in his absence there 
was no one to enforce the edict against Luther. 
Indeed, Luther had far too many protectors for the 
emperor to have enforced it, had he been in Ger- 
many ui person 


now tup: veasaxis \vAKEn it. 


1 in: peasants a\ ltc infliicnccil l3\' Ihc new ideas, 
and as tlie\" siiffered untkT Ljricx'nus wrontjs they 
rose ill re\-iilt fi\-er the whr.le cif German}-. The 
entire burden ejf taxation fell on them. "\'ou ma_\' 
see in f.irmhonses in German\- a curious jjicture, 
wliieli represents a triaiiLjle of steps, resting; on tlic 
hack of a farmer who plouL;lis. At the top of the 
l)\'ramid sits tlie emperor, antl from his m^aith 
proceeds tile sentence, "i\ll these sustain me." On 
a step below is a soldier, saN'ing, " I am paid to 
fiqht " ; on another, a lawyer, sa\'iny;, " I plunder 
all alike " ; on another, a pars(.)n, with the IcL^cnd, 
" I li\e on the tithe " : on another, the noble, say- 
int(, " 1 [Xi)' no taxes " ; and below, the peasant 
Ljroans, " All these are sustained by me." So it was. 
The gentleman paid no taxes. All the burden was 
on the farmer, or jieasant — the German term is 
baiicr. When the Reformation began to make 
\\a\' in Germany the peasants came out in swarms, 
armed with pitchforks, scythes, and flails, ^\ith 
the double intention of abolishing Catholicism and 
the feudal system. This latter was turned into a 



system of cruel oppression. The baucrs were 
mulcted of their time, their produce, and their 
money, and were treated little better than slaves." 
Their wrongs were ver}^ real and very grievous. 

The first outbreak of the peasants arose out of 
a very small matter. The Countess of Lupfen or- 
dered the peasants on her estates to spend the 
Sundays in summer in gathering strawberries for 
her table, and snail-shells for making ornamental 
pin-cushions. They refused to do so, and in a few 
days the country round was in arms. In a short 
time the insurrection extended through the South 
and East of Germany; it spread along the Main, 
the Rhine, the Danube. The peasants of the 
Odenwald rose to a man. Franconia was in a blaze, 
the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order was 
driven from his domains. To\\'ns were threat- 
ened, and threw open their gates. The Palatinate 
was in insurrection ; so were Hesse and Thuringia. 
The mountaineers of Styria, of Tyrol, of Salzburg 
were in arms. Austria was in commotion. The 
peasants of Bavaria alone remained unstirred. The 
insurgent farmers called themselves " the Chris- 
tian Army," or "the Gospel Brotherhood." They 
burned the castles and monasteries, and plundered 
the churches. You will see everywhere in Ger- 
many, especially in the South, ruined castles, and if 
you ask when they were ruined, )'ou will receive 

* Instead of paying rents in money for tlieir farms, tliey mostly 
paid by supplying farm produce, and giving free labor to their 



tlic almost invariable answer, " In the Peasants' 

You shall hear of the lakini; of one little town 
b\' the peasants, the town of W'einsberg;, as an ex- 
aaiiple of the scenes \\hich were enacted through 
the land. W'einsberg was under the command of 
the Count of ] lelfenstein, \\\\i) had married a 
daughter of the Kmperor Ma.xiniilian. 

On I'^aster morning, i5-5, a Ijhi' k ^\■ave r;£ peas- 
ants appeared rolling d(j\\ii the hill sides upon the 
town, and speedil)' surrounded it. They ^\■ere 
under the command of two men, I'lorian Ge)'er 
and Little Jacl; ijiicklein Rohsbacker). As their 
standard, the)' c.irrietl a pole \\\\.\\ a shoe on top 
of it. ]V-lore the host liovered a black-draped 
hag, screaming lier incantatiiins, to make the rebels 
invulnerable. 'I'his -was the " ]>lack Hoffmann," 
a witch possessing great inlluence o\-er the minds 
of the peasants. When they surrounded the walls 
they summoned the place to surrender. "Open 
your gates," the_\- shouted, "or you shall all he 
put to the edge of the s\\(.rd. IC\-i_:ry person and 
thing .will be burnt or killeil." A shower of bullets 
was the reid)-. .Sooii, howc\ei-, the peasants 
swarmed o\'er the walls, and the count and the 
soldiers retirei_l to the castle, whilst the citizens 
fled to the church. Tlie)- ^\ere uii.ible to hold out. 
The g.irrison offered to surrender if their lives 
were spared, and promised to pay a ransom. "A 
ton of gold would not suffice." was the answer, 
" we want your flesh." The soldiers were butch- 
ered. One was ordered to jump from the top of 



the tower on the lances and pitchforks below. 
" I would rather jump up than jump down," he 
answered. This elicited a roar of laughter and his 


life was spared. The insurgents stood in two rows, 
armed with scythes, swords, and pitchforks, forming 
a lane, and the prisoners were ordered to run down 
this lane, to be hacked to pieces by the weapons. 
''Count Louis of Helfenstein, " said Little Jack, 



)-ou shiill fipcn tlic dancu." X\. that iiKimcnt the 
countess, \\\\.\\ her baVje in lier arms, burst throutjh 
the crowd and flung herself at the feet of the cap- 
tain, implDnng pardenr fur lier luislDand. " h'riends," 
sliouted Liule Jack, "jnok at rne, how I treat the 
daughter of an emperor." lie threw her ihi"wn and 
];nelt on her liix-ast. Tlien a peasant, stamJing b\\ 
llirew liis sword at her, and wouneied tlie babe, 
\\'hose blood spilled ii\er its nn itlier's face. Then 
Little Jack ordered the men tij raise and hold up 
the countess, and force her tr) see the niuriler of her 
husband. lie alsc) commanded a tukller to strike 
up a dance tune and go befiH'e the cmmt, capering 
d(_A\n the lane. Count llelfenstein hatl not gone 
far before he fell; then the Pdack 1 kiffmann. the 
witch, rushed after him, am! literall)' tnre him to 
pieces ^\■ith her hands. Then a cart was heapeil 
with dung, and the poor countess, hugging her 
bleeding babe, was mounted i>n it, aiul so dri\'en 
awa\', anicing the jeers and }-ells of the insurgents. 
The peasants, hnding tile [irinces were arm- 
ing against them, ga\'e the ci>mmcnul of their host 
to a notiM'ious roliberd^night, tiOetz with the Iron 
Hand; but the Imst ([uite untliscipliiied, and 
wdieil the\- luul plundered a castle or a tuwn, or an 
.abbe\', hastened home with their b(jot}-. The 
Truchscss (steward) of Waldburg m.u-ched at the 
heatl of an arm\- against the rebels and succeeded 
in defeating them. C^tlur princes also met them 
ami routeil them, and at last the insurrection was 
put tlown ; but it was subdued with great and un- 
necessary sex'erity. idle pcur peasants had been 


driven to rebellion by their wrongs, and the only 
idea their victors had was to re-rivet the chains they 
had struggled to cast off. Even Luther wrote a 
pamphlet against them, calling on the princes " to 
strangle and stab them, as a man would treat a mad 


^From a painting by Cranach.) 




I ]\ruST now tell )Tm of an extraordinary event 
that took place in Westphalia. I here is a grand 
opera by Meyerbeer, " The Prophet," founded upon 
it, the overture and the grand march in which 
you are sure to know, as they are favorite instru- 
mental concerted pieces. Meyerbeer has not stuck 
to historical trutl^ in his opera; what tlie real facts 
were )'ou shall now be told. 

Miinstcr is a town in Westphalia, the seat of a 
bishop, "walled round, with a n(.iblc cathedral and 
man)- churclies ; but there is one peculiarit)' about 
MiJnster that distinguishes it from all other old 
German towns; it has not one old church spire in it. 
Once it liad a great many. Mow comes it that it 
now lias none ? 

In Mtinster li\'ed a draper, Knipperdolling by 
name, who was much excited over the doctrines of 
Luther, and he gathered man\' people in his house, 
and spoke to them bitter words against the Tope, 
the bishops, and the clergy. The bishop at this 
time was Francis of Waldeck, a man much inclined 
himself to Lutheranism ; indeed, later, he proposed 



to suppress Catholicism in the diocese, as he wanted 
to seize on it and appropriate it as a possession to 
his family. Moreover, in 1544, he joined the Protest- 
ant princes in a league against the Catholics ; but 
he did not want things to move too fast, lest he 

(From a wood-cut by H:ins Lcoaard Sch;iuiTclin.) 

should not be able to secure the wealthy See as 
personal property. 

Knipperdolling got a young priest, named Rott- 
mann, to preach in one of the churches against the 
errors of Catholicism, and he was a man of such 
fiery eloquence that he stirred up a mob which 
rushed through the town, wrecking the churches. 
The mob became daily more daring and threatening. 
They drove the priests out of the town, and some of 
the wealthy citizens fled, not knowing what would 
follow. The bishop would have yielded to all the 

EA '0 CI! A A -D EL I. A S. 2\l 

religious innovations if tlic rioters had not tlireat- 
eiicd his temporal position ami re\'enue. In 1532 
tlic pastor, Rnttmann, began te) preacli against the 
baptism of infants. Luther \\'rote tij him remon- 
strating, but in \'ain. The bishrjp was not in the 
town ; lie ^\•as at 3ilinden, of whieh See he was 
bishop as well. 

Finding that the town \\as in the hands of Knip- 
perdolling and Rottmann, who were confiscating the 
goods of the churches, and excluding thcisc who 
would not agree ^\'ith their opinions, the bishoj) ad- 
vanced to the ])lace at the head of some soldiers. 
Minister closed its gates against him. Negotiations 
were entered into; the Landgrave of liesse \\'as 
called in as pacificator, and articles of agreement 
were drawn up aiul signed. Some of the cluirclics 
were given up to the Luther.iiis, but the cathedral 
was reservetl lor the Catholics, and the Lutherans 
were forbidden to niolest the latter, and disturb 
their religious scrx'ices. 

The news of the C(.ni\'ersion of tlie city of Miinster 
to the ("iOS[)el spread, antl strangers came to it from 
all parts. Among these a tailor of Le\-den, 
calh'd fohn liockelson. Rottmann now threw up 
his Lutheranism and proclaimed himself opposed to 
man)' cif the doctrines which Luther still retained. 
Amongst other things he rejected ^^•as infcUit bap- 
tism. This createtl a split among the reformed in 
Miinster, and the disorders broke out afresli. The 
mob now fell on the cathedral and dro\'e tlie Cath- 
olics from it, and would not permit them to ^\■orship 
in it. They also invaded the Lutheran churches, 


and filled them with uproar. On the evening ot 
January 28, 1534, the Anabaptists stretched chains 
across the streets, assembled in armed bands, closed 
the gates and placed sentinels in all directions. 
When day dawned there appeared suddenly two 
men dressed like Prophets, with long, ragged beards 
and flowing mantles, staff in hand, who paced 
through the streets solemnly in the midst of the 
crowd, who bowed before them and saluted them as 
Enoch and Elias. These men were John Bockelson, 
the tailor, and one John Mattheson, head of the Ana- 
baptists of Holland. Knipperd oiling at once asso- 
ciated himself with them, and shortly the place 
was a scene of the wildest ecstacies. Men and 
women ran about the streets screaming and leap- 
ing, and crying out that they saw visions of angels 
with swords drawn urging them on to the extermi- 
nation of Lutherans and Catholics alike. Many 
Lutherans and Catholics, frightened, fearing a gen- 
eral massacre, fled the town. Mattheson mounted a 
pulpit, and cried out that Heaven demanded the 
purification of Zion, and that all ^\'ho did not hold 
the right faith should be put to the sword. This 
would have been carried into effect but for the in- 
tervention of Knipperdolling, who persuaded the 
rabble not to kill, but to expel those \\'\\o refused 
to be re-baptized. Accordingly, a great number of 
citizens were driven out, on a bitter day, when the 
land was covered with snow. Those who lagged 
were beaten ; those who were sick were carried to 
the market-place and re-baptized bj' Rottmann. 
" Never," says a witno-* " did I see anything 


more afflicting. The women carried their naked 
babes in their arms, and in vain sought rags where- 
with to cover them ; miserable children ran bare- 
footed, hanging to their father's coats, uttering 
piercing cries; okl people, bent \\ith age, and sick 
women, tottered and fell in the snow." 

This was too much to be borne. The bishop 
raised an army and marched against the cit\". Thus 
began a siege which was to last si.xteen months, dur- 
ing which a multitude of untrained fanatics, com- 
manded b}' a Dutch taihjr, held out against a numer- 
ous and \\'cll-armed force. 

Thenceforth the cit\' was ruled b_\- di\ine re\'ela- 
tions, or rather, b)' the crazes of the diseased brains 
f)f the prophets. One day the}' declared that all 
the officers and magistrates were tu be turnetl out 
of their offices, .'uul men nominatixl b)- themselves 
were to take their places; another tla\- Mattheson 
said it was revealed to him tjiat e\er\' book in the 
town except the Hible was to be destroyeil : accortl- 
ingl)' all the archives and libraries were collected 
in the market-place and burnt. Then it ^\ as re- 
\ealed to him that all the spires were to be pulled 
down ; so the church towers were reduced to stumps, 
from \\-hich the eneni)- could be \\-atche(.l and whence 
cannon could pla\' on them. <^ne day he declared 
he had been ordered b}- Heaxen to go forth, with 
promise of \ict<:)r_\-, against the besiegers. He 
dashed forth at the head of a large band, but was 
surrounded and he and his band slain. 

The death of Alattheson struck dismay into the 
hearts of the Anabaptists, but John Bockelson took 

. £ 



■i(!vantai,a' <if the moment to establish himself as 
head. lie declared that it was revealed to him 
that ]\Iattheson had been killed because he had 
disobeyed the heavenh' command, which was to 
f^o forth with fe\\". Instead (A that he had yone 
with many. I^ickelson said he had been or- 
dered in vision to mari-y iMattheson's widnw anil 
assume bis place. It was further re\-ealed to 
him that IMiinster was ti. be the heavenly Zi(_.n, the 
capital of the earth, and lie was to be Vmv^ M\-er it. 
Then he ordered all the people in tlie place to brin;^- 
him ever}' article of \-alue the\- possessed, yold and 
silver and jewelry; also all provisions the\' had, ani.1 
he arranfjed that all meals should be taken in com- 
mon. Then he had another re\-eIation that e\'ery 
man was t(j have as many wives as he lilted, and he 
Ljavc himself sixteen wives. This \\as too out- 
ras^cous for some to endure, and a plot was formed 
aL;'ainst him by a blacksmitli and abnut twi 1 hundred 
of the more res[)ectablc citizens, f)ut it was frus- 
trated, ami led to the seizure of the conspirators 
and the execution of a numl^er of them. Twent\'- 
fu'c were shot anel sixt)'-six \\'ei'e decapitated b\' 
KnipperdolliiiL;', wliom John P>ocl<elsoii had consti. 
tuted his executioner. With tlie (.leath of ll.ese men 
disajipeareil e\ei-y attempt at resistance. It ma\- be 
askeil how it was that there wei'e still so man^' peo- 
ple in the place. The reason was that before it \\'as 
iu\ested Anabaptists had swarmed into it from Hol- 
land and the North Lif German)-, thinking;' it was a 
fa\'C>ured cit\' o[ llea\'en. 

Ne.xt, Bockels'jn created tweh'e '.kd-;t.s, tei wdiom 

WuM^N'i Losin^iF I6TH LLNruia 

(From a painting by Holbein.) 




he gave titles to as many parts of German)-. They 
were all tailors, shoemakers, coopers, and bakers. 
He also appointed t\vent)--sevcn apostles to go 
through Europe, converting people and calling on 
them to come t<j Zion. 

In the market-place a pulpit and a throne were 
erected, and thrice in the week Dockelson adminis- 
tered justice fi'om the thnjne, clad in ro)-al apparel, 
surrounded b\' liis dukes and pages gr)rgeously 
dressed. When the court was o\'er a sermon was 
preached from the pulpit, and ^^ hen that was con- 
cluded, the king, his sixteen queens, the preacher, 
and the court danced to the strains of the royal 

One of his wix'es, disgusted ^\■ith the profanit)' and 
her degradation, entreated lea\e to tlepart fmm the 
town. King John cut off her head with his own 
sword before all the people. One of the bisho[3's 
soldiers, ha\ing been taken prisoner, was urged to 
embrace the doctrines of the /Vnabaptists. lie had 
the audacit)' to repl)- that whate\-er their tloctrines 
might be their practice was de\'ilish ; whereupon 
King John, foaming \\-ith rage, hacked off his head 
with his own hand. 

v\t last, on midsummer e\e. 153'''. after a siege of 
sixteen months, the cit\' was taken. Se\'eral of the 
citizens, unable longer to endure the t\'rann\-, cru- 
elty, and abominations committed b\- tlie king, 
helped the soldiers of the prince-bishop to climb 
the walls, open the gates, and surprise the city. A 
desperate hand-to-hand fight ensued ; the streets 
ran with blood. ]kA\\\ Bockelson, instead of leading 



his people, hid himself, but was caught. So was 

When the place was in his hands the prince- 
bishop entered. John of Leyden and Knipperdol- 
ling were cruelly tortured, their flesh plucked off 
with red-hot pincers, and then a dagger was thrust 
into their hearts. Finalh', their bodies ^\■ere hung 
in iron cages to the tower of a church in Miinster. 

Thus ended this hideous drama, which produced 
an indescribable effect throughout German)-. Miin- 
ster, after this, in spite of the desire of the prince- 
bishop to establish Lutheran ism, reverted to Ca- 
tholicism, and remains Catholic to this day. 


now TII]'; l'K( iTKs TAXI'S I'ROTESTKU, 

The Rcformatiiiii, whicli liiul been suecessful in 
German)', spread with equal ra]ji(lity in the neigh- 
boring; countries. At Ztirich was Zwingli, a man o( 
more daring mind tlian Lutlier ; his equal in intrc- 
pidit)', and his superior in learning. He went much 
further than Lutlier, and completel)' u\'erturnei.i the 
whole faljric of established worship. As earh' as 
1524 the canton of Zurich renounced the supremacy 
of the I'ope ; and in. IS-S ]5eni, ISasle, and Schaff- 
liausen, and part of the Cirisons, Glarus, cind iYppen- 
7x1, followed the example. In Gene\-a Calvin took 
another line Irom Luther. lie did not accept his 
doctrine of free justilic.ition, but lie taught that 
siinie men were predestined to eternal life and oth- 
ers tt) eternal damnation ; tliat the former could not 
fall awa)', anil that nothing that tlie latter did could 
gain tliem hea\'en. I^uther and Cal\-in looked on 
each otlier with great hostility. In some parts of 
Germany Calvinism spread, in other parts Luther- 
anism. The Lutherans ■were called Protestants, 
and the Calvinists were called Reformed. The 
name of Protestant was thus acquired ; 



Charles V. summoned a diet (that is, a parliament 
of the states) to meet at Spires in 1529, to discuss 
the means of resisting and driving back the Turks, 
who had overrun Hungar}', and threatened the 
Austrian dominions ; and also to settle something 
relative to the religious contests. By a majority of 
voices a decree was passed which forbade further 
innovation in religion, and ordered that the Catholic 
subjects of Protestant princes should be allowed to 
exercise their religion in freedom ; that no hostilities 
were to be committed under pretence of religion, 
and that the ministers of the Gospel were to preach 
the word of God according to the interpretation of 
the Church, and to abstain from ridiculing and abus- 
ing the doctrines hitherto held as sacred. The 
Lutherans, upon this, drew up 2l protest, which they 
delivered to the diet. They argued that Protestant 
princes could not tolerate the exercise of a religion 
in their lands which they held to be against God's 
word, and that the ministers could not follow the 
interpretation of the Church, which they regarded 
as antichristian. 

' This protest was signed by the Elector of Saxony, 
the Margrave of Brandenburg — Anspach, the duke 
of Brunswick, the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, the 
Prince of Anhalt, and fourteen free imperial cities. 
It is from this protest that the Lutherans acquired 
the name of Protestants, which has since been applied 
to all who separated from the Church of Rome. 

Charles V. made many efforts to pacify the strife 
without coming to severe measures. He called to 
gether another diet, to meet at Augsburg in 1530. 



At ihc very upcniny of the diet, e\-idence appeared 
of the Liiicomproniibiny character of tlie rrotestants. 
The parHament bef^^an with a mass, attended by the 
emperor and his hiyh functionaries. The Elector 
of Saxony was grand marshall and bore the sword 
of state. At first lie refused to attend, and ^\'as 
only persuaded b)* one of the Lutheran pastors, who 
reminded him that the prophet Elisha [)ermittcd 
Naaman to bow himself in the house of Rimmon. 
However, though he and the Landgrave of Hesse 
attended, they refused to kneel, and remained stand- 
ing upright whilst the w hole congregation was bowed. 

When the diet began proceedings the Lutherans 
presented to it a formulary of their belief as far as 
they had s.ettled it at the time. This was drawn 
up by Phili[) RLdancthon, and goes b\- the name of 
the "Augsburg Confession." 

On November 1 0th Charles published a decree, 
insisting that all things shoukl remain on their 
ancient footing till a council of the Church assembletl, 
which was to be in six months' time ; antl also order- 
iiiLT the restoration of all the lanils and buildin<^s 
seized b\' the nobles aiul princes w hich had belonged 
to the Church. Charles ga\-e the Protestants till 
April to consider, aiul if the\' then refused submis- 
sion he threatened them with the ban of the empire. 

Thereupon the Protestant princes assembled in the 
little Hessian town of Smalkald (December, 1530) 
and made a league with one another for mutual sup- 
port against the emperor. The_\- also entered into 
a secret treaty with P'rancis L, King of France, and 
the)- recei\-ed promises of help from the kings of 

(Fruni iiortrait by Cranach.) 

-lO J^ 



England, Sweden, ami Denmark'. Huth parties pre- 
pared for war, and the imperial chamber commenced 
proceedings against the Protestant princes for the 
restitution of the ecclesiastical states they had con- 
fiscated. The heads of the league were the Elector, 
John Frederick of Sa.xony, a heart)' supporter of 
Luther and a sincere man, and the Landgra\e, Philip 
of Hesse, a man with two wives, and of bad charac- 
ter, whose reforming zeal sprang chiefly from greed 
after the spoils of the Church. 

In the year 1545 a council (jf the Church assem- 
bled at Trent, to correct the abuses in religion, 
but the Protestants woidd take no part in it. This 
opposition angered the emperor, and he prepared 
for hostilities. 

When the arm\- of the Smalkald league marched 
against him he pronounced the ban of the empire 
against the leaders, that is, -Jeclared them outlaws, 
deprived of imperial protection and of their prin- 
cipalities. The confederates replied by a letter re- 
nouncing their allegiance, and refusing him the 
imperial title. The Protestant princes were weak- 
eneil by internal disscntion and jealousies, and 
Charles found himself deserted by the Pope, who 
was, as usual, jealous of his power in Ital}'. P'ran- 
cis L, of France, moreover, sent money to the Smal- 
kald union Fortunately for Charles, Francis died, 
and when the league were least expecting his attack 
he hastened to assail their forces on the Elbe. He 
threw a bridge of boats over the river at Miihlberg, 
though the enemy occupied the highest bank, and 
the river \\'as three hundred paces wide. Whilst 


his bridge was being constructed he suddenly 
crossed tlie river b\-a ford, at the head of his cavahy, 
in a fog whxli concealed his movements, and burst 
on the Protestant army at the same moment that 
a light \v'ind dispersed the vapors and the sun 
blaz.ed out. The battle that ensued ended in 
the success of the Imperialists. John Frederick, 
Elector of Saxony, was wounded in the face and 
taken prisoner. When brought before Charles he 
bowed to kiss his hand, saying, " Most powerful and 
gracious emperor, the fortunes of war have rendered 
me )'our prisoner — " " Hah I " exclaimed Charles, 
" ;/<;tc' you entitle me emperor, the other da)' you 
styled me Charles of Ghent." 

Charles then made his triumphal entry into Wit- 
tenberg, and conducted himself with great mag- 
nanimity. The elector was deprived of all his 
dominions except Gotha, and they were given to 
Maurice of Saxony. 

There were then two Saxon ducal houses, called 
the Ernestine and the Albcrtine, descended from 
two brothers, Ernest, \\\\o died in i486, and Albert, 
who died in 1500. These brothers had divided the 
paternal inheritance between them. The Ernestine 
dukes retained the title of electors of Saxony, the 
Albertine dukes were called dukes of Saxony. 
John Frederick, who was deposed after the battle oi 
Miihlberg, was the grandson of Ernest, and Mau- 
rice of Saxony \\'as grandson of Albert. 

Maurice was a very crafty man. He had quarrelled 
a good deal with John Frederick, as his dominions 
were intermixed with those of the elector, and as he 

TJIli KE I 'Ul. r Uf MA I 'R/CE. 


j)0Sscss«l a joint sliarc in sdiiic rieli mines. When 
the Sma'iKald union was formed he refiHed to j'jin it, 
thouj''h lie was a Protestant, and he eourted the 
favour of the emperor without \ ii^orously fiL,di*"inL; 
for liim. In return for liiTh".yalt\' („ liarles now L,M\'e 
him the electorate of Saxon\-, with ilie hinds from 
whieh John Fredericlc had Ijeen oirsted. This was 
wdiat Maurice had been aiming; after. No sooner 
had he '^oX. all he wanted I rom the emperor th.m he 
turned aLjainst him, and became his most bitter and 
dan;j;erous opj^onent. 

Charles Ljave him occasion. Ihe Landgra\-e of 
Hesse had _L;i\'en himself up and been impris(jncd, 
\\dien he foumi himself deserted and powerless. 
diaries, it is said, had sent him pri\ate assin'ance 
that he woidd be set free if he made his submission, 
but Charles still kept him m conllnemeiit, and this 
anL^ered Maurice, \\ho had marriei-1 the landejrave's 

Wdien, as he supposed, the -war \\'as at an end, 
Charles retiretl to Innsbruck, autl elismissetl the 
arm)- he had collected. M.uirice now secretK' made 
a league with Henry II., King of I-"rance, b\- which it 
was arranged that the I''rench ^^■cre to attack Lor- 
raine, and fini.1 ?ilaurice a large nionthK" sum of 
mone\' as long as he continued in arms against the 
emperor. At the same time he did all he could to 
throw dust in the eyes of Charles. lie hired a 
house at Trent for his rece])tion. and had it magnifi- 
cently furnished, and declared his intention of 
going to the council. Then, when all was ripe, and 
Charles lulled into unsuspicion, Maurice suddenly 


threw off the mask, uttered a procLamation, in 
which he declared that he took up arms in defence 
of Protestantism, to oppose the emperor becoming 
absolute monarch, and to release the landgrave. 

(From a wood-cut by Ammann.) 

He swept at once through Bavaria, witliout suffer- 
ing tlie emperor time to collect an army against 
him. No words can express Charles' astonishment 
and consternation at the revolt of Maurice. lie saw 



a c^rcat number of German prinees in arms against 
liim at a mrjment when he had des[)atched a large 
body of his troops into Hungary to resist the Turks. 
At tlic same time Henry II. iin-adecl Lorraine, 
captured Toul, \'erdun, and I\Ietz, and tlireatened 
Strasburg. Augsburg surrendered to Maurice. 
Nuremberg joined the confederac)-. 

Charles threw a few soldiers into Fuesscn to 
guard the Scharnitz pass, but Maiu'ice, ad\'ancing 
with rapid marches, dishidged them, ad\-anced up 
the Lech \'alle}', crossed into the Inn x'alley, and 
would have surprised and taken the emperor had 
he not made his escajie in a litter — for he was ill 
at the time with gout — acre)ss the mountains, b\' 
roads almost impassable, in a tlark and stormy 
night, only a few hours before ^.laurice entered 

Maurice gave up the palace and pro[)ert)- of the 
emperor at Innsbruck to pillage. 

Dismaj'cd b>' this disaster, unable to gather to- 
gether an army to fight at once the Turks in 1 lun- 
gary, the French in Lorraine, and the I'l'otest.mts in 
the midst of the empire, Charles was forced to 
come to an agreement with Maurice and the Pr(~it- 
estant princes, ^\■hich was concluded on the 2d of 
August, 1552, and this is called the " Pacification of 
Passau." By it he agreed to release the landgraxe, 
and to allow liberty to the Protestants in Catholic 
lands ; and the Protestants on their side agreed to 
allow Catholic worship to be performed for Catholics 
in their territories. \\'hen the agreement h;id been 
siijned Maurice marched against the Turks, and 



Charles, anxious to wipe away his recent disgrace, 
collected an army and entered Lorraine. But for- 
tune had deserted him. He was unable to retake 
Metz, and in the Low Countries also his troops met 
with reverse In Italy, moreover, his inveterate 
enemy, Pope Paul IV., joined with France in a 
league for the conquest of Naples. Paul was like 
the German prelates, a great prince as well as a 
prelate, and he cared more for his temporal 
power than for the welfare of the Church. Conse- 
quently, though Charles strove hard, and exhausted 
himself for the good of the Catholic religion in 
Germany, he was hampered and countermined by 
the Pope, who was jealous of his power. But for 
die Pope it is by no means improbable that Charles 
would have re-established Catholic supremacy 
through Germany. 

At last, sick at heart and failing in health, the 
great emperor resolved to lay clown the crown that 
had been to him a burden through life. In 1555 
he gave up to his son, Philip II., the Netherlands, 
Naples, Spain, and the rich colonies of America. 
To his brother, Ferdinand 1., who was already King 
of Bohemia and Hungary, he gave over the Ger- 
man-Austrian lands and the imperial title. Then 
he withdrew into the monastery of S. Just, in 
Spain, where he died, three years later. 

His death was brought about in a very strange 
way. He took it into his head that he would like 
to have his funeral service performed over him be- 
fore he was dead. He was dressed in a winding 
sheet and laid in a coffin, whilst his attendants, in 

DEATH 01- c7/,i/?rrs i: 

deep mourning, liolJinL,' lapcrs r.f unbleacliccl wax, 
stood around him. The ''uncral ^ci'\icc was said, 
ar;d the hollow \'imcc of the miiiiai-ch was heard 
joining in the pra^-ers fi-oni the cufhn- liut the 
grave-clothes were damp ; he caught a chill ^^■hich 
]:iroduced fever, and hurried him tu his gra\'e un 
the 2 1st of September, ISSS, in the fift3--nint]r year 
of his age. 



Notwithstanding the Pacification of Passau 
and its subsequent ratification at a diet held at 
Augsburg in 1555, quarrels continued between the 
Catholics and Protestants, and between the Luther- 
ans and Calvinists, and even between discordant 
factions among the Lutherans themselves. In Sax- 
ony the Lutheran elector, Augustus, cruelly perse- 
cuted the Calvinists, and in the Palatinate the Cal- 
vinist prince expelled all the Lutherans, and cut off 
the head of a pastor who denied the doctrine of 
the Trinity. On his death his son, who was a vehe- 
ment Lutheran, called back the Evangelicals and 
ordered all the Calvinist ministers who refused to 
recant to be driven out of the country. 

In the mean time Alva, the Spanish governor of 
the Netherlands, was subjugating the Low Countries 
for Philip II. with great cruelty, and driving out 
the Calvinists. 

Gebhard of Waldburg had been elected Arch- 
bishop of Cologne. He fell desperately in love 
with a beautiful maiden, Agnes of Mansfeld, and 
turned Calvinist, and wanted to make the arch- 


RC DO LI' If // 


bishopric the propcrt}" < A l.imsch', to descend to liis 
children b\- the beautiful Agnes, whom he married. 
]jut the pei.pleof Cologne ^\■ere against liim ; the 
Lutheran princes v>ould not lielp \\\\\\ because he 
had turned Cahinist ; liri\\e\er, he gut promise of 
lielp from the P.alatine, antl from the Dutch and 
J'rench, and carried on a desultory war to obtain 
possession of Cologne. At last he was completely 
defeated, and retired tn Slrasburg. 

v\ll the bishopries in North fierman}- had been 
seized and annexed t'j their d' imininns b\- thejjrinces 
of Brandenburg, ])ru)is\\ick", Alecklenburg, and Sax- 
on)'. In the hen-ditar)' possessions of the lifjuse of 
Hapsburg the fvefijrmation \\'as suppre^.^ed. The 
maxim hat! been formulated that as was the prince 
so shrjuld f)e tlie penple, and so the prnices e\'ery- 
w'here insisted on making their people beliex'e, or 
disbelieve, or change about like thei isch'es. 

l'"erdinand I. and liis sun, ]\biximilian II., were 
gentle and gond empemrs, so that tl:c general antag- 
onism did not break out into \-iolent hostilities 
imder them ; but it was otherwise v. hen the gloom}' 
Kudol])h II. came to the throne. lie was the son 
of Maximilian II. He was an apathetic man, ut- 
terlv unsuited to go\'ern, fond of horses, of which 
he kept a great many, though ho ne\-er nnumted 
their backs, and \-ery tond of chemistrw and 
alchemy, wdiich was then allied to chemistry. He 
had been educated in Spain, and the Protestants 
were alarmed at his appointment, fe.iring that he 
would use his power without nii 'deration, and with 
intolerance. Thej- accordingly fLirmed an union, 


and placed the Elector Palatine Frederick at the 
head. Thereupon the Catholic princes also united, 
and bound themselves to assist each other and de- 
fend the Catholic religion. At the head of their 
League was Maximilian of Bavaria. And now, 
with the Protestant Union on one side, and the 
Catholic League on the other, armed and 
watching each other suspiciousl)', only a signal was 
wanted to make them draw swords. 

That signal was given on May 23, 1618. 

On the death of Rudolph IL (1612) his brother, 
Matthias, succeeded, but he was an old man, and un- 
able to cope with the forces gathering to explosion 
in the empire. Accordingly, he committed the gov- 
ernment to his nephew, Ferdinand, whom he caused 
to be proclaimed King of Bohemia. Ferdinand went 
at once to Prague, and nominated seven Bohemian 
Catholic nobles and three Protestants to form a 
council to govern the country. The most influen- 
tial of these were Slawata and ' Martinitz, the 
former of whom was especially disliked by the 
Protestants because he had become a Catholic after 
having been brought up as a Lutheran. 

Rudolph IL had issued an imperial manifesto, 
granting freedom of worship in Bohemia to Luther- 
ans, Calvinists, Calixtins, and Catholics alike. 

The Protestants began to erect two new churches 
for themselves. Impediments were thrown in their 
way. They appealed to the emperor, Matthias, 
and received a curt reply. It came to their ears that 
this was not dictated by the emperor himself, but 
proceeded from his council in Prague. The)' rose 



tumultuously, took arms, and, led b\- Count Mat- 
thias of Thurn, attacked the imperial castle at 
I'rague, burst in, and fluny Slawata and Martinitz, 
with their secretar\-, out of the 'A'indow (<[ the coun- 
cil chamber, and fired at them as thc_\- fell. The 
lieiijht was ninet)' feet, )-et, marvellous to relate, 
they were not killed. Under the window was a 
heap of litter, and uld [japers, and the mud of the 
ditch. Slawata was indeed dreadfull}- shattered, 
but recovered. The poor secretary tumbled upon 
Martinitz, and is said to have aprilo^jized fur his ap- 
parent rudeness. lie was afterwards enncjbled and 
tjiven the name of Hohcnfall, or "Hii:;h ]""all," 
This act of \'i(>lence brought on the terrible Thirtv 
Years' War, \\diich lastetl through three reigns, those 
of Matthias, l'"erdiii.ind II., ,uid J''erdinand III., and 
caused almost unjiaralleled miser)' in (Germany. 

P'erdinand at (.)nce raised two bodies of troops, 
])laced them under foreign generals, Damiiierre and 
liouipioi, and prepared to chastise the insurgents. 
But Count Thurn felt that the die was cast, and 
open WAX \\as ine\'itable. He gathered a large 
arm\-, was assisted by the Silesians and Lusatians, 
defeated Dampierre and l50uqu<:)i, and laid siege to 
the cities of Bohemia that remained faithful to the 
emperor. The elector palatine and the Protest- 
ant Union sent a bod)- of mercenaries into Bohe- 
mia, under the command of the able general Mans- 
feld. At this juncture of affairs I\Iatthias died, 
and his ne[)he\\', Ferdinand, succeeded. 

Count Thurn left IMansfeld in Bohemia to hold 
Bouquoi in check and marched swiftl)' through 


Moravia, increasing his army, and entered Upper 
Austria. Ferdinand ^\•as in Vienna with a small 
garrison, and no prospect of help. He knew that 
the loss of Vienna A\'ould be the loss of his crown 
and the ruin of his house. The Bohemians sur- 
rounded the city ; tlie cannon battered the walls of 
his palace ; many of the citizens were in secret cor- 
respondence with the besiegers. Sixteen members 
of the states burst into his apartment, and with 
threats and reproaches insisted on the gates being 
opened to the insurgents, but Ferdinand never wav- 
ered for a moment. He had been kneeling in prayer 
in his cabinet when all seemed lost, when suddenly 
the conviction came over him that his delivery was 
at hand. At the ver)- moment when all hope seemed 
gone, and the mutinous citizens were preparing to 
open the gates, a peal of trumpets announced the 
arrival of succour. It was only five hundred horse- 
men sent by Dampierre, who had effected an entry 
into the city unperceived by the besiegers. Their ar- 
rival operated like magic. The students, the burgh, 
ers flew to arms; additional succour arrived. 
The news spcedil}' followed that Bouquoi had de- 
feated Mansfeld, dispersed his army, and was march- 
ing upon Prague. Count Thurn hastily broke up 
the siege and hastened back into Bohemia. Fer- 
dinand now went to Frankfort, where he was elected 
emperor, the Protestant electors being too divided 
in interest to oppose him. The Bohemians, how- 
ever, refused to acknowledge him as their king. 
They elected the Count Palatine F'rederick, who 



had married Elizabeth, daughter of James L, of Eng- 

The Hungarians also revolted, under Bethlen 
Gabor, prince of Transylvania. Gabor obtained 
possession of Presburg by treacher}-, where was pre- 
served the crown of Hungary, and marched upon 
Vienna, which was again besieged. Dampierre and 
Buquoi menaced the Hungarian rear, and Gabor 
was obliged to fall back ; but he caused himself to 
be crowned King of Elungary. 

Ferdinand found himself excluded from nearly 
every town in Bohemia and the greater part of 
Hungary. Frederick, elector palatine, was a vain 
and ambitious man, void of genius, and fond of dis- 
play. He was inflated with pride at his election to 
the throne of Bohemia. He went to Prague, where 
he gave offence to the Lutherans by destroying the 
tsacred representations which they admitted into 
their churches, and by his levity and folly. 

The Catholic League was not idle. It had gath- 
ered an army under Maximilian of Bavaria, which 
marched to Prague, and finding the troops of Fred- 
erick and the Union outside the city on the " White 
Mountain," attacked and completely routed them 
(Nov. 8, 1620). The battle lasted little more than 
an hour. With the loss of only three hundred men 
the army of the League took all the standards and 
cannon of the enemy, left 4000 of them dead 
on the field, and drove a thousand more into the 
river Moldau; and thus, atone blow, dissipated the 
hopes of Frederick, and decided the fate of Bohe- 
mia. Frederick mounted his horse and galloped 



away, leaving,' his crown and treasure to fall into 
the hands (A the Imperialists. One winter had seen 
him flourish and fade, and thence he recei\-cd the 
nick-name of the " Winter Kiny." 

Frederick escaped to the Netherlands. The em- 
peror placed him under the ban, deprived him of 
his electorate, ^^■hich he Lja\-e tn Duke iMaximilian of 
liavaria, together with the Upper Palatinate, that 
remains to I^avaria to the present day. 

The Bohemians were forced to return to the 
Catholic Church, and many thousand I'rotestant 
families left their native land rather than submit. 



With the subjugation of Bohemia it seemed for 
the moment that the war was at an end. The Prot- 
estant union was broken up, and the elector pala- 
tine, its head, a refugee in Holland. But now sev- 
eral other Protestant princes entered the field to 
carry on the war for the restoration of the banished 
palatine. These were the Margrave George Fred- 
erick of Baden-Durlach, Duke Christian of Bruns- 
wick, Count Ernest of Mansfeld, and finally. Chris- 
tian IV., King of Denmark. 

In the great battle of the White Mountain a 
Netherland general called Tilly, a man of very re- 
markable military genius, had distinguished him- 
self on the side of the Imperialists. He was now 
given command of an army. The Protestants, on 
their side, had a leader of hardly inferior ability, the 
adventurer Mansfeld. 

Tilly was defeated by Mansfeld in the spring of 
1622, and was reduced to the defensive, whilst he 
saw a powerful combination rising on every side 
against the House of Austria. He bided his time, 
waiting till he could attack singly, these enemies 
whom he could not resist when united. The oppor- 






tunit}- presented itself by the Margra\'e of Baden 
leaving Mansfeld to enter Bavaria. Tilly suddenly 
gathered some Spanish troops together, and thus 
reinforced swept down on the margrave at Wimp- 
fen, where he utterly routed him, -with the loss 
of half his army, and took his whole train of artil- 
ler)' and military chest. Without a pause he has- 
tened after the Duke of Brunswick, caught him ai 
Hochst, as he was crossing the Main, drove him 
back upon Mansfeld, ■who ^^'as besieging Laden- 
burg, and sent their united forces flying across the 
Rhine, to seek a refuge in Elsass. Hitherto the 
war had been carried on by the Catholic League 
for the emperor. Now the emperor resolved on 
sending an army of his own into the field, but he 
was without money. Then a Bohemian gentleman, 
Albert of Wallenstein, volunteered to raise an 
army of 50,000 fighting men, which would main- 
tain itself, and put the emperor to a comparatively 
trifling expense. Wallenstein had been born at 
Prague in 1583. For his attachment to the royal 
cause in the troubles of Bohemia he had been ban- 
ished and deprived of his estates by the Protestant 
part)'. On the triumph of the Imperialists his 
property was restored to him. When he made his 
offer to the emperor, Ferdinand was at first in- 
clined to treat it as the craze of a heated imagina- 
tion. But he soon found that the scheme had 
been well thought out and weighed. He therefore 
gave his consent. In a very short while Wallen- 
stein had collected an army of 30,000 men, adven- 
turers, flushed with hope of advancement and a 


ALUKRr Vi'N ^^■-^LLE^:,TEI^. 


thirst for pillage. Before long the host had swelled 
far beyond the stipulated number. The old Prot- 
estant Union had gone to pieces, but now a Prot- 
estant League was formed, supported by Christian 
IV., King of Denmark, Gustavus Adolphus, King of 
Sweden, and James I., of England. Christian of 
Denmark took the field and entered Thuringia. 
Tilly at once flew to meet him, and defeated him. 
The king left 5000 men dead on the field, 2000 
prisoners ; and lost half his officers and all his artil- 
lery and baggage. 

At the same time Wallenstein went in search of 
Mansfeld, who had invaded Hungar\', where he had 
effected a junction with Bethlen Gabon The 
news of the defeat of Christian, however, came to 
the Protestant host, and as disease had broken out 
among them they were discouraged. Bethlen 
Gabor concluded a hasty treaty with the emperor, 
and disbanded his troops. Those of Mansfeld melted 
away with disease and desertion, and the count 
tried to escape with twelve officers to Venice, but 
fell ill on his \vay and died. Vt'allenstein, having 
delivered Hungar)-, hastened to unite with Tilly to 
drive King Christian out of Germany. They pur- 
sued him into his own territories. He was driven 
from place to place, and from post to post. The 
troops which he ventured to bring into the field 
were scattered in all directions, and before the 
close of 1628 only one fortress remained in his 
possession of the whole country between the Elbe 
and the extremity of Jutland. 

Now, once more, peace might have been restored 


to distracted and miserable German}' but for the 
pride and elation of Ferdinand, \\\\o refused the 
overtures made by the King of Denmark. 

\\y the I'acification of I'assau, in 1552, it will be 
remembered that the Protestant princes undertook 
not to confiscate any more of the estates of the 
Church, bishoprics and abbej's. They had not, 
however, acted scrupidously in this matter. By a 
subterfuge more ingenious than justifiable the\- 
had managed to get hold of all the ecclesiastical 
principalities. At this time the I\Iargra\'e of Bran- 
denburg had got possession of the archbishopric 
of Magdeburg and tjie bishopric of Halberstadt. 
The Duke of Ilolstcin had the bishoprics of Liibeck 
and the archbishopric of Hamburg and Bremen, 
and Frederick IL, Prince of Denmark', had the bish- 
opric of Wcrden. They abolished Catholicism, 
and did away ^\'ith Episcopac)', }'ct retained foi 
themselves the titles and tlie possessions and princi- 
palities of the bishops.'"' The Protestant princes 
would not yield up such rich and important posses- 
sions, ami the war was prosecuted. Wallenstein 
drove the two dukes of Mecklenburg from their 
duchies, and Laid siege to Stralsund. The citizens 
of this town, liowever, held out \\\\\\ great deter- 
mination. Although the King of Denmark was de- 
feated on land, his fleet, with that of the King of 
Sweden, came to the aid of Stralsund, and baffled 
all the efforts of Wallenstein. He is said to ha\-e 
declared that " he would reduce Stralsund e\'en if 

* ThcN' had taken two archbishoprics and twch'c ljibho]^r:cs. 


b(_)und to hea\'cn with cli;iiiis uf adamant." His 
perseverance would liavc succeeded had not the 
citizens invoked tlie aid of Gustavus Adolphus, 
King cf Sweden, who tlirew a Swedish garrison into 
tlie town, and AV'allcnstcin, exhausted by fatigue, 
was forced to retire. 

In the mean time Wallenstcin's soldiers liad 
become the dread of German}'. AVherever they 
went they pillaged Catholics and Protestants alike. 
They were mere mercenaries fighting for plunder, 
and quite indifferent on Avhich side they fought. 
They burnt villages and towns, robbed and mur- 
dered and maltreated wherever they went. Some 
impoverished citizens killed themselves to escape 
the misery of a lingering death by hunger. Moved 
by the distress of the country, the Catholic League 
assembled at Heidelberg in 1629, and requested 
the emperor to restore peace and remedy the evils 
occasioned by Wallenstcin's army. 

Ferdinand was obliged to submit, and the com- 
mand of the United League and imperial army was 
taken from Wallenstein and gi\'en to Tilly. Wal- 
icnstein, whom the emperor had created Duke of 
Friedland, retired to his estates in Bohemia. 



TlIF, ompcrrir nnw iiisistrd i 'ii tile rcstoratirm of 
the two archbisliopric^ and twcKx- hishoprics seized 
by the Protestant princes, and bei^'an f'/ircibly t'j 
\vrest them awa)-. He tool^ the archbishopric of 
Magdeburg and appointed his son Leopold to it, 
and ga\'e him also the archbishopric of Hamburg' 
and the bishopric of Halberstadt, and the abbey of 
Hersfeld, on \\'hich the Landgra\'eof Hesse had laid 
his hands. TJie Protestant princes apjiealed for 
hel]5 to Gnsta\'us ^Vdolphus, a hing ol great niilitar\' 
skill, \'ast energ}' and resource. He landed ^\ ith a 
.small but well-organized arnu' on the coast of Pom- 
crania. When the ne\\"s reached the I'.niperor 
Ferdinand, his courtiers said tluit this was onh' a 
snow king menacing him, \\ho ^\•^:luid melt a\\'ay as 
he came South iiiulcr the ra\"s tit the imperial sun. 
Put the arm)- of P'erdinand somi saw the fallac\' 
of this. Gusta\-us ^Vdolphus dro\'e it out of Pom- 
erania, and then hastened to the relief of Magde- 
burg, ^^hich \\'as besieged b\' Till)'. His assistance, 
howcNcr, came too late. Tilly took the city, and it 
became a prey to his lawless soldiers, who plun- 
dered and fired it. P"or one whole day the place 


was at their mcrc}\ The most dreadful scenes were 
enacted. The wild Croatian mercenaries rushed up 
and down the str'';ets massacring every man they 
met, and throwing burning brands into the liouses. 
The\' even burst into a church and killed the 
\\'omen they found huddled there. On the second 
day only did Till}- enter the city to stay the slaugh- 
ter and ruin. He was a tall, haggarddooking man, 
dressed in a short slashed green satin jacket, \\\\X\ a 
long red feather in his high-crowned hat, with large 
bright eyes peering from beneath his deeply fur- 
rowed brow, a stiff moustache under his pointed 
nose. He sat on a bony charger, and looked round 
on the ruins. Smoke and lambent flame rose on 
all sides. The wood and plaster houses were de- 
stroyed ; onl}' the cathedral, the churches and stone- 
built houses stood intact. In the streets la}' the 
stark bodies of twenty thousand dead men. The 
cathedral doors were opened, and four thousand 
men who had taken refuge in it were brought forth, 
pale, famished, and trembling, almost all that re- 
mained of the inhabitants. Till}' wrote to Vienna, 
"Since the destruction of Tro}' and Jerusaleni no 
such a siege has been seen." 

With the capture and destruction of Magdeburg 
the luck of Till}' turned. Hitherto he had been 
resistless ; now the shadow of this crime weighed 
on him and paral}'sed him. Gustavus Adolphus 
marched against him, and the two armies met at 
Breitenfeld, near Leipzig. Till)', who could boast 
of having won thirty-six battles, was here beaten for 
the first time, and had to seek safety in flight. 


2 50 ^ SlVEDiStr A-JjVG in GERMANY. 

Gustavus Adolphus now swept through Germany, 
driving out the Catholics, as Tilly had expelled the 
Protestants. At Merseburg two thousand of the 
Imperialists were cut to pieces. Wurzburg was 
taken, and all the monks found in it given up to 
the soldiers to butcher. The Swedes were as un- 
sparing as the Imperialists. Only within the last 
five years have the skulls been buried of all the 
male population of Kirchoven in the Breisgau who 
were slaughtered by the Swedes, after having in- 
duced them to surrender with promise of life. 

The palatine and his wife Elizabeth returned, 
and the latter, in her delight at the successes of 
Gustavus, on meeting him threw her arms round 
his neck and exclaimed, " Not Till}-, but I, have 
taken Gustavus the Great a prisoner!" They ac- 
companied him in his triumphant march through 
Bavaria, and with him entered Munich; and in 
mocker)' both of the religion of the people and of 
the arms of the city, which is a monk, she made a 
monkey ride on a horse at her side dressed in mo- 
nastic habit, with a rosary in its paw, blinking and 
making faces at the people. Again Tilly gathered 
an army and met Gustavus, but in a battle on the 
Lech was defeated, and a cannon ball shattered his 
thigh. His dj'ing \\-arning to IMaximilian, Elector 
of Bavaria, was to garrison Ratisbon, at any price, 
as the key to Austria and Bohemia. 

The cruelties and outrages committed by the 
.Swedes now exasperated the peasantry to the last 
degree, and they rose against them, and, hiding in 
the birch woods that cover so much of the rubbly 



plain of l>a\'aria, sallied fortli and fell on all the 
stragglers of the Protestant arm\-. ]>anner, an of- 
ficer of (justavus, took a tearful \'engeance on the 
town of Friedstadt, where the citizens had mur- 
dered some of his soldier^, who had been pluneler- 
ing and outraging the people, lie burnt the place 
to the ground, and jnit all the -inhabitants to the 

(justa\'LLs "was a sturdih'-built man, with a tall 
head, pale blue or gra\' e\'es. lie \\'ore no armour, 
but a buff leather jerkin, and on his head a \\hite 
hat with a green feather in it, ami high tijp }-ellow 
leather boots. He had landed in I'omerania \\'\l\\ 
only sixteen thousand men, but his army rapidh' 
swelled as that of the Imperialists melted away. 
The snow king, instead of melting, like a snowball 
gathered size as he rolled on. He had now 70,000 
men. In his dire distress, ni>t l^nowing where else 
to turn for aid, the emperor appealed once more to 
Wallenstein. W^allenstcin, full)- aware (jf the em- 
peror's helplessness, coldh' retused imless his own 
terms were acceded to, that the w hole of the im- 
perial troops should be pd.iced sulely and unre- 
ser\'edl)- under his, and that ex'ery con- 
quest made b\' him should be entirely at his dis- 
posal, and that he should be allowed to confiscate 
whate\-er property he chose for tlie maintenance of 
his troops. These were harel terms, and placed the 
emperor and his dominions at the merc\- of an un- 
principled ad\'enturer. ]-)ut in his necessit\- Fer- 
dinand had no resource but to }-ield. Wallenstein 
had been li\ing in more than ro\-al state in Bohemia 

2ij2 -^ SJI'EDIS/r A'/XG /X GEA'J/.-lxy. 

on the spoils of his first campaign, lie had a mag- 
nificent palace at Prague, with six gates guarded by 
sentinels. Fifty halbardiers, clothed in splendid 
uniforms, waited in his ante-chamber ; six barons and 
as many knights a.ttended his person ; his table was 
daily spread for sixty guests ; his stables were fur- 
nished with marble mangers. When he travelled 
his numerous suites were conveyed in twelve state 
coaches and fifty carriages ; as many waggons bore 
his plate and ec|uipage, and the cavalcade was ac- 
companied by fifty grooms on horseback, with fifty 
led horses richly caparisoned. Wallenstein was a 
tall, thin man, with sallow complexion, red, short 
cropped hair, with small twinkling eyes. He did 
not talk much but he was very observant, and he 
quickly took the measure of the abilities of a man 
with whom he had to do. He was grand and noble 
in his ideas, disdained dissimulation, hated flattery 
and every vice that evinced meanness and timidity 
of character. He was very generous to all who did 
him a good turn, but implacable in his resentments. 
No sooner was it rumoured that Wallenstein was to 
be general again than mercenaries came to him 
from all quarters, and he found himself at once at 
the head of sixty thousand men. Gustavus was then 
at Nuremberg at the head of only sixteen thousatid. 
Wallenstein marched against him, but would not 
attack him. If ever you go to Nuremberg by rail 
you will cross a long, level plain, very bare of trees, 
but you will see some rising ground beiore reach- 
ing Nuremberg, crowned by a town. This is FCirth, 
which name means a fort. It was a strongly forti- 



fied place. Gu.sta\'us made it hi> licadquartcrs. 
Wallcnstcin occupiLxl a low wooded liill, about two 
miles south of Fiirtli, surmounted liy a ruined 
castle, "where lie intrenched himself, and Cjuietl}' 
waited his time. Some one asked him \\\\y he did 
not attack the Swedish kin_L;", as he had so man\- 
more men. "No," answered W'allenstein, "too 
much has been staked on battles. Wait; we will 
try other means." Now he was himself eager to 
measure his military skill against Gusta\-us, who was 
considered the greatest general of the day, but he 
restrained his ardmir, and waited, \\atching him for 
three whole months. Gustavus could n<)t get away. 
He was cramped in Fiirth. He ^^■as short nf jjrovis- 
ions, but then he was gathering help fidm his allies, 
till his army swelled to the size of that of the Im- 
perialists, 'file Duke of Bavaria became im])atient, 
and remonstrated with Wallenstein. "Wait," an- 
swereci the Bohemian general. His soldiers became 
clamorous. "W^ait," lie saiel. i\nd he was right. 
At last Gusta\'us could bear inaction no more ; pes- 
tilence liad broken out in his army, and he deter- 
mined to drive W'allenstein from his jiositinn The 
attack was commenced b_\- the German troops in the 
Swedish ser\-ice, but a shower of balls, rained down 
from a hundretl j)ieces of artillery, soon compelled 
them to retreat. C}usta\'us then, to shame them, led 
on his own sturd\' warriors, the Finlanders ; but 
their ranks were shattered by a cannonade, and 
bra\'er)' availed nothing against an enemy who was 
not to be reached. A third attack met no better 
success A fourth, fifth, sixth, from fresh bodies 



of troops, proved equally hopeless, and at last, 
after a ten-hours' engagement, and a loss of 3000 
men, Gustavus was compelled to draw off his 
forces. The difficult task of effecting a retreat in the 
face of the enemy was skilfully executed by Colonel 
Hepburn, a Scotch officer in the Swedish service. 

Offended at the promotion of an inferior officer 
above his head, he had sworn not to draw his 
sword for Gustavus again ; but now the king, in 
his emergency, begged of him this favour, the 
brave soldier forgot his resentment. " Sire, this is 
the only service I cannot refuse to perform, since 
it requires some daring," was his answer, and he 
executed his task most gallantly. But it was not 
Wallenstein's intention alwaj's to remain on the de- 
fensive. At length, on Nov. 6, 1632, just two 
months after the battle of Furth, the imperial and 
Swedish armies were ranged against each other for 
a decisive engagement at Liitzen, not far from 
Leipzig. A thick fog that hung about till eleven 
o'clock hid each army from the other. The Impe- 
rialists were drawn up in line with four squares of 
infantry in the centre, which were further protected 
by trenches lined with musketeers and flanked 
with cannon. 

The king himself led the attack. Annoyed by 
the trenches he leaped from his horse, seized a 
pike and led on his men to pass them, and the im- 
perial infantry were driven back. Rut at that mo- 
ment Gustavus heard that \\\s left was wavering, 
flew to its assistance, but, in the fog, missed his 
way, and was surromidcd by a body of Imperialist 


horsemen, wb.D fired. A ball struck and shattered 
his arm ; a second pierced his breast. He fell from 
his saddle, and his masterless horse, dashinLj along 
the front of the lines, proclaimed to the troops the 
h.jss of their kini;. The Duke of Sa.xe-W'eimar 
cried out that (justa\ais was not dead, but a pris- 
oner, and the Swedes rushed like an axalanche on 
the Imperialists, mad w ith raye, and eager to res- 
cue their sox'ereign. The Imperialists gax'e \va)-. 
Two of their powder waggons exploded, and the 
victory would have declared for the Swedes had 
not reinforcements arrixed t(j arrest their \'ictorious 
career. Then the fng came down with the ap- 
proach of night, dense, raw, and blinding, and put 
an end to the battle. But for the death of Gusta- 
vus the ri)ut of Wallenstein would ha\'e been com- 
plete, lie had lost his cannon, and his men ^\■ere 
disorganized. He withdrew to Bohemia to recon- 
struct his arm\', and there he remained for a long 
time inactive, whilst carr^-ing on a secret correspon- 
dence with the eneni)-. 

Ferdinand, in the mean time, was very uneasy at 
the tremendous power exercised by the general, and 
he desired to escape from the obligatiim wherewith 
he had bound himself when asking Wallenstein's 
lielp. The town of Ratisbon, w hich was the key 
to Bohemia, \\'as besieged by the Duke of Weimar, 
and the emperor ordered Wallenstein to relieve it. 
But the Duke of Friedland (tjiat was Wallenstein's 
title) refused to be ordered about b}' the emperor, 
as against the compact, and allowed Ratisbon and 
two other important towns to be taken by the 


enemy without attemi^ting to stay them. This 
conduct irritated P^erdinand, and he resolved on 
dismissing him from the supreme command. Then 
Wallenstein, in his anger and disgust, sent offers to 
tlie Protestant princes to come over to their side. 
But tlie\- suspected tliat he was only deluding them 
and put him off. The imperial court was well 
aware of the meditated treachery, and in alarm at 
its result. Who could resist Wallenstein, combined 
with the Protestant princes and the Swedes? In 
indignation Ferdinand deprived him of the com- 
mand and pronounced against him the ban of the 
empire. But Wallenstein ^\•as confident in his 
power over his men. Pie was mistaken. 

There were two Scotchmen, Gordon and Leslie, 
and an Irishman, Butler, A\hom he spcciall}' trusted. 
They had, however, been gained by the imperial 
court. Another, Captain Devereux, was taken into 
the plot. At midnight of February 25, 1634, Gor- 
don, at the head of thirty soldiers, burst into Wal- 
lenstein's bedroom after he had retired to rest. 
Alarmed by the tramp he sprang from his bed in 
his night-shirt, and forced open his window to call 
for assistance. Devereux shouted, " Are you the 
traitor who are going to deliver the imperial troops 
to the enemy, and tear the crown from the head of 
the emperor?" Wallenstein made no reply. Pie 
stretched out his arms. Gordon held aloft the flam- 
ing candle, and a halbert was run through the body 
of the great general. 

Though the treachery of Wallenstein is undenia- 
fjle, his murder must ever remain as a stain on the 
histor\" of Austria. 




After the tlcatli of Wallcnsttin the command over 
the imperial army was <^riveii to the son of the em- 
per(jr, afterwards Ferdinand III., and in the place of 
GustavLis Ad(jlphus, Duke Ik-rnartl of Weimar and 
the Swedish general, Horn, commanded the Protest- 
ant armies. v\t Nordlingen tile latter were com- 
pletely tlefeated. Horn was taken prisoner and 
Bernard fletl, with the loss uf all his treasure and 
twelve thousand men. The h'rench, now jealous of 
the power of the emperor, came to the assistance of 
the Protestants, and forined an army, burning, butch- 
ering and plundering o\'er the Rhine. Success 
swa)'ed from side to side ; neither obtained decisive 
\'ictory. The countr)- was become too exhausted to 
endure further war. Attempts at concluding peace 
were begun at Osnabriick and ]\Iiinster, and finally 
concluded in 1648 ; and this is known in history as 
the Peace of Westphalia. 

This peace brought the terrible Thirty Years' War 

to an end. but by it Germany lost some of her 

fairest territories. France took Elsass, Sweden took 

Pomerania. Switzerland and Holland, which had 

17 257 


hitherto been united to the German Empire, were 
separated, and recognized as independent states. 
The supreme power was invested in the Rciclistag, 
or Imperial Diet, which was to sit permanently at 
Ratisbon. The several German princes were made 
almost wholly independent, so that the empire as an 
unit)' «-as reduced to a shadow. ^Vith regard to 
religion, Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists were 
put on the same footing of equalit)'. y\ll church 
lands seized by the Protestants were to remain in 
the hands of the Protestant princes. Pope Innocent 
X. protested and published a bull against this decis- 
ion, but no one paid attention to him. Germany was 
sick to the heart of war. 

Of the devastation wrought in those terrible thirty 
years it is hard to realize the extent. Two-thirds 
of the inhabitants had perished, not only by the 
sword, but b)' the miseries which followed in the 
train of war — famine and pestilence. Hundreds of 
villages had disappeared ; others stood cmpt}', un- 
populated. The corn-fields were trampled down and 
untilled. Trade had failed in the towns. The 
streets were deserted and grass-grown, the doors of 
the houses broken in. The shattered windows of 
many dwellings showed that the inhabitants were 
dead or were wanderers. But to come to particulars. 
In the little duchy of Wiirtembcrg, in the Thirty 
Years' War, 8 towns, 45 villages, 68 churches, and 
36,000 houses were destroyed. In the seven years 
between 1634-1641, in Wiirtemberg alone, 345,000 
persons perished, In Thuringia, before the war, in 
19 villages were 1773 families ; of these only 316 



remained after it. Ijefijre tlie war there were half a 
million inhabitants in the Palatinate , at the Peace 
of Westphalia there were 4.S,ooo. In l6lS the 
])opnlation of (Germany numberetl between i6 and 
17 millions ; in 1*^49 there \\ere nnt quite 4 millions. 
So terrible had been the famine during" the war 
that cases of cannibalism \\-ere not rare. Bands 
of men were formed who lix'ed lil;e wild beasts, 
prcyintj on tiiose t!ie\- cauijht. Near W'ljrms such 
a band was attacked and dis[)ersed, as they were 
cooking in a gi'eat cauldron human legs and arms. 
Starving creatures cut dijwn criminals from the gal- 
low's to eat them. So great was the depopula- 
tion that in Ph'anconia the state passed a law 
authorizing every man to marry two wi\'es, and 
forbidding men and women from becoming monks 
and nuns. 




Ten years after the Peace of Westphalia Leopold, 
the son of Ferdinand III., was elected emperor. 
His long reign of nearly fifty years was for the most 
part taken up with war against Louis XIV., of 
France. This crafty and powerful monarch had 
made up his mind that the Rhine should be the 
frontier of his realm. Leopold was an amiable but 
weak sovereign, reigning at a time when one of very 
strong character and iron will was necessary to bind 
together the loosely cohering empire, and to meet 
and frustrate the intrigues of Louis. 

The princes of Germany were so selfish, so indif- 
ferent to the welfare of fatherland in their greed 
of personal advancement, that they were ready to 
lend an ear to the wily advice of the French king, 
and to act as his tools against their country's peace 
and prosperity. Accordingly, many of the German 
princes sided with the French king against their 
emperor. By the Treaty of Westphalia Charles 
Louis, son of the contemptible Frederick, the winter 
king, was reinstated in the Palatinate of the Rhine, 
of which Heidelberg was the capital, but he was 
not given back the Upper Palatin.ite, which re- 



mainc'iJ to Ikivaria. This irritated him, and he 
readily received bribes from Louis XIV. The 
Duke of WiirtemberL,^ alsd sidetl \\ith tlie I'reiich, 
as ^\■ell as the electors of IMaiiiz and ColoLjne, and 
the dukes of iJrunswick and I lesse-Cassel. 

The result of this w<is that some of the fairest 
parts of German)', especial!)' the riL;ht bank n[ the 
Rhine and the Palatinate, weie wasted b)' the 
FreTich. Towns and \'illayes just reco\eriii;^ from 
the Thirt)' Years" W^ar were Ijurnt again. Se\-eral 
important towns were lost to (jerman)', especiall)- 
Strasburg, Avhich was treacherousl)' seized b)- Louis 
in time of peace (l6Sl). Louis had for sometime 
been in correspontience witli sonie of the magis- 
trates of Strasburg. One da\' RL de Lou\ois, the 
b'rench minister of war, summoned a gentleman to 
him nameil Chamill)', and ga\'(j him the following 
instructions : "Start this evening for I'asle. (_)n the 
fourth da)- from this, punctuall)- at 2 o'clock, sta- 
tion )'ourself on the l\.hine liridgc, note-book in 
hand, and ^xTite ilown c\er)thing )-ou see going on 
for two hours. Then at four o'clock come back, 
tra\'clling night and da)- withc_>ut stopping." 

Cliamilh' obc)'ed. He reached I^asle, and on the 
da\' and at the hour appointed stationed himself, 
note-book in hand, on the bridge. I'resentl)-, a 
market-cait tlrives b\\ Then an old \\oman with a 
basket of fruit passes. Anon, a little urcliin trun- 
dles his hoop b)-. Next, an old gentleman in blue 
top-coat jogs past on his grey mare. 'Idiree o'clock 
chimes from the cathedral to\\'er. Just at the last 
stroke a tali fellow in \'ellow waistcoat and breeches 
saup.ters up, goes to the middle of the bridge, 


lounges over, looks at the water, then strikes three 
hearty blows with his stick on the parapet. Down 
goes every detail in Chamilly's book. At four 
o'clock he jumps into his carriage, and at midnight, 
after two daj's of incessant travelling, presents him- 
self before the minister, feeling ashamed of having 
such trifles to record. M. de I.ouvois took the note- 
book, and when his eye caught the mention of the 
yellow-breeched man a gleam of joy flashed across 
his face. Ws. rushed to the king, roused him from 
sleep, spoke in private with him for a few moments, 
and then couriers were sent off in haste with sealed 
orders. Eight daj's after, the city of Strasburg was 
surrounded by French troops and summoned to sur- 
render. It capitulated, and threw open its gates on 
the 30th September, 1681. The three strokes of the 
stick given by the fellow in )'clIow were the signal 
that the magistrates were read)- to receive the French. 
Three pacifications were concluded with the 
French: that of Nimwegen, which concluded the 
Dutch war in 1678 ; that of l^yswick, at the end 
of the Orleans war, carried on because of the claim 
of the Duchess of Orleans to the estates of her 
brother Charles, the elector palatine, who died with- 
out children (this was concluded in 1697); and that 
of Utrecht, after the Spanish W'ar of the Succession, 
in 1 7 14. The people called these treaties the peaces 
of Nimweg, Reissweg, and Unrecht (take-away, 
tear-away, and unright), because Germany lost 
something by them all. In order to facilitate his 
schemes Louis XIV. stirred up the Turks to invade 
the empire. They poured through Hungary and 
laid siege to Vienna, which held out valiantly for 



two montlis. The Turks swept the ncicjliborhood 
an<l sent ciyht)--scven thousand of the inliabitants 
into slaver)'. The)' blew up the \\alU, and the city 
was surrounded by ruins and piles of rLdjbish. Still 
the dauntless Viennese held out, animated b)' their 
gallant commander, Count StahrenberL;', \\\v\ though 
wounded, was carried in a litter, and b)' their 
bishop, Kolonitsch, who devoted himself zealously 
to ministering to the wounded. At last, in despair, 

lilikLIN IN lOOO. 

the)^ sent up a flight eif rockets from the top i>f the 
spire of S. Stephen's Church. It was answ ered by 
the discharge of iire-arms ; John Sobieski, King of 
i'olanil, hail come tii the rescue. The Turks "Wtre 
defeatetl and drix'en back « ith a loss of twcnt)' 
thousand men. ^\'hen the tent of the \isir who 
commandetl the Turks ^\as tak'Lii, the lettirs of 
Louis XI\'^. ^\'ere found in it, inciting him against 
the Austrians. 

During this sad time of hostilit)' two men espe- 
ciall)'' distinguished themseh'es b)' their high char- 
acters, genius, and courage, these were the " Great 
Elector" and Prince Eugene. 



By the Peace of Westphalia Germany was di- 
vided into a great number of independent states. 
The princes of these states, as already said, cared 
little for the commonwealth, and were bent on their 
own selfish ends, and they set the emperor at defi- 
ance. The Elector of Brandenburg was a noble 

Henry I. had created the Margravate of Branden- 
burg as a bulwark against the heathen Wends, who 
lived on the Baltic. It was not then called Bran- 
denburg but the Northmark. But Albert the Bear, 
who conquered the greater portion of the Wend- 
land and annexed it to his state, called himself Mar- 
grave of Brandenburg. His race died out, and at 
the time of the Council of Constance, Frederick of 
Hohenzollern, Burgrave of Nuremberg, bought the 
margravate from the emperor Sigismund, in 1415. 
You may remember an account given of Hohen- 
staufen, the cradle of the great Swabian emperors. 
Hohenzollern, the cradle of the kings of Prussia and 
present emperors of Germany, is just such another 
conical hill, in the same Swabian table-land. It be- 




longs now to tlie emperor, \\lio lias rebuilt the cas- 
tle with great splendour. "S'l.u ina\- remember also 
Iiow \-ou were told that Albert of ] Srandenburg", 
Grand Master of the Teutonic ( )r(ler, became a 
Lutheran and seized on Prussia, which \\as the 
possession of the Cjrrler, and made it liis (.wn as a 

(From tnodtjl in l>LTiin.) 

hereditary state. Albert left granddaugliters, and 
Jiiachim hrederick, Idecturnf HraiulenburL;", mar- 
ried I'de.mor, the younger, and his son, Johii Sigis- 
nuind, married ;\nn.i, the elder, and secured the 
Ducln' of I'russia to their f.unii)-. The relationship 
was strange. I*deanor was thus stepmother to her 
elde-r sister, and the steiimother was se\'en )-ears 
)-ounger than jier stepdaughter. I'reilerick W'illian,, 
the Great Elector, was grandson of John Sigismund 
aiul .\nna. Under him a preat deal e'f additional 



territory was got, but he gained his name of "The 
Great Elector " partly by his wise government of his 
states, and partly by his brilliant military achieve- 
ments. He stood faithfully by the side of the em- 
peror and resisted all the o\'ertures of the King of 
I'rance. Louis XIV., to keep his dangerous oppo- 
nent engaged at a distance from the Rhine, made a 
league with the Swedes, and induced them to attack 
Brandctiburg whilst the elector was on the Upper 

(From a medal,) 

Rhine. But no sooner did he hear of their descent 
than he hastened home with forced marches and 
encountered them when they least expected his 
presence. A battle was fought at Fehrbellin. Dur- 
ing the fight his equerr}', Frobenius, observed that 
the enemy's fire was mainly directed against the 
elector himself, who was distinguished by the white 
horse he rode. Frobenius induced the elector to 
change mounts with him. Scarce had he done so 
and gone two paces from his master when a can- 
non-ball struck him dead. Shortly after, Frederick 



William saw himself surrounded b}- the enemy, but 
lie had nine draj^ofjns with him, and tliey hewed their 
way thrim^di. After a desperate stru;,r^de the l-Sran- 
deiiburtjcrs won the day, and the Swedes, who had 
been thoutjht in\incible, \\ere obliLjed to take to 
flil^dit. In the ^\'inter of 1678 the Swedes again in- 
vaded Prussia, but were repulsed b)' the elector, who 
pursued them in sledges (jver the frozen Gidf of 
Courland, caught them again at Riga, and again de- 
feated them. 



Prince Eugene of Savoy was a small man of no 
presence, whose mission it was to check the ad- 
vance of Louis XIV. in Germany on the West, and 
in the East to break the power of the Turks. On 
account of his feeble body li« had been designed 
for the Church, and was nicknamed "the little Ab- 
bot." But Eugene felt no call for the religious 
life, and a very great desire to be a soldier. He 
first offered his services to Louis XIV., but that 
king dismissed him contemptuously, and then he 
left France and took part in the Austrian wars 
against the Turks. During the siege of Vienna, in 
1683, he displayed such heroism that the emperor 
gave him the command of a regiment of dragoons. 
The great dragoons scoffed at their ofScer and said, 
"Hah! the Abbotikin in his grey cloak won't 
reach the chins of the Turks to pull their beards." 
But they were mistaken. He not on!)? pulled their 
beards, but pulled them over and made them bite 
the dust. In 1697 he was given his first command 
over an army, and was sent to oppose the Turks, 
who had invaded Hungary under the lead of the 
sultan. Eugene came on them as they were crossing 




the river Teiss on a temporary bridge, and with the 
loss of onl)' 500 men completely routed the Turks, 
who lost 30,000 men, and sent the sultan flying 
back to C<jnstantinople. 

L(juis XIV. now did all in his power to gain the 
littleman. 1 le offered him the title nf fi(dd-marshal, 
the gii\-ern(.)rship of a French pri.\-ince, and a large 
sum of mone)'. liut Mugene sent the messengers 
back with the answer, " Tell )-our king that I am 
field-marshal to an emperor, which is quite as hon- 
ourable an office as that he offers me. As f("ir 
mone}", 1 do not want it. As long as I faithfully 
ser\'e m)' master, he -will not suffer me tu lack." 
Prince I'Aigene completely won the hearts of his 
soldiers. He lonketl carefuU)' after their \\ants, anil 
when their pa\' \\ as in arrear he wduld pa\' them 
out of his own pocket. lie was frank and kindl)'in 
address; and wdien the little man calletl In his sol- 
diers to show their metal, it \\ as like sending an 
electric shock through them ; they would g(.i an\-- 
wliere, do anything lie told them. He gained great 
renown through his success against the Turks, who 
were not only the enemies of Austria, but of Chris- 
tendom. He defeated them in se\'eral battles, and 
at length forced them to conclude a peace greatly 
to the advantage of the emperor. 

Eugene was soon to gain even greater renown by 
his victories over the French. 



After the death of Charles II. o5 Spain, without 
children, Louis XIV. of France, the emperor, Leo- 
pold I., and Joseph Ferdinand, Elector of Bavaria, 
all put in a claim to the crown of Spain. This 
occasioned a war of thirteen years, in which the 
principal European states were involved. It began 
under Leopold I., was carried on by his son, Joseph 
I., and only came to an end under Charles VI., the 
brother of Joseph I. 

On the side of the emperor were Holland, Eng- 
land, Portugal, the Elector of Hanover, and the 
Elector Frederick of Brandenburg, who, with the 
consent of the emperor, assumed the title of King 
of Prussia. 

*The command of the allies was given to Prince 
Eugene and the illustrious English general, the 
Duke of Marlborough. Against such able com- 
manders the French could do nothing. They were 
beaten in Germany, beaten in the Netherlands, and 
beaten in Italy. Their allies were the Elector of 
Bavaria and the Pope. Moreover, an insurrection 
broke out in Hungary at the very time that they 


^From Llie painting by Wi;nZLl.J 



were in/ading German)^ so as greatly to distract 
the imperial forces. Prince Eugene began the war 
in Ital)', but speedil}' Germany became the scene 
of conflict, as Louis XIV. poured an arm}' over the 
Rhine, across the Black Forest to the Danube, 
threatening Vienna. This great arm)% which was 
joined by the Bavarians, numbered 56,000 men, 
and Marlborough and Eugene Avere only able to 
oppose 52,000 to them. The great and decisive 
battle, upon which the fate of the House of Austria 
hung, was fought at Blenheim, a village on the 
Danube, between Ulm and Ingolstadt. The French 
A\'ere drawn up behind the small stream, the Nebel- 
bach, which forms swamps and marshes, before 
it falls into the Danube. In addition to these 
swamps ninety pieces of cannon protected the 
centre. On the right the French had the village 
of Blenheim; and the left rested on a thick wood. 
Marlborough and Eugene drew up before the 
swamp, in order of battle, Marlborough on the left 
and centre, and Eugene on the right. The battle 
began with an attack by the British infantry on 
Blenheim, but they were repulsed, after repeated 
encounters, with great slaughter. Then Marlbor- 
ough suddenly gathered them together and drove 
them liiic a wedge against the centre, scrambling, 
floundeang through the swamps, but going on 
as Eng'ishmen will go, although the 90 cannon 
pounded them. A cannon-ball grazed his horse 
and threw Marlborough to the ground ; the troops 
trembled for their leader ; the fate of Austria 
hung suspended on the life of the general. But 



next moment he was seen mounted again. A ring- 
ing cheer burst from the British, and on they went, 
flinging bundles and faggrits before them into the 
marsh, and stepping o\-er on them. Marlborough 
got the ca\'alry o\er first and charged up the slope 
at the iMxnch and Bavarians. After the cavalr)' 
came the inf.mtry. The centre ga\'e wa)', recoiled ; 
the enem)''s force broke up, and nothing remained 
but a disorganized multitude. Of the cneni)' 40,- 
000 men \\'ere killed, wDunded, i)r taken prisoners. 
The)' lost 300 standartls and 120 pieces of cannon. 

The present post-road has been carried over the 
fjattle-field, and, to make a foundation, heaps of 
bones of horses and men ha\e fjeen shovelled in 
that were found there \\hen the road was con- 
structed. ]5roken, dispersed, and ruined, the 
wretched remains of that arm)' which had threat- 
ened German)' with bondage, and spread terror to 
the g.ites of \'ienna, made the best of its wa)' back 
to the Rhine and X'osges, pursued by the allies. 
The first result of this \ictor)' was the sid^mission 
of the Duke of ]]avaria ; the next was that the 
emperor was able to send troops into Hungary to 
quell the insurrection there. The battle of Blen- 
lieim was fought on Aug. 2, 1704. The scene of 
warfare now passed to the Netherlands ; but Marl- 
borough remained inactive all 1705, watching the 
I'rench, who contemptuously in\'ented and piped a 
song, " Marlborough s'cn \'a t'en guerre," which 
i\-as played before his lines to fire him into activity ; 
but Marlborough knew what he was about and 
on May 12, 1706, he went to war in good earnest, 





met the l'"rench at Ramillies and totally defeated 
them. He beat them ac^ain in 1 70S at Oudenarde, 
and again -witli yreat ]|J^s at IMalplaquet in 1709. 
At the same time Eut^r^ne was defeating; the h'rench 
in Italy. Overwhelmed b\- these disasters Louis 
XIV. trieil t(j make peace. He offered to ujive up 
all claim to .Spain, and v\rn to supph' mone\' to 
lielp the allies to expel his L,M'andsiin, I'hilip of 
.\njou, the new hin;^^ nut nl .Spain. liut the allies 
were not satislled \\'ith 'diese i.iffers. The\' insistetl 
on Louis himself (lri\'inL; his t^randson out of Spain, 
and bindint^ liimself co dii it ^\■ithin two months. 
This was asking; for the impossible, and Louis XI\'. 
said, with reason, " Well, if I must fight, let it be 
against my natural enemies, not against ni)- own 

"Pride," sa}'s the pro\erb, ''goes befrire a fall." 
This proved true now. I'Drtune turned <piite unex- 
pectcdl)', and favoured the i'rench king. The emper- 
or Joseph I. died without children, and the Austrian 
inheritance passed to his brothel- Charles, who 
claimed the thmne of Si-i.iin. JUit European so\'er- 
cigns did not want to liaxe an emperor with the 
dominieins of Charles \'., so he was fiuxed to gi\-e up 
his claims to Spain, and the grandson of Louis XIV. 
\\as acknowdedged as king and toiik the title of 
I'hilip \'. This was the result of the agreement 
come to by the powers at the Peace of LTtrecht in 
1713, and the emperor was obliged ne.xtyearto con- 
sent to it at the Treat)' of Rastadt. 



We are now at the period of powdered wigs and 
patched faces. It is called the period of rococco, 
from roclie and coqiiille, rock and shell, as the orna- 
mental work in architectural decoration affected a 
combination of rock and shell work. There was a 
general reaction against the stiffness of former times. 
All straight lines were avoided ; gentlemen even 
studied to stand in curved attitudes. The ladies in 
the i6th century had worn rich and thick damask 
silks, embroidered till they were stiff. At the mar- 
riage of a princess of one of the Saxon families she 
found it impossible to kneel, and was obliged to be 
married standing, like an extinguisher, with her 
skirts hard as board. But now the ladies wore light 
silk and satin, with their skirts looped up in paniers, 
showing petticoats of another colour. Their heads 
of hair were, however, piled up and interwoven with 
ribbands and chains of pearls, and feathers and 
flowers were stuck into them, so that before going 
out in such array they could not lie down to sleep 
in their beds. 

Gentlemen wore white powdered wigs, velvet 
coats richly froggcd, and long satin embroidered 
waistcoats, satin breeches, and silk stockings. They 
had their faces closely shaved. The story is told of 




a duchess, Louise Maria Gonzaga, niece of Louis 
XIV., when she was shown the portrait of Ladislas, 
King of Poland, whom she was to marry, that she 
exclaimed: — "But — he is dcforiried ! He has two 
fjreat moles, like rats' tails, throwing on his upper 
lip ! " — 1 hese "were his moustaches. She liad never 
seen, or supposed it possible, men's hair grew 

\ great deal of building 
went nil in (jermanV at this 
time, and the cliurches in the 
Cathnlie parts, which liad 
been half \\Tecked b\' the 
Swedes, were restored. 
Statues \\'ere sculptured in 
theatrical attitudes, and cov- 
ered witli t'r:i''oil washed over 
with Colour to represent sat- 
in. L\erything that could 
be gilt A\as (i\'erlaid with gold 
leaf. It was a splendour- 
lii\-iiig time. In the courts, 
luxury ami extra\'agance 
were unbridled, and the 
peasant r\- \\-cre gmund down 
\\\i\\ taxes tn supph' funds for this prodigality. 

During the Thirty Years' War most of the old 
coimtr)" nobilit}'had died out or been impo\'crished. 
The onh' people who had gained by these wars 
were the princes, -who were left akme, with no one to 
stand between them and the people, and they ruled 
by cajiricc, lev}-ing taxes as the)- wanted money. 


laaair.Kiiic wu.i.iam h." 



The emperor took to issuing patents of nobility 
and selling titles to raise money, and the prmces 
did the same. Any one who could find money 
■was able to obtain what title he desired. 

The poetry of the period is pompous and unnat- 
ural, but to this rococco age one art owes its 
birth, that of music. 


THE TkUUliI,i;s i>K A NuDLE nUEEX. 

< 1740 -I 745-) 

rii'.RMAX liistoiA' enters on a new c[ioch in the 
year 1740. In tliis year Frederick II. became King 
of Prussia, and Maria Theresa became soxereign in 
Austria. Tlicn the insatiable greed of increasing 
their power, which seems to hax'e been inherent in 
the IloheiizoUerns, inipelled Frederick into war with 
Maria Theresa at tile very beginning of their reigns, 
costing many thousands of men their li\'es and 
wasting many fair provinces. The occasion was 
this : — 

The I'niperor, I'liai'les \'I., th'ed \\-itliout male 
issue. His efforts had been ilirected thiring his 
reign chielly tiT one point, to secure tlie Austrian 
dominions to liis admirable daughtei', Maria Theresa. 
To this end he contri\ed that an agreement should 
be signed both b_\- the estates of the empire and the 
Austrian monarchy, and also by the reigning princes 
of Europe. This agreement w as called " TllE PRAG- 
MATIC Saxcitox." When Charles VI. died, in 
1740, Maria Theresa, wlni was married to Duke 
Francis of Lorraine, seized the reins of government 
of all the lands belonging to Austria, that is, Bohe- 




mia, Hungary, Austria proper, Tyrol, Styria, Car- 
inthia, etc. But, in spite of the Pragmatic Sanction, 
various claims were made for several of these lands. 
The ambassador of Charles Albert, Elector of Ba- 

(From a Drawing by Chodowiecki.) 

varia, entered Vienna to announce that his sover- 
eign could not acknowledge the young queen as 
heiress and successor to her father, because the 
House of Bavaria laid claims to the Austrian inher- 

Frederick II. of Prussia, also, seeing that he had 


2. SI 

to do with a youny and feeble \\oman, blustcr- 
in^dy demanded some of the Silesian principalities. 
As Maria Theresa had sufTicient spirit to refuse 
these insolent demands war broke out, in which 
I'Vance, Spain, and Poland took part with ]ia\aria 
and Prussia against lier. These ^\•ars gn b)' the 
name of the " \\'ar nf the Austrian Succession," 
and the "Three Silesian Wars." 

Maria Theresa is one of the noblest aiul best of 
women who have made themsekes a name in Jiis- 
tor\'. In the spring of her life, nnbly built, lier 
dignity of majesty and charm <if \\ omanln.iotl com- 
bined to turn the scale of her fortunes at the must 
critical period in her career. The Pllector of Culognc 
acknowledged lier onl)' by the title of archduchess. 
The Elector Palatine sent her a letter b\- the com- 
mon post, superscribed, " To the vVrchduchess Maiia 
Theresa," and the King of Spain refused her aii)- 
other title than Duchess of Tuscany. Her luis- 
bantl was a poor cre.iture, -who treated her w itlmut 
regard, and was mi strength tn her in her trial.;. 
At first only the King dl Prussia seemed tn stand 
b\' her; he promised his suppi nt whilst collecting 
his troops for a tlescent on Silesia. It ^\aswith 
surprise, therefore, that the \'oung queen re- 
ceix'ed an insolent demand for Silesia from the 
rude messenger of P'rederick IP E\-en the minis- 
ters of the Prussian king blushed at their master's 

A battle was fought at ^Polwitz. The right wing 
of the Prussians ^vas broken ; \\hereupon King 
P'rederick galloped a\\a\' as hard as his horse could 


carry liim, in spite of the entreaty of his ofificers to 
stay, and never drew rein till he came to Oppehi, 
■\vhere, to his dismay, he found a party of Austrian 
hussars, who fired, but before they could gain their 
horses the king galloped back to his troops, and 
found to his astonishment that they had gained a 
complete victory during his absence. 

After this victory his insolence was unbounded. 
The English sent an ambassador to mediate, and 
spoke of magnanimity. "Magnanimity! Bah!" 
he shouted, "I care only for my own interests." 
Maria Theresa offered to yield three duchies in 
Silesia. " Before the war they might have con- 
tented me. Now I want more," said Frederick. 
"What do I care about peace? Let those who 
want it give me what I want ; if not, let them fight 
me, and be beaten again." 


Tiir. Ill 

A N 

v..\\;\ i;(iv 

( 17 11-1748.) 

W'lTF.X tliinc;s IkuI cmuic tn this pnss, the F.lcctr.r 
f.if ]^>,ivaria, siipixirtctl ij\' the ]• rcnch, athaiicud his 
claims b\" force of arms. lie marched upon A'ieiina. 
At Linz lie had hiima;_;-e (.hme to himself as Arch- 
duke of iVustria. lie was within three daws' march 
of Vienna, and Maria Thercs.i was withniit an 
arm)-, that in .Silesia was hehd in check by I'reil- 
erick' of Prussia. Her tiaasur\- w .rs enipt}'. She 
lied from her capital to I'resluir;^" in HunLj.irN-, 
Ciuu'nked the ma;_;nates, and appeared aniiiH^- them 
attired in 1 lun:.^arian costume, the cuiwiinf S. Stc- 
[)hcn on her head and his swurd at her sitle. Raili- 
ant with beaut\- .md spiial she addressed the diet, 
and cilled '>n the nobles as cawdiers to stand b\' a 
woman in her jeopard}'. Then she held up her 
bab\- bo\- in her hands befoi-e the assenibl)', and 
the tears came welling' out of iier beautiful eyes. 
The answer came. The wdiole diet rose and flashed 
their swords from their scabbards, and as a roll oi 
thunder roared, " Moriamur pro rage nostro, Maria 
Theresa ! " (" We will die for our so\'ereign, Maria 




A BRIEF REfG.V. 285 

In Enfjiand the unprovoked aggression of the 
King of Prussia had excited general indignation, and 
Parliament granted 3CK),0OO pounds tii the >. [ueen. 

In a short time c considerable army A Hun- 
garians and Croats waw assembled, ^vhich n\ a few 
weeks cleared Austria of the Bavarians and French, 
and pursued them into ]5avaria, and took the capi- 
tal, Munich. 'Idle i'rench, wlnj were in possession 
of Prague, were blockaded, but broke out in the 
depth of winter and escaped hxlt the snowy fields, 
leaving their course strewn with frozen corpses. 
(Jut of forty thousand men who had entered Bohe- 
mia only 3000 sur\ived the miseries of the retreat 
and returned to I' ranee. 

But the Austrians opposed to Frederick II. had 
been less successful. The king defeated them again, 
and then, alarmed at the gathering power of Maria 
Theresa, concluded a peace w ith her, b)- w Inch she 
maile o\'er to him a large portion of Silesia. 

C)n the ver}' da\- on which the Austrian army 
entered Munich the elector was cr(.wned emperor 
at PTankfort, under the name of Charles X'lP, but 
the new emperor was unable to show himself in 
jiis own tlominions. llis reign ^\.ls short, and fiill 
cif trouble, which he had brijught on himself. The 
war continued, with \'ar\-ing f.irtune. George II. of 
England himself took part in it at the head of an 
army of Hanoverians and Hessians, which, united to 
the imperial arni\-, gained a signal victory over the 
P'rench at Dettingen. The ne\\'s of the victory- 
reached \^ienna before the queen heard it. She 
was far down the Danube, but on her re'^urn she 


touiiil the banks for nine miles lined with people 
cheering, the cannon on the fortifications were boom- 
ing, and the bells of the churches pealing. She 
entered her capital in a sort of triumph, and went 
at once to the cathedral to return thanks to God. 
Shortly after, other good news came to her: Egna 
Neumarkt 'was taken, and all her hereditary posses- 
sions \\'cre secured to her. 

Frederick II., "the Great," was uneasy at these 
successes, and feared that Maria Theresa would be 
demanding back the .Silesian duchies. Accordingl)-, 
with great secrec)', he intrigued with the English, 
and drew them away from the Austrian alliance, 
and then suddenly and unexpectedly invaded Bohe- 
mia, and defeated the imperial generals in several 
battles. He was greatly helped by a very odd man, 
a relative, the Prince of Dessau, a rough soldier, 
gaunt in shape and long in limb. Prince Eugene 
was wont to call him the " Bull-dog." He would not 
let his sons have a tutor, as he said he wanted them 
to make themselves, and not to be manufactured by 
others. He had a French chamberlain, called Cha- 
lesac. One night the prince came in very drunk, 
and his chamberlain ventured to remonstrate with 
him. The " old Dessauer " seizx-d a pair of pistols, 
and aiming at Chalesac's head, roared, ''You dog! 
I will shoot you ! '' " Do so if you will," answered the 
chamberlain, " but it will look ugly in history." The 
prince thought a moment, laid down the pistols, and 
said, "Yes, it would not read respectabl}'." One 
day, in church, the preacher gave out the first verse 
of a h}'mn :— 

AX AjXgry rRi.\'CE. 287 

'' Neither hunger nor thirst, 
Niir want nor pain, 
Nor wrath of the Great T'riiice 
Can me restrain." 

The prince, thinking he was ahuded to, grasped 
his walking-stick, and made a n_isli up the pulpit 
stairs to thrash the jjastur for his insolence. The 
niinister screamed, " Sire ! 1 mean I^ieelzebub, Beel- 
zebub, nut your highness!" and scarce pacified the 
furious prince, and saved his own hide. 

The first Silesian war \\as from 174010 1742. The 
second war was fmrn 1744 to 1745, and was con- 
cluded by the treat)- of Dresden, \vhereb\- Maria 
Theresa \\as once more compelled to cede Silesia 
to the victorious I'russian. In this jxar the em- 
peror, Charles VII., whom Maria Theresa had re- 
fused to recognize, died, \\hereup(jn her husband 
was elected emperor, under the title of h'rancis I. 
Maximilian, the son of Charles \'II., recei\ed back 
the duchy of Bawiria, anel ga\e up his claims ov\ the 
y\ustrian inheritance. 

In 174S peace was concluded at i\ix, whereb)- 
Maria Theresa lost two provinces in Ital)-. Silesia 
was ahead)- lost, as )-ou have lieard. 

You ha\e not heard of the fighting that went on 
in Ital)-, but the w-ar had raged there, as well as in 
Gern-ian)- and the Netherlands, and the King of Sar- 
dinia had been the ejueen's great adversary in It-aly. 



Frederick William I.,'- King of Prussia, the 
father of Frederick the Great, was a brutal, hard man, 
but not without some good points in his character. 
He hated ceremony, but not ceremony only, — the 
very decencies of life. His great amusement was to 
get foreign guests into his 7"<r&r^;V, or smoking-room, 
and there ply them with beer till he made them sick. 
He despised and hated learning, and when Baron 
Gundling, a very learned man, was invited to dine 
with the king, Frederick William had an ape intro- 
duced, dressed exactly like the savant, and made 
the ape sit by him at table. To show his scorn for 
learning, he moreover insisted on having Gundling, 
when he died, buried in a cask, instead of a coffin. 
His daughter, in her memoirs, says, " My brother 
Frederick told me that one morning, when he went 
into the king's room, our father seized him by the 
hair, flung him down, and after he had exhausted 
the strength of his arm on the bo)''s poor body he 
dragged him to the window, took the curtain rope, 
and twisted it round his neck. The prince had 

* Frederick William I. was grandson of Frederick William, " the 
Gre^t Elector." 



presence of mind and strength to grasp his father's 
hands and scream for help. A chamberlain came 
in and plucked the boy away from the king." 

As Frederick William was riding round Berlin 
one day he saw a poor Jew slink out of his way. 
He stopped, seized him, and asked him his reason. 
" Sire ! I was afraid of )'ou ! " said the scared He- 
brew. The king caught him by the nape of the 
neck, and, laying on to him with his riding whip, 
with fury roared, "Love me! You shall love me! 
I'll teach you to love mc ! " 

His great ambition was to make C'f Prussia a war- 
like state. His recruiting officers went everywhere, 
securing very big men for his grenadier guard, whom 
the)' ofjtained by the most underhand means. 

Uq iiated the French, their language, their culture, 
their manners, and to shew his detestation of them 
he ordered the jailors to be dressed in the last 
Parisian fashions. 

Tlie young prince, I'rcclerick, was hated by his 
father because the boy was timid, and shrank from 
him. He mistook this timidit}- for cowardice, and 
sought to make the [)oor child love iiim by beating 
him, after the wa_\- of his teaching the Jew. The 
\oung Frederick took eagerly to French, read 
I'Vench books, and pla_\'eti the flute. Unfortunately, 
the books that fell in his way were those of Vol- 
taire, who held up religion and morality to ridicule, 
and scoffed at all that Christians hold sacred. 
Frederick was forced b_\' his father to attend long- 
winded Calvinist sermons. He was denied innocent 
pleasures, such as his flute, and the result was that 



lie became, whilst quite }-oung, dissipated and unbe- 
lieving. The king went out of his way to insult 
the prince in public, and 
to show him and all the 
court how he hated him. 
But when the king tried 
to force him to surrender 
his claim to succession to 
the throne, the prince re- 
plied, " I would rather 
have my head cut off than 
abandon my right.'' 

At last the situation 
became intolerable, and 
when, finally, the king 
was about to marry Fred- 
crick against his will, the 
prince resolved to fly to 
his uncle, the King of 
England. His sister, 
Wilhelmina, and two 
friends, Keith and Katte, 
were in the plot. He 
made his attempt to es- 
cape when attending his 
father on a journey to 
the Rhine. But the plan 
was divulged to the king, 
and he was arrested, 
When brought before his 
father, Frederick William was in such a fury that 
he drew his sword and would have run him through 


A BRUTAL J-AT/fER. 20 1 

the body with it liad not one of his c^cncrals ^\'ho 
was present sprung between, caught tlie king's arm, 
and cried out, " Sire I run me througli if }-ou will, 
but spare your own son." 'I'lien the prince was 
thrown into prison at Kiistreii. His friend Katte 
was condemned to death, and tlie king forced his son 
to see liis friend Iianged before the ^\■indow of his 
prison. Keitli had saved himself b}' flight. The 
king had sentence of death pronounced against the 
prince. Then an old general exclaimed, " Sire 1 if 
your Majesty will have blood, take mine, and wel- 
come ; but as long as I have a voice to raise in pro- 
test you shall not have that of the crnwn prince." 
The emi)eror, Charles VI., also interfered, and in- 
formed the king that the crown prince could only be 
condemned capital!)' at an imperial diet. " Ver)- 
well," said the king, "then I will huld m)- riwn court 
on him at Konigsberg, which is outside the confines 
of the empire, where no one can contrril me." A 
faithful servant boldly answered, " Onh- God, sire, 
will be over you there, to call }-ou to task fur shed- 
ding your son's blood." At these wijrds the king 
became grave, and said no more about the execu- 
tion of Frederick. 

All this while the prince \\as in close confine- 
ment. He had a hard bench for his seat, the floor 
for his bed, and he was fed on prison fare. At last 
he wrote a penitential letter to his father, acknow- 
ledging that he had done wrong, and promising 
not to be disobedient for the future. In order 
thoroughly to crush his tibstinac}' the king did 
not gi\'.' ')i!n his freedom at once, but kept hini 


under watch at Kustren for two years. At last, on 
the marriage of his sister Wilhelmina to the Prince 
Df Baireuth, his father allowed him to return to 
Berlin. Father and son were reconciled, and 
thenceforth Frederick William called him his " dear 

The king bought for him the castle of Rheins- 
berg, near Neu-Ruppin, for his residence. There 
Frederick spent the happiest days of his life. He 
collected the most famous men of letters about 
him, and devoted himself to science and music ; 
and he carried on a correspondence with Voltaire 
and other celebrated French philosophers and 
poets. Both father and son learnt to regard each 
other with mutual esteem, and Frederick William 
exclaimed in his last illness, " I thank my God 
that I shall have so worthy a successor ; I shall die 

The treatment which Frederick had received left 
its fatal effects on his character ; it made him hard, 
selfish, and unscrupulous , and so it came about that 
he behaved unworthily of a great man in the matter 
of the Silesian duchies. 


Maria Thkrksa could not forcjct Silesia snaiched 
from her unjusti)'. Moreover, the growth of the 
power and influence of Prussia was a cause of en\'}' 
to other princes, Maria Theresa was alile 1j\' this 
means to unite a lart^e confederation ayainst I'rus- 
sia. France, Russia, and Saxony took part aL;.iinst 
it ; and it was proposed to depri\e the king" of Jiis 
ro)'al title, and reduce him to be merely ?iIari;Ta\e 
of ]^randenbur;j,. I'russi.i succeeded in sccurintj 
luTi^'-land as her all_\". ("ieorL;e II. himself disliked 
]""rcderick, and would willins^l}' lia\e continued the 
alliance with Austria, but the Ent^lish parliament 
rantjed itself on the side of Prussia. P'ollow ing his 
usLial tactics of making catd-'ke leaps before his en- 
emies expectetl an attack, Frederick, without e\'en 
tleclaring war, invaded Saxon}-, defeated the Aus- 
trians, and surrounded antl capturetl a .Saxon army. 
Phis was the opening of the Se\en ^ ears' War, or 
Third Silesian War. 

In this war P'rederick pro\-ed himself a gen- 
eral of the first order. Although he had liall 
Europe opposed to him, j-et he was almost alwayj 




conqueror. He defeated the Austrians at Prague 
and Leuthen ; an imperial and French army was 
routed by him at Rossbach ; a Russian army was put 
to flight b)' him at Zorndorf. However, he met with 
reverses at Kollin and Hochkirch before the Aus- 
trians. Moreover, he lost the battle of Kunersdorf 
when opposed to Austrians and Russians united. 
But in spite of all his heroism and his many suc- 
cesses Frederick would certainly have been over- 
whelmed in the end if the allies had not gradually 
withdrawn their assistance from Austria, till at 
length Prussia and Austria were left alone, face to 
face. As both wqxs. exhausted b}' the long war, 
peace was concluded at the hunting lodge Huberts- 
burg, in Saxony, and Silesia was left in the hands 
of F"rederick. It remains Prussian to this day. 

Among all the great and remarkable battles 
fought in the Seven Years' War, that of Rossbach 
deserves special notice. 

Late in the year of 1757 Frederick the Great had 
advanced at the head of 20,000 men to the River 
Saale, to drive the French and a division of the 
imperial army out of Saxony. The latter were 
thrice as numerous as the Prussians, and rejoiced at 
the prospect of a battle with such preponderance, 
thinking that now at last they would be able to 
surround and crush the king. 

P'rederick had encamped on rising ground. The 
French marched round the hill with their bands 
playing, thinking to enclose the Prussians. With 
the capture of the king they trusted to bring the 
war to an end. The Prussians remained motion- 

////r C/fARCE OF Sh/DLITZ. 205 

less; the srnokc rcise from tlicir camp-fires, they 
were ealiiiL,'' their breakfasts. P'rederick was in the 
castle on the hill. He kn<">cked a hi.ile in the roof, 
climbed throu;^di, and sat there fiir an hi air watch- 
in;_^r the ino\-ements of the enem\-. then he came 
down and ate a heart)' breakfast. \\ hen he saw the 
heads of the enem\-'s columns opposite liis left hij L;a\'e the signal. At once the tents were 
furled, the soldiers sprang to aimis, the drums rat- 
tled, the lines fcjrmed, the ciincealed cannon began 
tn s[)out flame, and r'Kir ; the ca\alr\' general, Seid- 
litz, charged down the hill at the enemy, lun-led 
himself at their ranl;^, .and bri'ke them befcire they time to furrn intu line of b.ittle. The enem_\-, 
unpre[)ared fur such rajjid mo\'ements, ga\'e wa\' 
in panic, and in less th.iu half an Injur the battle 
was won, with the loss nn the I'rLissi.m side of nut 
more than 300 men, wdiilst im the '^ide of the allies 
4000 were killei.l and \\-uunded, JOCO, with elex'cn 
gener.ils, were taken prisoners, and sixt\'-three cui- 
non.s and twent\'-two stand.irds fell intu the hands" 
iif the Ciiiiquerors. The I'reiich lied without IX'- 
fnrming, a brnk-cn, disorganized, panic-stricken rab- 
ble, and did not stop till tiny had placed the Rhine 
between themseh'es and the formidable Prussians. 
Idle popular humour nicknamed the French host 
thus defeated the Arm)' of Cut-and-Run 1 Reiss- 



After the victorious conclusion of the Seven 
Years' War the king devoted his attentions to the 
repair of the ruin wrought by it. Tlie war had 
caused his subjects terrible sufferings. It is said that 
14,500 houses lay in ashes, and so many men had 
been consumed in his armies that there were not men 
to till the fields, nor horses to draw the harvest 
wanes. In Saxony 100,000 men had perished of 
famine alone; in Bohemia 180,000 had died of 
hunger ; but Prussia and Silesia had suffered less 
from this cause, because the king and his minister, 
Schalaberndorf, had enforced the cultivation of 
the potato. At first, great prejudice had existed 
against this useful tuber, but Frederick saw its value 
and insisted on its growth. As many as twenty 
thousand persons emigrated from Bohemia, from 
the trampled and burnt corn-fields, to eat the po- 
tatoes in Prussia and live. The king had the 
ruined villages rebuilt. He provided the impover- 
ished farmers with grain to sow, and he imported 
horses which he distributed among them. He 
had drains and canals cut to dry swamps, and he 
improved the roads. Every year he went the 
rouml of his land, to see how it was prospering, 


l_From the Painiint; by Bau^j.) 



and to remedy abuses. When he saw a tract 
under cultivation which had before been moor or 
marsh, he was wont to sa}', " I have gained a new 
province." He encouraged science and art, buik 
schools, and improved the administration of jus- 
tice. He was familiar with his subjects, always 
had an ear open to their grievances, and a hand 
ready to rectify them. He was specially fond of 
the agricultural population. He liked to go among 
them, talk to the farmers, and learn their wants 
and their opinions. Consequently, he was greatly 
beloved by them, and they spoke of him as " Father 
Fritz," or as " Old Fritz." His early acquaintance 
with the infidel writers of France had driven all 
belief in Christianity out of his heart, and, believing 
nothing, he was tolerant. When he heard of a 
dispute about some hymn-books, which was referred 
to him as head of the Evangelical Church in his 
lands, he said, " Bah ! Let them sing what tom- 
foolery they like." 

As he did not believe in religion, he had,unfortu. 
nately, no trustworthy standard of right and wrong. 
At his court was a Scotchman, named Keith, a man 
so honorable, truthful, and good that Frederick 
said of him, " That man almost makes me believe 
in virtue." Whether his care for the good of his 
people sprang from mere selfishness, a knowledge 
that their prosperity secured his own power, or 
whether his heart was better than his principles, 
one cannot tell. We will hope the best. 

He had stooping shoulders, wore a three-cornered 
laced hat on his head, and a long pig-tail. His 



uniform was threadbare, blue with red facings. He 
wore short black breeches and long boots. Many 
ilroU stories are told of him. The [jeople of Pots- 
dam stuck up a caricature, representing him with 
a coffee-mill in his lap at a street corner. He saw 
it as he passed. " I'ut it lower, that it ma)- be bet- 
ter seen," said the king, and passed on. Unc of his 
guards, too [joor t(j buy a watch, attached a bullet 
to his chain and wore it in his pi;cket. The king 
once ask'ed hiiTi the time of da)-. The officer 
pulled out the bidlet and said, "My watch points 
to but one hour, that in which I am prepared to 
die for )-our M.ijest)-." After that, ol cour-,e, J'"red- 
ei'ick handed him his own gold watch. 

The king was fond of siuiff, with \\hich he stained 
his clothes. ( )nce when he met the Austrian eni- 
[)eror, he assurnetl, out of compliment, the Austrian 
uniform of white embroi(_lered with sil\-er. But the 
snuff got o\er the cloth and n-iade a sad mess of 
the beautiful suit. lie looked at the officers in 
splendid trim who surrounded the emperiir, and 
saitl, " Gentlemen, I ani not clean enough fiu' )-our 
compan)-; I do not tleserve to wear )-our col(-)urs." 

Here is one of his goo^l sa)'ings : " Nothing is 
nearer akin to death than idleness. It is not neces- 
sar)' that I should li\-e, but it is necessar)- that 
whilst I li\-e I be bus)'." As long as he lived he 
lo\ed his flute, and when thinkiiig o\er affairs 
of state he used to stride through the ccirridors 
and chambecs of his palace at Potsdam pla)ing on 
this instrument. 

]^y his prudent government he raised the king- 


dom of Prussia to the level of Austria, France, and 
England, as one of the first-class powers in Europe. 
His army was certainly the best disciplined on the 
continent ; but he allowed the soldiers to be flogged 
for small offences. Louis XV. supposed that the 
success of the Prussians was due to the cat-o'-nine- 
tails, so he introduced it into his army. But when 
one of the subalterns was ordered to flog a private 
he killed himself rather than do so. 

When Frederick the Great died in 1786 the news 
of his death filled Germany with sorrow. He left 
to his successor a flourishing kingdom with six 
millions of inhabitants, a splendid army, and a full 

Frederick well merited the appellation of " the 
Great," for he set a great example to the sovereigns 
of Germany. His unfortunate bringing up, which 
both hardened his heart and killed his faith, were 
the cause of his not being the greatest of modern 
kings, or of being really, as he was called in French, 
" Sans pareil." 



When the Thirty Years' War came to an end there 
were something Hke two hundred independent states 
in Germany, and the fashion set in to regard France 
as the pattern b)' which all must live and rule. The 
Thirty Years' War had nearly extinguished culture 
in the land, and France was highly cultivated, con- 
sequently there was much excuse for the princes, 
Unfortunately, French culture was not sound at core; 
it was a glittering soap-bubble. 

Louis XIV. was a great monarch, but in exactly 
the opposite way to Frederick II. Louis gained a 
splendid name, and ruined France, and sowed the 
seeds of the revolution which destroyed the throne. 
Frederick made Prussia prosperous, and planted the 
basis of his throne so deep that it has stood un- 
shaken, and has become the centre of the new Ger- 
man empire. The princes of the i8th century did 
not see the mistake Louis XIV. was making; we 
can, because we have history to teach us. None 
of the princes could escape the fashion of copying 
France. Even Frederick the Great felt its influence 
as you have heard, and its influence was pernicious 
to him. 

When Louis XIV. built his palace at Versailles 

302 Tirt norxGs of two iicxdkkd princes. 

and created a city in the midst of a sandy waste, 
most of the princelings of Germany followed suit, 
and sought to create towns in the most unsuitable 

George Samuel, of Nassau Idstein, unable to 
create a city in his diminutive county, resolved, at 
least, to call a village into being and give it his 
name ; so he erected Georgenborn on the top of a 
bald mountain. The village was built, and roads to 
it were engineered ; it was provided with a mayor 
and pastor, and then the wretched peasants Avere 
driven, by an edict of the count, from their old 
homes into the cold new houses. After a lingering 
life of thirty years, the successor of George Samuel 
issued an edict ordering the place to be destroyed, 
and its name to be blotted out of the map. But, 
queerly enough, just then a new industry had sprung 
up in Georgenborn, and the little village suddenly 
began to prosper. Georgenborn still exists, a mon- 
ument to all the world that villages are not to be 
created or extinguished by the caprice of rulers. 

More grotesque still was the attempt of Count 
William of Biickeburg, whose ambition it was not 
to have a palace and town like Versailles, but a 
fortress like Metz. His county was so small that 
a cannon-ball could cross it at a shot. At great 
expense he created a fortified place and mounted 
guns on the ramparts, but within were nothing to 
defend but a range of wooden huts, an observatory, 
and a potato field. 

You know by pictures, if you have not seen it, the 
beautiful castle of Heidelberg, the finest ruin of a 


palace in Germany. Heidclljci-g icas the capital of 
the Palatinate, but the elector, Charles Philip, in 
1720, made M.innhcim his capital. He built it 
entirely, taking a chessboard as his plan. In it is a 
hideous palace, and the town is placed on a dead flat 
piece of ground. Banjn Pollnitz, \\'\\o wrote his 
memoirs at the time, says, '' I have seen partridges 
where are now palaces. The whole town is laid out 
in a most regular and charming manner; and it is 
without dispute one of the [jrettiest places in Eu- 
rope." 'How taste alters ! We should sa}' it was, 
with the exception of Darmstadt, the ugliest. Duke 
Eberhard Louis of Wiirtemberg also transferred 
his capital from Stuttgard to a new town he built 
and called after his tiamc, Ludwigsburg. The cost 
was enormous, and, what was more grie\'ous, it "was 
undertaken at a time of famine. When tlie founda- 
tions were laid bread was thrown among the starv- 
ing peasants to still their murmurs. The palace 
contains four hundred apartments. The cit\' was 
planned in square blocks, like Mannheim and 
Darmstadt, with seven squares, eight gates, and 
three parish churches. Now this to-\\n is only 
kept from falling into ruin b\' being converted into 
an arsenal; but grass grows in the streets, and the 
palace is decaying. 

Karlsruhe was built by the jMargra\'e of Baden- 
Durlac'i, Charles William, about his hunting lodge, 
which was in the depths of a forest, but which he 
converted into a palace. 

Baron Pollnitz says of this: " The present mar- 
grave, Charles, laid the plan and the foundation of 


this city and its palace. Imagine the palace at the 
entrance of a great forest, in the centre of a star 
formed by thirty-two walks. Behind the palace is a 
lofty octagonal tower commanding the walks. On 
the other side of the palace is the town. Between 
the houses run five streets. The main street is in a 
line with the centre of the palace. At the end of 
the three chief streets, opposite the palace, are three 
churches, one for the Lutherans, another for the 
Calvinists, and the third for the Catholics." 

You will remember how that in the rococco period 
straight lines and stiffness were avoided ; now the 
fashion was run in the opposite extreme, everything 
was formal and regular. 

Darmstadt was rebuilt in the same detestable 
taste, about the same time, by the electors Louis I. 
and IIL, who laid out the town in the form it now 
wears. One street is just like another, one house the 
counterpart of another. At the head of the main 
street is the unsightly palace ; at the two ends of the 
cross street two unsightly churches, one for the 
Calvinists, the other for the Catholics. 

Those who did not build cities erected palaces. 
The Baron de Reichenbach, a Belgian traveller of 
the beginning of this century, says : " The princes 
seem to have been actuated by a feverish rivalry 
who should be best housed. No little potentate 
could pass muster who had not his Louvre and his 

At WUrzburg the bishop erected a splendid 
palace, the foundations of which were laid in 1720, 
although he had two others in the place, one the 



castle <if Mariciiburg, the sccund rml)- finished the 
)-car before he began the third. This new palace 
contains two hundred and eighty-fnur apartments, 
one devoted to a nierr)--L;ij-round f(jr the amusement 
of the prelate, his chaplains, and court on rain\' 
da)-s. The prince-ijishr/p occupied a little carriage 
in the whirligig, hung with episcopal purple veh'et, 
enibr(jidered with the mitre and arms (jf the See. 

One of the rooms is lined with looking-glass, so 
that when you stand in it you see yourself repeated 
over and over again infinitc-ly. 



Among all the German princes who ascended the 
imperial throne Joseph II. takes one of the first 
places. He was the son of Maria Theresa and 
inherited from her the good qualities which made 
her the darling of her people. This well-intentioned 
emperor devoted his whole life to the service of the 
state, and at a time when gambling was the rage 
never played for money. On the occasion of a visit to 
Versailles he declined to take a hand at cards. " A 
prince who loses," he said, " loses the money of his 
subjects." He was not a drinker or a gourmand. 
He lijved music, and played the violoncello. He 
was eager to redress wrongs, almost too eager, for 
he made sweeping changes before his people were 
prepared to accept them, and Frederick the Great 
was right when he said that Joseph always took the 
second step before he made the first. 

From youth up he was a great admirer of Fred- 
crick, whom he took as his pattern in his attempts 
at amendment. When he met Frederick for the first 
time at Neisse, he exclaimed joyfully, " Now m}- 
wishes are fulfilled, as I have had the honor of em- 



bracing this great king and general." After a 
second meeting Frederick said to those wliO sur- 
rounded him, " I ha\ e seen the emperor, and am 
satisfied that he will i)lay a great part in the affairs 
of liurope. He was born at a most bigoted court, 
and has shaken himself free from superstition. He 
was niii'tured in [jomp, and \"et has simple habits. 
He has had the incense ot Hatter)' burnt under his 
nose, and )-et is modest. He gluws with love of 
fame, )'et sacrifices his ambition to dutw He has 
had pedants for teachers, )'et his taste for the best 
books is healthy." 

You ha\'e been told how the princes bm'lt their 
new towns on plans of the strictest imifoi'init}', 
making streets, houses, and churches all alike. 
Joseph n. tried to di> the same thing in go\-erning 
lu's territories, and so showe(l that want of common 
sense which I'rederick II. posiiessetl, and which 
saved liim fidm committing gross blumlers. In 
the Austrian dominions ten principal languages 
were spoken, anil each nation Iiad its own laws antl 
ailministration. Joseph formed the scheme of 
uniting them all into one and ruling all b\' one sim- 
ple system; and of abolishing all distinctions i^f re- 
ligion, language, law antl manners. In the Aus- 
trian monarch)' there were thirteen go\ernments. 
He suppressed these, did awa\' w ith the local parlia- 
ments, made the German tongue obligator)- in all 
the public offices, and allowed the officers onl)- t\\'o 
)cars for learning it, and abolished old custi_imary 
forms, cancelled charters, and suppressed pri\ileges. 
He meant \\'cll. It was \'er\- difficult to govern 

308 coo J) KING JOSEPH. 

Hungarians, Bohemians, Germans, Moravians, Ital 
ians, Flemings, Croatians, Tyrolese, Transylvanians, 
etc., by different laws, and it would facilitate gov- 
ernment greatly if they were all ruled directly from 
Vienna, by one system of government But Joseph 
did not consider that these several nations might be 
warmly attached to their own laws and traditional 
customs. So, instead of doing good, he threw the 
system of government into great confusion. 

Then he drew up a catechism of government for 
the people to be taught in the schools, in which he 
reduced his laws to a sort of table of command- 
ments, ^\-hich was profane and absurd. Here are 
some of his commandments. " Thou shalt not 
send hare-skins out of the country. Thou shalt 
not keep useless dogs. Thou shalt not plant to- 
bacco without permission." 

But though Joseph made mistakes, he did avast 
amount of real good. His heart was in the right 
place. He was conscientious and earnest in his 
desire to rectify abuses, but his head was not 
strong enough to show him where to stop. 

The peasants had been kept under by feudal laws, 
and were almost bondsmen. He removed their 
bonds and cancelled all the intolerable restrictions 
which kept them from prospering. He encouraged 
the schools, and extended and improved the system 
of education. He also reduced the number of mon- 
asteries and convents from over two thousand to 
seven hundred, and he abolished all those which 
were of no practical utilit)-. Monks, friars, and nuns 
must either teach, preach, or nurse the sick, lie 

i^n-RisnA-ED cirrc/f/xs. 


ivould riv^L allow any of the Religious Orders to 
remain which were idle. The principal orders were 
he Benedictines, who cultivated learning and kept 
schools; the Jesuits, \", ho taught in schools and 
preached ; and the Franciscans or Capuchins, who 
lived on what they could beg. 

The Jesuits made themselves particularly obnox- 
ious Vj)' meddling with politics ; the Capuchins, re- 
cruited from the lowest of the penplc, were igno- 
rant, and great encouragers of superstition. The 
inone)' and buildings acquired b\' the supjjres'^itin 
(if so many mcjnasterics ^\■ere devoted to useful 
purposes — schools, liospitals, libraries, etc. Josejih 
])laced all the monasteries under the supcr\-isioa of 
the bishops C)f the dioceses in which they were. 
This was an excellent rule, as liithcrto they had 
been independent and had gone their own waj' and 
done what they liked, without an)' control. The 
occasion of this was the discovery of great cruelties 
committed in a Capuchin convent in Vienna. One 
of the friars there, named Fessler, informed the 
cm[)eror that there was a prison in it i.i x.hich 
some of the friars had been kept lucked up fnr 
man}' )'ears. One had been thei'c ftirfift)', another 
for fort)', a third for fifteen, and a fourth for nine 
)'ears. The emperor thereupon issued an inquisitiim 
and suppressed the begging orilers. He lessened the 
rexenues of the largest bishoprics, suppressed some, 
and created others, and granted the free exercise of 
their religion to all denominations. The Pope, Pius VI., 
alarmed at these high-handed proceedings, thinking 
that Josepli was going to emulate the course of 


Henry VIII. of England, made a journey to Vienna 
to remonstrate with the emperor in person. Joseph 
received him with shght courtesy, and kept him al- 
most as a prisoner. He had the doors of his lodg- 
ing walled up, with the exception of the front door, 
over which a guard was placed, to prevent the Pope 
from receiving private visits and stirring up discon- 
tent. After spending four weeks without effecting 
anything, Pius at length departed with a heavy heart. 
The emperor accompanied him as far as the abbey 
of Mariabrunn, and two hours after the Pope had 
left its shelter he ordered the monastery to be 
closed, to show how little the Pope had influenced 

His arbitrary interference with the usages and 
liberties of his states led to revolt. Belgium re- 
fused to pay taxes, and declared itself independent. 
In Hungary there were risings of the people, and 
the emperor was forced to withdraw his orders for 
changes in that kingdom. He made war with the 
Turks and met with disaster. The hereditary do- 
minions of Austria were in ferment, and revolution 
threatened him on all sides. Under these disap- 
pointments his health and spirits gave wa}'. Short- 
ly before his death he wrote of himself, " I know 
my own heart. I am convinced of the sincerity of 
my purposes, and I trust that, when I am gone, I 
shall be impartially judged." 

That impartial judgment has been arrived at by 
all historians, No one doubts the good intentions 
of Joseph II. ; no one admits that he had the sound 
judgment to carry them out prudently. Joseph 


(lied in February, 1790, in liis fortj'-ninth }ear. As 
lie left no cliildren he was succeeded by his brother 
Leo[)old, w ho had hitherto been Grand Duke fif 

Leopold ascended the tottering thrunc to find 
himself surrounded \\\X.\\ dangers. ^\11 parts of his 
vast dominions were agitated b)' intestine commo- 
tions, or were the scene of fjpen rebellion, the fruit 
of Joseph's ill-C'insidered or jjremature reforms. 
Although he reigned onl\' a few }-ears, )'et his mod- 
eration and his sober judgment succeeded in jjacify- 
ing the general agitation, ami restornig confidence 
and content. All the good that Joseph liatl done 
survived him, and his mistakes were corrected. 



The close of the i8th ccntur)' was a period 
of great literary waking-. In the rococco time 
the general unreality invaded and pervaded litera- 
ture ; but now a change took place, and men of 
real genius came to the front who have made them- 
selves imperishable names. The first to break 
away from the fantastic foppery of the rococco 
style was Gotthold Lessing (1729-1781), who, 
though he tried at first to study theology and med- 
icine, was destined to give his life to pure litera- 
ture. He ridiculed the imitation of French writers, 
and demanded that German authors should develop 
originality in thought and st}'lc. Calling attention 
to the genius of Kant and ^Vinckelmann, and op- 
posing the methods of \Vicland and Klopstoclc, he 
urged that sentimentality should no longer infect 
religion nor frivolity debase art. He wrote j\linna 
vpii Barnhchn, a comcd}' not free from the affecta- 
tions he opposed, and Emilia Ga/otti, a tragedy, in 
\\hich he retold the story of Virginia but made the 
characters modern. His Taocoon is a critical dis- 
sertation on the limits of poetry and painting which 
has exerted and still exerts a vast influence ever)'- 
where. Nathan der Wcisc is another powerful work 



of his independent mind, in which, in the guise of a 
(h'amatic story, he sets forth the philosoph\' of his 

15efore Lessing died lie saw the two greatest 
authors of German)' started on the literary career 
which has lent its chiefest glor)- to the period, — 
John Wolfgang von Goethe ( I 749-1.S32) and John 
Christopher Frederick Schiller (1759-1805). The 
former stantls second only to our Shakespeare as a 
poet, and was a man of -wonderful genius marred b\' 
intense vanity. The son of a gentleman of some 
fortune, he was educated with remarkable thorough- 
ness, and his personal attainments and manners 
caused the A\'orld to expect great things of him. In 
spite of this there was much surprise when, in 1773, 
his drama, (iutz von Bcrlichiiii^cn appearetl. It was 
followed the next j'ear b)' The Sorrows of Young 
]\'crtlur. The literarj' world was intoxicated with 
the spirit of romanticism, and Germany entered 
upon a season of intellectual convulsion known as 
the Sturm und Drang, or storm and stress period. 
r7('/.7 was founded upon the old story of tli'- hero of 
the Iron hand, a strong and manly but lawless 
baron of the sixteenth century ; and the Sorroios of 
Wortlur wove into one te.xture the unhapp)' pas- 
sions of the author and those of a student whose 
sad story Goethe had learned. With considerable 
mawkish sentimentalit}- was mingled much admira- 
ble description ; the language ^\■as w onderful, and 
the whole so well accorded with the \'ague longing 
and discontent of the age, that, as Carlyle sa_\-s, " the 
heart and \oicc of all Europe hiudly and at once 



responded to it." The romance was greedily read 
by young and old, and some young fools even fol- 
lowed Werther's example and took their own lives, 
in order to excite for themselves the pity so freely 
accorded to the hero of the story. 

At the invitation of the grand duke, Charles 
Augustus, Goethe went to Weimar in 1775 ; and 
there he afterwards made the acquaintance of Schil- 
ler, whom he so warmly appreciated for his pure 
and healthy genius and noble mind, that he called 
the period a "new spring-tide " in his life. In this 
little place without trade or manufactures, Goethe 
was worshipped by everybod)', especially by the 
women ; but the great men of the nation, too, 
gathered about him, and Weimar became a sort of 
German Athens. The poet gave himself up at first 
to social enjoyment, but afterwards he engaged in 
stud)', though for several years he published little. 
His study, travels, and varied experience in life bore 
fruit, however, and in after years he produced 
novels, poems, and plays that challenged the admira- 
tion of the world. Among his great works are the 
romantic drama Eginont , the tragedy of Ipliigcnia 
vpn Tauris, the melancholy reverie Torquatui 
Tasso, and the id^'llic epic Hcnnann and Dorothea. 

If Goethe's genius did not culminate in his wonder- 
ful poem founded upon the fable of Faust, in which 
with melody, wit, pathos, mystery, reverence, and 
irony he depicted the disenchantment of the intel- 
lect, it reached its greatest expression in his songs 
and ballads, the spontaneous outgushings of his 
mind in every variety of mood. Charming in sim- 


plicity, f^rotesque, weird, and hauc^ht}' b\' turns, the}- 
arc certainly liuman feeling " married to immortal 
verse." The ger.ius of Goethe was recognized in 
England as well as at home, and on his last birth- 
day fifteen rejjresentative writers there, including 
Scott, Southey, Carlyle, and Prricter, united in send- 
ing him a greeting accomjjanied 1)_\- a seal, on which 
were engra\'ed the words fnuii liuc of his own 
poems, cyinc I last, OIdic Rasl, without haste, with- 
out rest. No contemporary had so much influence 
upon liter.iture, and m; rither (ierman author at all 
compares with him in this resj)ect. Carlyle said 
that he and the first Napojcon were the twu great- 
est men of their day, and that ('locthe \\as " intrin- 
sically of much more imquestionable greatness" 
than the conquering soldier. 

Schiller was at many points a contrast to his 
okler contem[)orar\-. Without the exceptional ad- 
vantages of (ioethe he had pre]iared himself by 
stealth for the career of a i)oct. As earl)' as his 
nineteenth \'e,ar he had bigun to ci impose a drama, 
afterwards published as Tlu- Kohbcrs. \\diich startled 
the literar\' \\ovld by its imp.issioni-'d and fascinat- 
ing eh)quence', and is said actually to ha\-e induced 
some persons nf l.irtune to become amateur out- 
laws, lie tlid not \'isit Weimar until his t«'cnt}'- 
eighth }-ear, and when he and (ioethc met there 
\\-as a mutual repulsion. lie \\riite ti^i a friend that 
between persons of such differoit \aews of life no 
substantial intimac}' was jiossible. Though each 
avoided the other the substantial intimacy grew, as 
has been intimated, anei ',\'as Iruitiul for Germany. 

3i6 gEjWus comes to the front. 

The one stood for tlic t)'ranny of the intellect and 
the other for the loveliness of the affections. 

Among the -works of Schiller were the long drama 
of ll'allcnstciu, in three parts, of five acts each, ob- 
viously too long for acting; Ilia}'}' Stuart, The Maid 
of Orleans, The Bride of jllcssiiia. and Wi/liatit Tell. 
Though deservedl)- reno^^•ned as a dramatist Schil- 
ler is probably best known b)' his poems, among 
A\-hich The S0//0- of the Tef The Diver, The Glore, 
Tlie Cranes of Ibycus, and Rudolpli of ITapsburg arc 
perhaps the most familiar. Schiller reflected the 
ideal j-earnings of his age, and sought to encourage 
men to love and be led by the good, the beautiful, 
and the true. When he died, at the early age of 
fort}'-five, Goethe exclaimed, " In losing my friend 
I have lost half of m)' being." Thirty-seven years 
later he calmly breathed away his own life, sa3dng, 
" More light ! " words that ha\-e sometimes been 
thought to express his longing for something better 
than this life afforded. 

While Goethe and Schiller ruled in the kingdom 
of letters they were surrounded by many disciples 
and imitators, as well as by original thinkers, who 
ad\'anced every branch of learning. Ilumboldt and 
Ritter cultivated geographical science ; Herder and 
the brothers Schlegel went deep into history and 
criticism ; Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, and Kant car- 
ried the fame of German philosophy over the 
world; Ranke and Niebuhr presented history in 
new phases ; Schleiermacher and Neander discussed 
deep principles of theology; Jean Paul Richter 
^ioared to the mysterious heights of transcendental- 



ism; and lloffmann, I'. iiKjUL-, and Tieck jx-vellcd 
in the realms of the ini.i--niati(jn. If the rulers 
Were r(i)-al the subjeets were truly ^'nrth}' of them. 
Music, which gave promise of becoming a great art 
in the rococco period, now sprang into full perfection. 
Some of the greatest musical geniuses of the world 
jjeldiig to this period : Mozart, (jhicl;, 1 Ia)-dn, and 
lieethoven. All of the-,e \\rote eluirch music; 
]Ia\'dn composed the beautil ul oratori(j The Lrca- 
tion ; Gluck wrote fjperas rul classic themes; i\Io- 
zart took more popular subjects , ])eelho\en "wrote 
one opera only, Lcoiwrc or l-ulclio. Mozart's music 
is exquisitely melodious, but lacks the massi\-enes'; 
possessed b)' that of lleelhox-en. ^ifozart iHclI at 
the age of thirt)--ri\'e ; poor ISeethcn'en became deaf, 
gli.ximy, antl distrustful in his old age. With these 
composers the orchestra Ijecame tif much greater 
importance than formirl)-. Ilandel, the great mas- 
ter of the prex'iiuis generation, scarcel)- knew an)-- 
tliing of the power and projierties of the wirious 
instruments; but nc)w the\' were brought into use, 
parts were written for each, and all were wo\en into 
a \\hole, bler.ding antl go\-erned by one idea, but 
i-acli acting separatel}' from the others. This ma\-. 
therefore, be said to be the epoch of the ilevelop- 
ment of orchestral music. 



Louis XIV. was succeeded on the throne of 
France by his great-grandson, Louis XV , aged 
only five years and a half. On the death of the 
king the Duke of Orleans, as first prince of the 
blood, "was appointed regent. The duke led a prof- 
ligate life, and set a bad example, which was only 
too readily imitated by those at court. By his 
extravagance he raised the national debt to danger- 
ous proportions. This wretched condition of affairs 
did not mend when Louis XV. attained his major- 
ity. The young king thought of nothing but his 
pleasures, and left the management of the affairs 
of state to his ministers and favourites. 

At this time it became the fashion to be, or to af- 
fect to be, vicious, and to scoff at religion and mor- 
ality. Many authors took up the pen to write 
profanities and to turn Christianity, the clergy, and 
virtue into ridicule. 

At the same time writings were distributed 
among the people showing up the badness of the 
Government, and urging the abolition of abuses 
and the introduction of reforms. The vices of 
the court, its extravagance, the growth of the 
national debt, the burden of taxation falling on the 




pcojilc made the latter read)' to accept these teach- 
ings. ]joth the nobiHt)- and the clerLj)- at this time 
had very extensive privileges. Neither paid taxes, 
so that the ^\hole burden fell on the farmers and 
tradesmen. This was a griexous injustice. It had 
been redressed in I^ULjland lont^^ aijo by the nobil- 
it)', \'ohintariI\-. In I'rance and in German)- it 
remained as an intolerable \\ri'nL,r, I\bist p(j\\erful 
of all was the example of tlie Eni^dish colonies in 
North y\merica, ^vho, in 17S3, separated them- 
selves from their mother countr)', and founded 
a rel)ublic. 

I'rance, intent on weakening her ancient foe, had 
sent nimibers of her sons to America, "wliere they 
liatl fought against the b'^nglish, and these returned 
to their native land full (jf the no\'el itleas <.f liberty 
and of enthusiasm for a republican form of gov- 
ernment. They contrasted the fresh \irtue ot the 
new institutions in the United States ^^ ith the de- 
crepid corruption of the I'^rench cniwn. 

Thus it came af^out that there grew up in what 
was calletl the Tiers chu, (jr Third hastate — /. ;., the 
people themseh'es — an intense anger and bitterness 
against the nobles and clerg\-, who paitl no taxes, 
and against the crown, which sanctioned such 

In this time of agitation of spirits Louis X\^I. 
came to the throne of France. He was married to 
Marie Antoinette, daughter of Maria Theresa, and 
sister of Joseph II. The accession of Louis XVI. 
was greeted with great acclamations of joy from the 
people, for they hoped that with it would come 



relief from their crushing taxation, and a return to 
better times. Louis, a ^\'ell-intentioned, blameless 
man, \\\\X\ his heart full of love for his people, and 
desirous to be a just and good ruler, lacked the 
mental power and the energy of character to grap- 
ple with an evil of such long growth, and to take 
decisive and subversive measures. His cpicen was 
fond of gaiety, and by her example countenanced 
the most lavish extravagance. She was only fif- 
teen \\-hen she was married, and at Versailles she 
was surrounded by frivolous and pleasure-seeking 
courtiers, who hid from her the truth, so that she 
probably had no idea of the real condition of af- 
fairs. She was only nineteen ■\\hcn her husband 
became king. She was a good woman, tenderly 
attached to her children and husband. She was 
very beautiful, and much flattered, and this per- 
haps a little turned her head. 

The evil condition of affairs increased to a fear- 
ful degree. The exchecpier was robbed by those 
^\'ho had charge of it ; the taxes would not suffice 
to coN'er the outlay ; and the king, almost reduced 
to the necessity of declaring the state bankrupt, 
demanded aid from the nobility and clerg)', who, 
liitherto free from taxation, liad amassed great 
wealth. The aristocracy, blind to their true inter- 
est, refused to comply, and, by so doing compelled 
the king to have recourse to the Third Estate. 

Accordingly, in 17S9, he convoked a general as- 
sembly, in which deputies sent by the citizen and 
peasant classes A\'ere not only numerically equal 
to those of the aristocracy, but were their suj)e- 


riors in ability and energy. When the nobility 
and clergy refused to share the burden of taxation, 
and even declined to sit together with the com- 
mons, the deputies of the Third Estate separated 
from the other two houses and declared themselves a 
competent national assembly. Many of the nobil- 
ity and tlie majority of the clergy, feeling the 
justice of the cause of the people, united with them, 
and gave up their privileges. The members of this 
assembly met in the Tennis Court of the palace of 
Versailles, and there swore not to separate till they 
had given a new constitution to the realm. The as- 
sembly was thenceforth called the Constitutional 
AssembI}'. The men who most distinguished them- 
selves at this conjuncture \\ere Count Mirabeau, the 
Abbe Sieyes, and the Count (jf Lafa\-ette. 

The news of this decided step created violent 
agitation in Paris, and the people broke loose. 
On July 14th, 1789, a mob attacked the ]5astille, 
an ancient strong castle in Paris that ser\'ed as a 
prison, took it b)' storm, and levelled its walls with 
the dust. Soon after, armed bands of men and 
women rushed off to Versailles, burst into the pal- 
ace, where they killed several of the guards, and 
forced the king to come to Paris. The National 
Assembly also, at the same time, transferred its 
sessions to Paris. Emboldened b\' its first successes 
the Assembly now undertook a thorough transfor- 
mation of the state, and in order to attain the object 
for which it had been assembled, that of procur- 
ing supplies, declared the aristocracy subject to tax- 
ation, and sold the enormous property- belonging to 



the Church. All distinctions and privileges were 
abolished, and all Frenchmen were pronounced equal. 
It went further still. The people were declared the 
only true sovereign, and the king the first servant 
of the state. 

At the first outbreak of the revolution the two 
brothers of the king and many of the nobility fled 
the country. All through France the peasants rose 
and set fire to the chateaux, and burned the ar- 
chives containing the title-deeds of the nobles to 
their lands. The Assembly continued its work. It 
divided France into eighty-three departments. It 
published a list of the rights of men without say- 
ing anything about their duties. Everywhere dis- 
turbances became worse. The royal family, feeling 
no longer safe, attempted to fly, but were arrested at 
Varennes and brought back as prisoners to Paris 
(July 23, 1791). 

The rabble had now completely got the upper 
hand. At midnight of the 9th of October they 
broke into the Tuilleries, the royal palace, massa- 
cred the gallant Swiss guards Avho defended the 
king, and clamoured for his deposition. That 
he and his family might not fall into the hands of 
these savages the king, with the queen and his chil- 
dren, escaped to the hall where the National Assem- 
bly was collected, at nine o'clock in the morning 
of the loth. The Assembly declared the king 
provisionally deprived of his functions, and con- 
signed him and his family to the Temple, one oi 
the prisons of Paris. All the adherents of the king 
were then secured and thrown into the prisons. 

LLOi'uLU 11. IN 1111'. IMl'tKlAL KuULi. 


Leopold II., Emperor of Austria, and Frederick 
William II., King of Prussia, now prepared for war. 
The French forestalled them by declaring war. The 
King cT Prussia, at the head of 50,000 of his own 
men and 30,000 Austrians, took Longwy, and ad- 
vanced upon Verdun and Champagne. The news 
filled the rabble with fury. The Jacobins, as the most 
extreme of the revolutionists were called, from a club 
into which they had formed themselves, cried out, 
" Our most dangerous enemies are not the Germans 
at Verdun, they are to be found at Paris in our 
prisons." Thus instigated, the mob burst into one 
place of detention after another, and for four days 
in succession massacred all they found' in them. 
The same horrors were perpetrated at Lyons, 
Rheims, Meaux,and Versailles. The massacre began 
on Sept. 2d, and the same day Robespierre was 
elected to the National Convention, as the third 
national assembly was designated. 

To protect the frontiers against the allied sover- 
eigns, and to carry the war into their territories, the 
Assembly ordered armies to advance. The French 
at once invaded the Netherlands and defeated the 
Austrians at Jemmapes. The Republican soldiers 
entered Bruss-ls, pillaged the Netherland cities of 
all that was valuable, and after doing this effectually 
proclaimed liberty and equality and the rights of 
men. Another French army advanced to the Rhine 
and secured Mainz. 

The alliance of the German sovereigns against the 
Revolution precipitated the fate of the king. The 
National Convention condemned him to death, and 

(From [he painting by Schruder.j 


the execution was fixed for the 2ist February, 1793. 
After a heart-rending parting from his wife and 
children Louis XVI. mounted the scaffold with 
dignity and Christian resignation. On reaching the 
platform he advanced to the breasting to address 
the people. " Frenchmen," he said, " I am guiltless 
of the crimes whereof I am accused. I forgive 
those who have brought mc to my death, and I 
pray God that the blood you are about to shed may 
not be required of France." His address was cut 
short by the rattle of drums. He allowed his hands 
to be bound without an attempt at resistance ; and 
as the Abbe Edgeworth, his confessor, exclaimed, 
" Son of S. Louis, mount to heaven ! " the axe fell. 
Then there was a rush of the people. They burst 
through the guards to sop their handkerchiefs in 
the royal blood. Thus died Louis XVL His 
prime minister, Necker, a Swiss, said of him, "He 
was a sovereign good to the heart's core. He loved 
his people as a father loves his children. He did 
what was right when he saw what was his duty, and 
how to discharge it. He was a ready help to all in 
trouble. He released the peasants from serfdom, 
and abolished the irksome feudal duties. He put a 
stop to torture, and had the prisons placed under 
proper supervision and put into decent order. He 
restored to the Protestants their citizen rights. His 
whole life was spent in doing good. He suffered, 
not for his own sins, but for those of his forefathers. 
His people were, during the latter years, blinded to 
his excellence, and allowed his enemies to do what 


they willed with him. He died a martyr to his 

The execution of Louis was followed by that of 
the queen in October. She was taken to the scaf- 
fold in a cart, with her hands tied behind her. She 
was scarce 38 )'ears old when she died. 



The news of the execution of the king filled all 
Europe with liorror and indignation, and in France 
several towns and the province of La Vendee rose 
against the National Convention. Most of the 
European powers formed an alliance against the 
French Republic (the 1st Coalition, 1793), and their 
armies advanced on the frontiers. A very speedy 
termination to the Republic might have ensued had 
not the powers been filled with rivalries, and had 
their forces been led by competent generals. The 
Duke of Coburg was at the head of the main body 
of the Austrians in the Netherlands, and he was 
reinforced by the English and Dutch. With their 
aid he drove the French out of the Netherlands, but 
instead of advancing at once on Paris he dawdled 
in the Low Countries, issuing manifestoes and invest- 
ing Dunkirk. The Duke of Brunswick, in command 
of the Prussians, retook Mainz, but owing to the 
jealousy felt by the King of Prussia at the union of 
the English with the Austrians was not allowed to 
go forward. 

In the spring of the following year the emperor, 
Francis II., visited the Netherlands, with the inten- 
tion of pushing straight upon Paris. This project, 



practicable in 1793, was now utterly out of the 
question. The I-'rench had massed their armies to 
])rotect the frontier, and the Prussians had with- 
drawn in a '^u'k. The h'rencli sneered, " The allies 
are al\va\-s ^vool-yathcriniJ, and wake up c )-ear too 

In face of the dan^XT that menaced the Republic, 
on April 6th, a Committee of Pidolic S.alet)- was 
appointed at I'aris, and tile li\-es, the freedijm, 
and the property of all the citizens ^\•ere jjlacetl in 
the hands of this committee. The)' coidd condemp 
to death whom the)' \vould'. At the head stood 
Robespierre, a cold, blcj()dthirst)' man. 

Now executions \\-ent on witlmut cessation. No 
one was safe. The more mnderate members of the 
Convention fthe Girondists) were sent to the guillo- 
tine. Blood poured in streams, not in Paris duI)-, 
but in all the large towns o\ France. Au\' one, on 
the faintest suspicion, was arrested, and once arrested 
his fate was sealed. 

The Republic then turned its attention to repel 
the enemies at its doors. The English were beaten at 
Toulon T!ie Spanish, who had crossed the r\-renees, 
retired o\-er them again. The Prussians \\'ere de- 
feated b)' Moche and the j\ustrians b)' Jourdan. 
The Prussians, full of jealous)' of the Austrians, w ith- 
drew from the alliance, and concluded peace ^^ ith the 
Republic, basely surrendering to P'rancc the whole 
left bank of the Rhine. Belgium \\'as overrun and 
annexed to France, Holland formed into a republic 
under its protection. England remained inert. 
Only Austria abided unshaken. The P'rcnch crossed 


the Rhine and invaded Swabia ; were encountered 
by the Archduke Charles, and defeated him. The 
French took Stuttgart and Frankfort. Then the 
Austrians succeeded in breaking to pieces the invad- 
ing army, and as it retreated the peasantry rose 
in a body and hunted the soldiers down. 

In the mean time the Reign of Terror at Paris 
had come to an end. Robespierre had raged with 
such frightful bloodthirstiness, putting to death 
every one whom he considered an opponent, spar- 
ing not even Republicans of as advanced views as his 
own, that at last his own adherents were afraid for 
their lives, and the more moderate united against 
him. He was accused, a majority formed to con- 
demn him, and he was dragged to the guillotine, a 
cowardly, quaking wretch, with a broken jaw, hav- 
ing tried, ineffectually, to shoot himself when sen- 
tenced to death. 

A fresh constitution was now issued, and five 
men were appointed as Directors of the Republic. 

Among the many able generals possessed by 
France at this period Napoleon Bonaparte stood 
pre-eminent. He was the son of a Corsican lawyer, 
and was born at Ajaccio. As a boy he had shown 
a love for military studies. In his sixteenth year 
he entered the artillery in Paris as sub-lieutenant, 
and at the age of six-and-twenty he was nominated 
commander of the army of Italy. He found there 
that the soldiers were in a pitiable condition, with- 
out food, money, or clothing, dissatisfied and dis- 
organized. But Napoleon was not one to be 
daunted, " Soldiers," he said, " you are badly fed. 


naked, and miserable among barren rocks. I will 
lead you down into the richest plains in the world. 
Great cities full of wealth, whole provinces will fall 
into )-our power; in them you will acquire all )-ou 
want — fame, treasure, repose. Soldiers of the Army 
of Italy, \\ ith this prospect will }-Mur hearts fail ? 
No ; surely not. I'orward ! " and, in fact, in a surpris- 
ingly short time he conquered the greater part of 
Italy and converted the prcninces that came into 
jiis power into republics. The Austrian armies 
sent against him were led b)' incompetent generals, 
who were perfectly incapable of winning success 
op[5osed to so consummate a genius as Bonaparte. 

In the mean time the Austrian army, under the 
command of the gallant Archduke Charles, the 
brother of the emperor, Francis II., had, as )'Ou 
have heard, defeated the French in \V'iirtemberg 
and the Black I'orest, and dri\-en them back across 
the Rhine. 

In Januar)', 1797, the Austrian general, yMvinzi, 
met a crushing defeat in Italy, -with the luss of 
20,000 men taken prisoners. At the same time 
another general, Wurmser, was forced to capitulate 
at Mantua with 2i,cxX) men. 

As soon as the snow began to melt on the Alps 
Bonaparte prepared to march up the Isonzo, cross 
the Alps, and penetrate to Vienna. In his alarm 
the emperor recalled the Archduke Charles from 
the Rhine, but lie liad onl)- the fragments of the 
discouraged troops of Alvinzi to lead. " Hitherto," 
said Napoleon, " I ha\'e been fighting armies without 


generals, now I have to fight a general without an 

A battle took place in the mountains at Tarvis, 
high up on the pass into the Gail Valley, after- 
wards called "the battle above the clouds." The 
archduke, with a handful of Hungarian hussars, 
defended the pass against sixteen thousand French, 
and did not turn to fly till only eight of his men were 
left. The archduke retired to Glogau, where he 
collected five thousand men, and again barred the 
way against the French, and held his ground with 
dauntless heroism till only two hundred and fifty 
of his men remained. 

But now the archduke's troops, whom he had led 
to victory on the Rhine, were coming to his aid. 
The republic of Venice had made an alliance 
with Austria, and Napoleon was threatened in his 
rear. The brave Tyrolean peasants were up in arms, 
and routed his troops as they tried to push for- 
ward. The archduke hoped now to nip Bonaparte 
in the mountains, and crush him. But, with in- 
conceivable folly, the emperor's advisers at Vienna 
threw away this unique opportunity. They were 
so panic-struck at the advance of Bonaparte that 
when he, conscious of the predicament in which he 
stood, to gain time, sent overtures of peace, not in 
the least supposing the Austrian ministers such 
fools as to accept them, they actually snapped at 
the proposals, and were in haste to get a treaty 
concluded. 'When Bonaparte saw the timorous sort 
of men with whom he had to deal he assumed a 
more defiant tone. The plenipotentiary of Aus- 



tria was Count Cobenzl, who had been much in the 
service of the Empress of Russia, and had presented 
]5onaparte a beautiful and costly \-ase from Cath- 
erine, the Empress of Russia. Cobenzl was a 
witty playwriter, and immediately aftci sr)me un- 
pleasant piece of state business he produced a 
comedy full of fun. " I suppose,' said the em- 
press, " Cobenzl, you arc waitincj t(j kill us with laugh- 
ing till you hear that the I'"rench are in X'ienna?" 
This was the man sent intrj Udine tti treat with 
Bonaparte. Now the latter was in far greater straits 
than Cobenzl supposed, for the Director)- in Paris 
were getting jealous of him, and refused him more 
soldiers, and he knew very well that he cuuld nut 
get any further through the ^\lps where the passes 
were guarded by bra\-e mountaineers, read}' to roll 
down rocks on his troops, and excellent shots were 
lurking behind every stone and tree to pick oil his 
officers. However, he put a binld face on the 
matter, and when Cobenzl made some demur to one 
of his demands Napoleon took up the ptircelain 
cup the Empress Catherine had sent him, and 
dashed it to atoms on the floor. " There," said he, 
" take my terms, or I will shatter }'om- precious 
monarchy like this \'essel." 

Cobenzl was too much frightened at the threat to 
stand out. A treaty was drawn up and signed, called 
the Treaty of C.VMro Formic), on October 17, 
1797. By this the emperor ceded to France the 
whole of the west bank of the Rhine, inlanders, and 
the Eombard provinces, but recei\-ed in exchange 
the territory of Venice and the archbishopric of Salz- 



burg. Now this concession of Napoleon was part 
of his cleverness ; he wanted by all means in his 
power to rouse up the jealousy of Prussia against 
Austria. You know that among children one be- 
comes spiteful if another gets one slice of bread 
and jam more than itself, — so is it with nations. 
Prussia was consumed with anger and envy when 
it heard that Austria was to gain that rich merchant- 
city, Venice, and consequently would have noth- 
ing more to do with Austria against the common 

When the news reached Paris the French Re- 
publicans liked the idea of the cession of Venice to 
Austria almost as little as did the Prussians ; but 
Napoleon quieted them. "Pshaw!" he said, " it is 
only for a bit." The result of this clever stroke soon 
became apparent. The Prussians sent an army into 
Franconia, and seized Nuremberg and several other 
towns. They also entered Westphalia, annexing 
it, and stirred up Hesse -Cassel to grasp part 
of Schaumburg-Lippe. That same year Frederick 
William II. died, and was succeeded by his son, 
Frederick William III., who continued the same 
shameful and dishonourable policy of playing the 
game of France against the only upholder of the 
German name and honour, the Emperor of Aus- 

Whilst Austria was lulled into peace the French 
overran Switzerland and converted it into a repub- 
lic under their protection ; and thus this great 
barrier which had protected the Austrian frontiers on 
the side next France was thrown down. The peace 



concluded by Napoleon at Campo Formio had to be 
ratified, that is, agreed to by all the powers con- 
cerned, and a meeting was appointed to be held at 
Rastadt, -which had been the residence of the mar- 
graves of Baden. In it is a red sandstone palace; 
to this palace the envoys were summoned to meet 

(From a Drawing by P. C. StrochlingJ 

in 1797, and there they sat haggling over terms till 
April, 1 799, when the congress was broken up without 
coming to any agreement, in the way }'ou shall hear. 
The French envoys demanded all that had been 
granted by the treaty of Campo Formio, and agreed 
that, to indemnify the German princes, these latter 
should seize on all the remaining ecclesiastical prin- 
cipalities in the land, as the archbishoprics of Salz- 
burg, Mainz, and Cologne, the bishoprics of Munster, 

* See page 316. 



Wiirzhurg, Bamberg, Eiclistiidt, etc. But they 
went further. Not content -with the west, or left, 
bank of the Rhine, they now asked for some places 
on the other bank as well. 

Whilst the negotiations were in progress, France 
was collecting men and material for prosecuting the 
war. At Rastadt their principal envoy was Talley- 
rand, a man \\\\o had been a bishop, but had cared 
little for Christianity. He was a man of extraordi- 
nary talents, and cunning as a fox. He wEs able 
to do ■without sleep, and when asked how that 
was, he showed that his pulse throbbed, then 
stopped for some seconds, and then throbbed again. 
He said that his nature recruited itself in these 
pauses. With him "were three others, Robert, Bon- 
'nier, and De Bry, from the dregs of the people, 
coarse, insolent, rapacious men. The German 
princes, all eager to make good terms with the 
French for themselves, bribed these French envoys 
to put in a good word for them ; these scoundrels 
pocketed their money and insulted them for their 
folly. On the 1st of March, however, whilst negotia- 
tions were still in progress, the French crossed the 
Rhine, under Jourdan, and entered Wiirtemberg. 
The brave and able Archduke Charles met and de- 
feated them, and Jourdan was obliged to recross 
the Rhine to Strasburg, where he left his army 
and relurned to Paris. The insolence of the envoys 
and their outrageous demands at Rastadt had 
aroused great anger in the people, and a tumult 
broke out in Vienna, in which the tricolour, hoating 
above the residence of the French ambassador, was 

THE FKE.ycn IX EGYPT. -.-.7 

torn clown and burnt. The Congress of Rastadt 
broke up in haste. v\s the en\oys ^vere leaving the 
place some hussars rushed (uit of a wood ui)on the 
carriage and killed two of them. 

Against England ahme had the l'"rencli liithertn 
been unable U> deal crippling blows. In order to 
hurt English trade and to iiienace her Asiatic pos- 
sessions Napoleon was sent \vith an army into 
Egypt. Tlierc he "was x'ictorious on lani.1, exery- 
■where ; but Nelson, with the Enghsh fleet, fiiught 
and complctel)' destroyed the Frencli lleet l\'ing in 
Abukir Ba)'. Whilst ]')ona[)arte was in Egyjit the 
French armies met some serious disasters on the 
Rhine and in Switzerland. The Directory at Paris 
was, moreover, weakened b)' the \'arious parties 
squabbling together. 

Bonaparte now left his arm)' in Egypt and slipped 
across the Mediterranean un[)ercei\eel by the I'.ng- 
lish, landed in France, was appointed generalis- 
simo over all the arm\', and at once upset, with the 
aid of his soldiers, the goxernnient, and ajjpointcd 
liimsclf and two others as Coiisk/s. This was in 
1799, when the Skcond Coalitidx of European 
powers \\'as formed against P'rance, consisting of 
England, Russia, and Austria. 

Inspired b)' Napoleon the French troops gained 
victory after \'ictory. He crossed the Alps at the 
head of a ncw^ arm\', before the jVustrians ^\'ere 
aware that he was in motion. With that incon- 
ceivable foil}' which seemed to pervade the coun- 
sels of the Austrian ministry the Archduke Charles 
had been deprived of his generalship and sent into 


Bohemia, and the command of the forces given to 
Marshall Kay. Suddenly Napoleon appeared in 
Lombard)', and on June 14, 1 800, gained such a 
decisive victory at Marengo that the Austrian 
army was forced to lay down its arms. The whole 
of Italy fell once more into the hands of the 
French. And now, instead of recalling the able 
Archduke Charles, the command-in-chief was given 
to the Archduke John, a lad of eighteen, without 
experience and without genius. On the 3d of Decem- 
ber this boy-general with his army was completely 
routed in the tremendous battle of Hohenlinden, 
more momentous even than that of Marengo in its 
military consequences. The shattered remains of 
the imperial army retreated behind the River Inn, 
followed by disaster. The Austrians lost 10,000 
prisoners and 100 cannon. But now the voice of 
the nation made itself heard. Where was the Arch- 
duke Charles ? Let him be recalled. Accordingly, 
he was ordered back from Bohemia. He flew to the 
rescue, but when, instead of the proud battalions he 
had led so often to victory, he found only a con- 
fused crowd of infantry, cavalry, and artillery cover- 
ing the road, filled with panic, lost to discipline, the 
tears rolled down his furrowed cheeks. In vain did 
he try to rally them ; they were too broken even to 
obey his voice. The French fell on the rear of the 
flying Austrians, and routed the rearguard with a 
loss of twelve hundred men, completing the demor- 
alization of the army. A few days later the news 
arrived of the defeat of the Austrian army in Italy 
at the passage of the Mincio. These disasters once 


more inclined Austria to peace, which was concluded 
at Lunevillc (9th Feb., iSoij. \\\ thi.-, peace the 
whole of the left bank of the Ivhine \\as again as- 
sured to F" ranee, and the pett\- republics establi-^hcd 
by France in Ital\% Switzerland, and Holland were 
recognized. All but six of the free imperial cities 
were deprived of their privileges, the spiritual prin- 
cipalities were abolished, and many of the secu- 
lar princes were " mediatised," that is, lost their 
sovereign anthority, though allowed to retain their 



As Consul, Napoleon governed in France with 
great vigour and discretion. By wise laws and 
benefiical measures he endeavoured to give prosper- 
ity to the land, and to heal the wounds caused by 
protracted wars. The Revolution had abolished 
Christianity, hung or guillotined the priests, and 
had forbidden the use of the churches for Christian 
worship. Napoleon, in concert with the Pope, re- 
stored the exercise of the Christian religion, and 
arranged for the organization of the church in 
France, at the same time that he allowed perfect 
freedom of conscience to Protestants and Infidels. 
The bishops were paid by the state instead of 
from the confiscated estates, and the clergy also, 
without restoration of the tithe. The monasteries 
and convents were not re-opened ; new schools 
were founded, and provision made for general ed- 
ucation. To encourage traffic, good roads and ca- 
nals were made. By these means Napoleon won 
the favour of the people. They were sick of the 
bloodshed of the Republican tyrants, and they 
breathed freely under the prudent rule of the First 



Consul. Moreover, his \ict0rie3 over the powers 
opposed to France flattered the vanity of the na- 
tion. These circumstances conduced to further 
his aim for supremacy; but he did not dare 
take the title of king, which was still abhorrent to 
the people ; therefore he resolved to make France 
an empire, and renew in himself the splendours of 
Charles tiie Great's reig?i. Un the l8th of i\Ia\-, 
1804, Bonaparte abolished the French Republic, 
and was elected liereditary emperor of France. On 
the 2d of ] December he was solemnl)- anointed and 
crowned by the Pope, Pius VIL, -whom he forced 
to come to Paris for the purpose. The ceremonies 
used at the coronation of Charlemagne were re- 
vived on this occasion. In i\Iarcli, 1S05, he abol- 
ished the Italian republics and crownei-l himself 
with the iron crown of Lombard)-. He formed the 
grand and daring scheme of con\-erting the whole 
bf Furope into one vast empire, with kings and 
princes over the several nations, all subject to him- 

In the mean time he sent an army into Hanover, 
and overran it. Prussia offered no interference, 
hoping by her neutrality to secure Hanover as her 
reward. Fngland now persuaded Austria, Russia, 
and Sweden to combine again against France. 
This is called the Third Coalition, and was ef- 
fected in 1805. To her eternal disgrace Prussia 
kept neutral, and allowed the Fatherland to be rav- 
aged, because of her jealousy of Austria. 

Napoleon at once put himself at the head of an 
army and advanced to Ulm. Si.xty thousand Aus- 


trians were in the town under General Mack, an in- 
competent man, who, panic struck at the appearance 
of Bonaparte, capitulated without striking a blow. 
A body of 12,000, commanded by the Archduke Fer- 
dinand, made a bold attempt to break out, but all 
his infantry and the greater part of his cavalry were 
slain or captured, and a few hundred men alone suc- 
ceeded in cutting their way through the enemy into 
Bohemia. Where \\-as the Archduke Charles at this 
time ? (Jf course, where he Mas not specially 
wanted, in Italy, through no fault of his, but through 
the blundering stupiditj' of the emperor's council. 
After Mack's surrender, Napoleon, with his usual 
alacrity, marched with his main body straight upon 
Vienna, whilst he sent some detachments into the 
T)Tol to hold that in check, and entered the capital 
in November, before the Archduke Charles, who 
had been recalled, had time to arrive for its de- 
fence. In the mean time the Emperor Alexander 
I., of Russia, at the head of an army, approached 
through Moravia. Francis II. gathered together as 
many of his scattered troops as he could and joined 
Alexander. Both emperors appealed earnestly 
to Prussia to renounce its base alliance with France, 
and in this decisive moment to aid in the anni- 
hilation of the enemy, not of the Fatherland only, 
but of Europe. But no; the King of Prussia, hun- 
gering after Hanover, hoped to buy it by his neu- 
trality. On December 2, 1805, a famous battle, 
in which the three emperors of Christendom were 
present, took place at Austerlitz, not far from 
Briinn, and terminated in one of Napoleon's most 


glorious victories. Immediately Prussia threw in 
her part with F"rance, secured Hanover, and in ex- 
change surrendered Cleves, Anspach, and Neufchatel 
to the French. The Austrians, utterly paralyzed, 
were unable to continue the struggle, and were 
forced to conclude a peace, called the PEACE OF 
Pressburg, at enormous sacrifice. Austria lost 
Venice, Tj-rol, and the Brcisgau, a portion of land 
between the Black Forest and the Rhine. 

On his way east Napoleon had forced the dukes 
of Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, and Baden to unite their 
troops with his against the Austrians. Napoleon 
now rewarded them by elevating Bavaria and Wiir- 
temberg into kingdoms, and by exalting the Duke 
of Baden into a grand-duke, and giving him the 
Austrian lands adjoining his own. 

On the 1 2th of July, 1806, sixteen German princes, 
of which.the principal were Bavaria, Baden, Wiirtem- 
berg, and Hesse - Darmstadt, formally separated 
themselves from the German empire and declared 
themselves subject to the French emperor. This is 
called the Rhein-bund. Napoleon, to increase his 
own splendour, now erected the provinces dependent 
upon France into kingdoms and principalities, and 
bestowed them upon his relatives and favourites. 
His brother Joseph he made King of Naples; his 
brother Louis, King of Holland ; his step-son, Eu- 
gene Beauharnais, Viceroy of Italy ; his brother-in- 
law, Murat, formerly a common soldier. Grand-duke 
of Berg ; his first adjutant, Berthies, Prince of Neuf- 

On the 6th of August, 1806, the Emperor Francis 



II. was forced to abdicate the imperial crown of Ger- 
many, and announce the dissolution rif the empire 
in a touching address, full of stately sorrow. The 
last of the German emperors had shown himself, 
throughout the contest, worthy of his great ances- 
tors, and had, almost alone, sacrificed all in order to 
preserve the honour and independence of Germany, 
until, abandoned by the greater part of the princes, 
he \\'as unable to continue the contest. 

Two years before, Francis II. had assumetl the 
title of Emperor of Austria, /. c, of the Eastern 
Realm, and it remains to the House of Hapsburg. 

Now it \\'as the turn of Prussia to be chastised. 
Now only did she awake to the fact that she had 
betrayed her best interests by not coming to the 
front with Austria. Napoleon seized the rrussian 
fortress of Wesel, and he insisted on the formation 
of a northern bund, like the Rhein-bimd, under the 
protection of himself. Louisa, the beautiful (Jueen 
of Prussia, a Mecklenburg princess, had alone fore- 
seen the inevitable end, and had entreated the king 
to draw his sword against the conqueror. Now she 
redoubled her entreaties. The Emperor Alexander, 
of Russia, visited Berlin and joined his \'oice to that 
of the queen. The whole kingdom felt the shame 
that covered it, and at last A\'ar was declared ( iSo6). 
But the spirit of Frederick the Great no longer an- 
imated the army he had created. The Prussians 
were defeated at Jena, and again at Auerstadt. 
Russia, which took the field at the same time, met 
bloody repulses at Eilau and Friedland. Na- 
poleon at once pushed on to Berlin, where he 



was received, not, as at Vienna, by the citizens with 
mute rage, but with loud demonstrations of delight. 
Men of high rank stood behind the crowd and urged 
them on to cheer, saying, " For Heaven's sake, give a 
hearty hurrah ! Cry, ' Long live the emperor ! ' or we 
are done for." Many citizens pressed forward, 
eager to betray the public money and stores that 
had been concealed. " I know not," said Napoleon, 
" whether to rejoice at my success or to feel ashamed 
for this people." The noble-hearted and beautiful 
Prussian queen was treated with the grossest inso- 
lence by Bonaparte. He knew how earnest and ener- 
getic she had been in stirring up her husband against 
him. He visited the tomb of Frederick the 
Great, and gave vent over it to the most unbecoming 
expressions of contempt against his unfortunate 

The Prussian fortresses fell, one after another, 
during the autumn and winter, some from utter in- 
ability to maintain themselves, but the greater part 
because commanded by incompetent generals. 

At last, on July 9, 1807, a conference was held 
at Tilsit between the sovereigns of France, Russia, 
and Prussia, whereby peace was concluded. Prussia 
was deprived of half her territory, which was con- 
verted by Napoleon into a kingdom of Westphalia, 
of which he appointed his brother Jerome ruler. 

In the year 1809 Austria again took up arms 
against Napoleon. The Archduke Charles had en- 
treated, after former disasters, that the army might 
be put on a better footing. Now, at last, his advice 
was attended to. But Austria had now opposed to 



lier France, Ba\aria, and the rest of the Rhenish 
l^und, and Saxony. In fi\'e battles in five consecu- 
tiv'e days Napolei^n defeated the archduke, and 
again the fjrcat conqueror entered \'ienna. Ikit 
now the bra\'e arclidukx- returned to the chari^e from 
])ohemia with fresh levies. ..V battle was fout^dit at 
Aspern which lasted two da\'s, the 2 I st and 22A of 
Ala)', 1809, and fur the first time Xapi>luon -was de- 
feated. I^'or some time the two armies continued 
watchint^ each other ; at last, on the 5th nf Juh', Xa- 
j)oleon attacked the Austrians at Wagram, nut far 
from Aspern. The iight was desperate, the \alour 
of the Austrians splendid. They ca[jtLired tw elve 
gr)lden castles and standards of the enemy, and 
would liave gained a victor)' had not the reserve 
which had been called up failed to ari-i\'e, owing to 
the dilatoriness of the .\rchdiike John, ^\■llo com- 
manded it. 

Two hours after the battle was o\-er it arrived <in 
the blood-stained field. Owing to this defeat Aus- 
tria was again compelled to negociate a peace, 
which goes by the title of "Till-; Pkace of Vi. 
KXX.V." She had now to make additional sacrifices, 
to give up Carniola, Trieste, and Dalmatia to the 
P'rench, and Salzburg and other portions of her pos- 
sessions in the Alps to Bavaria. The T)'rol also be- 
came Bavarian. During this heroic struggle of 
Austria against the tyrant, Prussia again remained 




To this time belongs one of the most heroic and 
glorious achievements of modern history, — the ris- 
ing of the Tyrolean patriots against the French and' 
Bavarians, under the leading of Andreas Hofer, an 
innkeeper, Speckbacher, a hunter, and Haspinger, 
a friar. 

Hofer kept a little tavern in the Passeyr valley 
that opens into the main valley of the Adige at 
Meran. The inn is at a place called " Sand," and 
so he went by the familiar name of the " Sand- 
host " (Sand-wirth). He was a tall, fine man, with 
brown, vivacious eyes, black hair, and a long, bushy 
beard, that reached nearly to his waist. His walk 
was measured and grave, his voice soft and clear, 
the expression of his features cheerful and serene. 
Without any pretence to eloquence, he had the 
gift of finding his way to the hearts of men and 
winning their confidence. His dress was the pict- 
uresque costume of his native valley, — a dark jacket, 
a scarlet waistcoat crossed by broad emerald-green 
braces, black chamois-leather breeches, and a belt of 
black leather, embroidered over with tiny threads of 



goose quill. On his licad he wore a black goat's- 
hair stcei)le cap \\\i\\ broad iM-im, surrounded b}- 
twisted scarlet silk string His stockings were of 
blue wool. Around his neck lie wore a small crucifix. 
If ever you go to Meran you « ill see the peas- 

A.MiKEAS illJlKK. 
(From a contemporary En.t,'raving.) 

ants there on a Sunday and market day wearing 
the same beautiful costume. 

When Austria took up arms again, in 1809, 
against France and her German allies, she had not 
many regular soldiers to send into Tyrol to defend 
it, and the defence had to be entrusted to the peas- 
ants themselves, who had shown what they could 
do, as you may remember, just before the Treaty of 


Campo Formio. In the resistance then offered, 
Hofer and Speckbacher had distinguished them- 

On the 7th of April little slips of paper, on which 
were written only the words " It is time," were cir- 
culated throughout Tyrol. As the river Inn rushed 
along it whirled on its milky waters bits of wood 
with red flags stuck into them. The peasants knew 
the signal, caught their weapons, and the whole of 
the mountain region was in insurrection against the 
enemy. On the south side of the Brenner pass, the 
main road from Innsbruck to Italy, in the green 
basin of a dried-up lake, stands the quaint old town 
of Sterzing. The mountains tower above it, and up 
the Ridnaun valley the eye looks to glorious ranges 
of ice peaks. Into this basin marched the Bava- 
rians on their way south to Brixen, where was 
another Bavarian force. When they were in the 
plain, the Tyrolese, commanded by Hofer, poured 
down from the mountain sides around, and attacked 
them. This was their first battle in the open coun- 
try. The Bavarians formed square, and poured a 
shower of lead into their advancing ranks. They 
hesitated. Then a young girl with a shout drew 
forward a waggon load of hay towards the enemy. 
The Tyrolese followed with two others. They 
threw over the loads in a line, and lying behind the 
l\ay fired into the mass of their enemy. The hay 
had made a wall of shelter for them. The Bavarians 
wavered, broke, and with a shout the peasants 
charged them over the hay heaps, and took them 


prisoners. The)' were carried to a castle that 
stands on a height o\-erlooking the plain. 

Then every trace of the battle \\-as remo\-ed, for 
the news reached the peasants that the French and 
l^avarians together were marching up the \alley 
from Erixen. Ilofer made the townspeople prom- 
ise him not to sa)' a \\ord of what had happened ; 
and when the united army arri\-ed and \\-ondered 
wliat liad become of the I!a\'arians "who had been 
ordered to meet them there, no one told them 
what had taken place. Ne.xt day the)- recom- 
menced tlieir march, and \\'ere n<j sooner iinnlved 
among the rocks and pines than bullets and stnnei 
poured down on them, and terrible -were their 
losses as they struggled through, unable to reach 
and dislodge the cnem)-. 

On the iith of May a French force, under Gen- 
eral Lefeb\'re, and a Bavarian force, under lJe\cy, in- 
vaded the Tyrol ; but alread)- had the gallant Tx'rolese 
stormed Innsbruck and taken Hall, where \\ere large 
stores for the army, and had cleared the Inn \'alle)' 
of the enemy, led b)' Speckbacher, and South T)'rol 
had been freed by Flofer. 

On the llth of May also a Bavarian force, under 
Wredc, advanced from Salzburg upon the T)'rol 
through the Strub pass. This is a long and gloomy 
ravine, shut in between abrupt walls of rock. The 
road zigzags up among dark pines, around promonto- 
ries of rock, high above a brawling torrent. The i ith 
of May, that year, was Ascension Da}'. It \\as brill- 
iant with sunshine ; the slopes were blue with gen- 
tianella and sprinkled with the delicate pink primula. 



They were soon to be deepened dark red with 
blood. Holding the pass were 350 brave peasants 
with two small cannon, six-pounders. A few miles 
behind was an Austrian general with regulars, but, 
like so many of the old generals in the Austrian 
service at that time, he was half asleep, and so be- 
wildered as not to know what to do when the op- 
portunity of doing anything offered. As Napoleon 
said of them, " They are asleep when their eyes 
are open." Wrede had 14,000 well-disciplined sol- 
diers and several cannon. When he saw that the 
pass was guarded he poured a volley and played on 
the defenders with his big guns ; but they neither 
heeded nor replied. Then he ordered a charge. 
At once the two little field-pieces blazed, and the 
unerring guns of the peasants were discharged. The 
Bavarians went down in heaps ; the rest recoiled, and 
the wounded staggered to the edge and fell down 
the gulf into the thundering stream far below. For 
five hours the fight continued, and then a shell in- 
jured one of the little cannon. Eight times did the 
Bavarians come on and were repulsed, and now their 
ammunition began to fail. A ninth attack was made, 
and at the same time a detachment, sent around by a 
circuitous path, fell on the brave Tyrolese behind. 
Then the battle was concluded by the enraged 
Bavarians butchering the wounded peasants who 
had fallen on the road they had held so heroically. 
Only a few escaped, but they had killed some 1500 
of the enemy. You must remember that at this 
time Napoleon was at Vienna, and held in his grip 
the heart of Austria. The Archduke Charles was 



in Bohemia, whither he had fled after the five battles, 
on five consecutive days, in which he had tried to 
arrest the onward roll of Napoleon. Austria was 
in such distress that she could not help poor Tyrol. 
She was forced to withdraw from it the few regiments 
of regulars left there. The peasants had only 
themselves to look to. Innsbruck, their capital, was 
in the hands of the Ba\'arians. The Tyrolese were 
resolved to recover it. On May the 29th was fought 
one of the most remarkable battles in the war, the 
battle of Berg Isel, in which the hardy moun- 
taineers defeated, and drove out of the town, the 
well-trained army of invaders. Due south of Inns- 
bruck the road to Italy runs over a le\'el plain for 
about a mile and a half, passing a large abbe_\-, called 
Wilten. Then there rises fiom the jilain a hill, 
]5erg Isel, up which the road winds. On this hill, 
occupying the Brenner road, \\ere the T)-rolese, 
and here the three leaders, Hofer, Speckbacher, 
and Haspinger, united. The Bawarians not only 
held Innsbruck, but the whole left bank of the Inn 
as far as Hall and \'olders, some 6 or 9 miles do\\-n 
the river. Speckbacher opposed them at this point, 
that is, he and his men formed the right A\ing of 
the patriot army. The Bavarians crossed the Inn 
at once at Hall and at Volders. Speckbacher im- 
mediately fell on them at X'olders and dro\'e them 
back ; then, leaving a detachment to destro}' the 
bridge, he flew to Hall, where some Austrian regu- 
lars were opposed to the Bavarians, and drove the 
L'nemy back. During the light here a young woman 
ran among the Austrians and Tyrolese with a lit- 


tie cask of wine on her head, and a mug in her hand, 
giving them drink. A bullet struck the cask, 
entered it, and the wine began to run down her 
cheek and neck. " Quick, quick ! " cried the brave 
girl, "drink awa}', my hearties ! before another ball 
finishes the wine and waitress." Speckbacher was 
rushing over the bridge when he found his little 
boy at his side. In vain did he urge the child to 
go back ; the gallant little fellow would be in the 
thick of the fight beside his father. Speckbacher 
had to box his ears and severely rebuke him before 
he would retire ; and then he occupied himself in 
collecting the bullets that fell about him for his 
father's gun. Three times did the brave Speck- 
bacher lead the charge ; at last a reserve body came 
up, the Bavarians were beat back, and then Speck- 
bacher led his men to the assistance of Hofer in 
the centre, at Berg Isel. Here a furious contest 
was going on ; and here it was that Haspinger, the 
friar, turned the tide of battle. Father Haspinger 
wore the snuff-coloured robe of his order, with a 
cord knotted round his waist, bare feet and sandals. 
His head was bare ; he had red hair and a long, thick 
red beard. In his hand he carried a stick, and on his 
breast a little black cross. He had no weapons. 
Above Berg Isel are two villages. Mutters and 
Natters, and these were in the hands of the Bava- 
rians. After two hours hard fighting the enemy 
was driven from them down the hill towards the 
plain. But this would not have happened withou 
Haspinger. Seeing the Tyrolese falter, then 
break and begin to fly, the brave Capuchin friar 

AMMIW ///OX SPEXT ^r ,; 

roared tn them, as he waved his staff, "Good-bye! 
Good-bye ! Ijrothers, I go forwards to the throne of 
God to accuse )'ou of cowarcHce. " They ^\■cre 
ashamed and returned to the charge. The bullets 
whistled around their leader, but none touched him. 
A Bavarian soldier rushed forward with a curse to 
run him through with his ba)-(jnet ; the friar 
knocked the gun out of his hands with his alpen- 
stock. Next moment he would have fallen, pierced 
through, had not a rifleman, perceiving his danger, 
fired over his shoulder at the Bavarian, thereby 
singeing the Father';; beard. Then forward with 
shouts of jo\' rushed the Tyrolcse, and dro\'e the 
Bavarians down on the Lm. Now that the left 
wing had succeeded, as ^\■ell as the right, Ilofcr in 
the centre pushed forward, and the Bavarians re- 
tired precipitousl)' into the town. The ammunition 
of the peasants was spent : they were unable to feil- 
low up their success, but during the night the Ba\-a- 
rian general slipped away from the town with the 
remnant of his arm)'. 

After the battle of Wagram, Austria was obliged 
to consent to a truce, which was to lead to the Peace 
of Vienna, by which Tyrol was to be given up to 
Bavaria. This had been agreed to on July 7th, at 
Znaym : but the Tyrolese obstinately refused to be 
transferred to Bavaria, and prosecuted the war. 

General Lefebvre, who had been a miller's boy 
and had become a field-marshal of France, and had 
been created by Napoleon Uuke of Danzig, was 
sent, at the head of a large army of French, Bava- 
rians, and Sa.xons, into Tyrol, to subdue it thor- 



oughly. He occupied Innsbruck, and then marched 
over the Brenner Pass to Sterzing, on his way to 
Brixen and Botzen. He intended to quiet the South 
of Tyrol. At the same time an army was sent up 
the valley of the Inn, which was to go through 
the Finstermunz Pass above Landeck,. descend 
the Adige, and meet him at Botzen. 

The first to go forward were the Saxons. They 
were allowed to advance as far as a very narrow 
defile, called the Sack, where there is a wooden 
bridge near a precipice of rock that rises above 
the road. The peasants passed the bridge and set 
it on fire as the Saxons came up, and as they 
halted, hesitating what to do, suddenly there came 
a rumble, then a roar, and an avalanche of rocks 
and stones poured down on them from the cliff 
overhead. A thousand men, among them forty- 
four officers, were lost in the Sack. When the 
Duke of Danzig heard this he was very angry, and 
ordered the rest of his troops forward. He ha(i 
been lodging at the little inn of " the Nail," at Sterz- 
ing, and grumbled at the poor breakfast he had re- 
ceived. " It matters not," he said to the hostess, 
" I shall have a famous dinner to-day at Brixen." 
But he was met at the Sack by the dauntless peas- 
ants, who poured their fire upon his advancing col- 
umns, and showered rocks on him from the sides 
of the pass, and the army was obliged to fiy back to 
Sterzing in confusion. As the duke returned, 
angry, humiliated, exhausted to the inn, he found 
his hostess at the door. She courtsied, and with 
a twinkling eye, asked, " I hope your Grace has 


enjoyed )'our famous dinner to-day." The army 
sent round by tlie P'instermunz met a like dis- 
aster, and the brokx-n frai^mients of both armies 
were forced to retreat into the Inn valley. There, at 
Innsbruck, Lefebvre, the duke, concentrated 25,000 
infantr}', and 1000 horse, and 40 pieces of artillery. 
After them, flushed with \-ictnr_\-, poured the gal- 
lant TjTolese. Another battle was fought on Pierg 
Isel ; again were tluj patriots commanded by Hofer, 
Speckbacher, and the friar, and again \\ere they 
victorious. The Tyrolese lost 133 wounded and 50 
killetl ; they took 6000 j)risoners anil killed 4000 
men, and Lefebvre was obliged to retire. 

The Peace of Vienna was signed, and Austria 
was forced to abandon Tyrol. She could not help 
herself. Her powers of resistance were exhausted. 
But the Tyrolese would not acknowledge it. Ac- 
cordingly, fresh bodies of men were sent into T)to1 
to subdue the mountaineers. They continued the 
desperate struggle, but against the enormous su- 
periority of numbers could not make headway. 
The Trench and Bavarians held the main roads, and 
all the towns, and could starve them into submission. 
Another battle was fought at Berg Isel, but this 
time the \'alour of the patriots could not win them 
victory. At last a former friend betrajxd Pbifer 
to the P'rench, and, to the eternal disgrace of Napo- 
leon, he had the brave man shot in cold blood. 
Speckbacher, later, was rewarded by the Austrian 
emperor, and Plaspinger would have been rewarded 
had the humble friar consented to receive an)'thing 
at his hands. 



Through his defeat of the Prussians and Aus- 
trians, Napoleon had reached tlie highest point of 
his career. No power but England dared to def)' 
him. The great fleet of England harassed and de- 
feated the French nav)'. Napoleon tried what he 
could to hurt England. He forbade all trade with 
Britain, and the sale of English wares. All the 
harbours of the continent were closed against 
the English, so as to kill their trade and manufact- 
ures. However, the Emperor Alexander, of Russia, 
refused to consent to have his ports thus shut ; ac- 
cordingly, the French dictator determined on war 
with him. 

Napoleon strained every effort to make this 
gigantic undertaking successful. At the head of 
600,000 men, in the summer of 1812, he crossed the 
Russian frontier. But before doing this he con- 
voked all the princes of Germany to Dresden, 
where he lectured them with such insolence as 
even to repel his warmest partisans. Tears sprang 
into the eyes of the Empress of Austria and the 
Queen of Prussia ; the princes and kings bit their 




lips \\\\\\ rage at the petty luimili.itinns and coarse 
affrfjiits put (<x\ tliein b)' their pi.werful hut nm- 
iTicntary lord. The arm\' led b\- Najioler.n against 
Russia \\'as ])i'incipall\' cijiiipn-^ed of (iernian troops, 
who were skillidl)' mixed up with the I'rench, sei 
as nut to be thenisel\-es aware of their niuiibers. 
vVustrians, I'nissians, Saxons, Hessians, ]!a\'arians, 
AViirtembergers, liadeiiers, Swiss, I'demings, c\'en 
Portuguese, Spaniards, and Italians, went to niak'e 
up this great lujst, which was destined to whiten 
with its bones the plains of Russia. In oialer to 
secure his Napoleon garrisijned the I'riLssian 
fortresses \\\\\\ hrench triHjps, and the Prussians 
sent forward to fight in Russia were ci inmiantletl 
by P'rench officers. Sixt)- tliiaisand P^'eneh held 
Prussia, wdiilst the sons of Prussia were sent tn die 
in arms for their concpieror. N(l^v bitterly' did she 
feel the consequences of her baseness in the |iast. 

No cnem\' opposed the in\'ading arm\-. The 
Russians retired before Napoleon without striking 
a blow, leading him on deep into their dreary 

On the /th of September, after a marcli i)f o\-cr 
two months, the arm_\-came in sight of the cupolas 
and towers of Moscow. A ni\sterious stillness 
reigned in the great cit}' of the Czars. None ap- 
peared with the keys to la)- them at the feet of the 
invader ; no crowd of curious sight-seers poured 
out of the gates to gaze on the mighty conqueror. 
The town was deserted. Napoleon took up his 
quarters in the Kremlin, the ancient palace of the 
Czars. All at once fire broke out in \arious quarters 


of the town. An autumn storm fanned the flames, 
and in a short time the whole city was a waving, 
roaring sea of fire. Every attempt to extinguish 
the conflagration was in vain ; the very Kremlin 
kindled. The Russians had themselves accumulated 
the combustibles in their houses and set them on 
fire, and sacrificed their glorious city so as the more 
surely to work the destruction of the French army. 
Now Napoleon's overwhelming pride proved 
his ruin. Instead of leading his army south into 
fertile lands for winter quarters at once, he waited 
among the ashes of Moscow till the middle of Octo- 
ber, in daily expectation that the Emperor of Russia 
would send humbly to him, entreating peace. 
Finding that no appeal came ; hearing the winds of 
winter begin to howl, and seeing the snowflakes begin 
to fall, he sent overtures of peace to Alexander. No 
answer came. All at once inaction disappeared. 
His cavalry were surprised and defeated with great 
loss. The frosts began to set in, the ice to form 
over the pools. Faster and faster fell the snow. 
Now Napoleon found that he had an enemy ranged 
against him that he was unable to defeat and insult — 
winter. Now, when too late, he resolved on retreat. 
The winter of 1 8 r i had been unusually mild ; that of 
18 1 2 set in unusually early, and with unwonted 
severity. Provisions failed. The vast plains were 
white and deep in snow, and as the army retired 
the Cossacks hovered around them with their long 
spears like musquitos, maddening and torturing 
them. The horses died by thousands. The numbed 
and weary soldiers flung away their arms. The 
grand army was reduced to a cowering, starved, 


rrightencd wreck. Gaunt forms nf famine, wan, 
hollow-eyed, wrapped in strange garments of miser\- 
to keep out the cold — skins and women's clothes — 
with long beards, dragged their faint liml)s, 
fought for a dead horse, murdered e.ieh other for a 
morsel of bread, and fell o\ er in the deep snnw, 
never again to rise. Numbers fell into the hamls of 
the Russian boors, wlm strijjped tliem and dro\-e 
them out into the snowdrifts. When at last they 
reached the Beresina, which had to be passed, a thaw 
had set in, and the river ri>llc(_l down broken blocks 
of ice. At the same time the Russians appeared on 
their flanks, charging them with spears, pouring can- 
non shot among them, hewing them down with their 
sabres. Two bridges were hastily built, ani.1 o\er 
them poured the terrified, fl>'ing rabble of soldiers. 
The)' crowdetl on one another, tranii)led one another 
down. The railings ga\e wa)% ami m,ui\'were precip- 
itated over the sides ; others were run down by the 
horses, and crushed under the wheels of the cannon 
carriages. Then, to complete the disaster, the bridges 
themselves broke, and the stream of human beings, 
forced on by those behind, fell into the ice-cold 
whirling river to perish in its wa\'es. Those who 
did not reach the shore were made prisoners. 

On the 5th of December Napoleon deserted his 
army, leaving it to take its chance, escaping on a 
slide. With his fliglit all discipline ended ; soldiers, 
and officers, and generals all sought onl)' indi\'idual 
safety. Of the great army led into Russia not one 
twentieth part returned in safet\-. The mighty host 
of the conqueror was totally annihilated. 



This unexpected disaster of the Emperoi Napo, 
leon seemed to Europe a sign from heaven that the 
hour of emancipation had struck. The first to 
recognize tliis was Prussia. In February, 1813, the 
king met Alexander of Russia and concluded an 
alliance with him. But Berlin was in the hands of 
the French. Now, however, the whole Prussian 
nation, eager to throw off the hated yoke of the 
foreigner, to wipe away the dishonour of her past, 
cheerfully hastened to place their lives and property 
at the service of the impoverished government. The 
whole of the able-bodied population was put under 
arms. Every heart bounded with hope and pride. 
The king and emperor issued a proclamation appeal- 
ing to all Germany to rise against the common enem}^ 
It found an echo in every German heart. Warning 
was sent to Napoleon of the menacing temper in 
the land. " Pah ! " he exclaimed, " Germans can't 
fight like Spaniards." However, he levied a French 
army 300,000 strong, which so overawed the Rhenish 
Bund that their princes actually again called to- 
gether thousands of their subjects to go with Na- 
poleon against their brothers in the North, Meek- 


ALL\AM)LK, XAl'.-LLuN AM' IKLlH.Kh.K \M1_I.IAM ill 

IItuiu a coniemporary picture by an unknu^vn Aruii.j 

10 5 



lenburg alone sided with Prussia. Austria was too 
exhausted to hft a hand. But now was a fight to 
be seen calculated to rejoice the heart of one loving 
his country. As sometimes a great distress or humil- 
iation coming on a man with good qualities, who 
has lived an inglorious, unworthy life, will spur him 
to take a new start, cast aside those infirmities 
which have marred his character and rise to true 
nobility of life, so was it now with the Prussian peo- 
ple. As animated by one heart, all responded to 
the call. Prussia became a great arsenal. Youths 
hardly ripe enough, old men with grey hair, fathers 
of families, tradesmen, artisans, professional men, 
landed gentry, even young women in men's cloth- 
ing flew to arms; all wanted to hold a gun and 
brandish a sword for Fatherland. He who could 
not enter the ranks gave his money. He who had no 
money gave his labour. None would hang behind 
the others in the great cause. Speedily the whole 
of the able male population was converted into an 
army. There was the standing army, and there 
were the free corps. Among these latter Ltitzow's 
Huntsmen gained a glorious name in these days of 
gallantry. Napoleon advanced into the heart of 
Germany, and he was in Saxony before the Prussians 
were ready to meet him. Now the Emperor Alex- 
ander of Russia sent help, and the two allies met 
Napoleon, and were defeated by him in two bloody 
battles at Liitzen and Bautzen. 

The Emperor of Austria offered to mediate. His 
minister, Count Metternich, was sent to Napoleon. 
" Hah ! come to mediate, have you ? " asked Bona- 

blCcher irixs success. 


parte ; " if that be so, )-ou arc not on my side." 
Then, insolently, " \\'cll, Mettcrnich, how much 
money have )-ou been bribed with by England to 
takx' this parti ' and he threw his hat down on the 
floor to see if Count Metternich would stoop to 
pick it up. Metternich looked at the hat, then 
at Napoleon, and set his lips. Me would not stoop. 
Napoleon turned his back on him, — and so, war 
with Austria also was determined on. Immedi- 
ately, the combined Prussian and Russian army 
entered Bohemia, ■where they were joined by the 
Emperor of Austria at the head of his arm)'. The 
army in Bohemia was placed under the command 
of Prince Schwarzenberg. Another army to guard 
Silesia was under l^lCicher, a third, the North army 
at Berlin, was under the CrownT'rince of Sweden, 
who was a Frenchman, Charles Bernadotte, one of 
Napoleon's generals, who had been elected to suc- 
ceed the childless King of Sweden. 

On the 23d of August a murderous conflict took 
place at Gross-Beeren between a Prussian division 
of the North army and the French. The almost 
untrained peasantr)' that composed it rushed upon 
the enemy and beat down entire battalions with the 
butt-ends of their muskets, whilst the crown-prince 
and his Swedes looked on without taking part. 
The French lost 2400 prisoners. Bliicher in Silesia 
also won success three da)'s later. Having drawn 
the French across the river Neisse, he drove 
them, after a desperate engagement, into the river, 
swollen with heavy rains. The muskets of the sol- 
diers had been rendered unser\-iceable by the wet, 



and Bliicher, drawing his sabre from beneath his 
cloak, dashed forward, exclaiming, "Forwards!" 
Several thousand French were drowned or bayo- 
netted, or had their skulls fractured by the butt- 
ends of the muskets. They lost 103 guns, 18,000 
prisoners, and a greater number were killed. The 
general in command, Macdonald, escaped almost 
alone to Napoleon at Dresden. " Sire," said the de- 
feated general, " your army no longer exists." 
Bliicher was given a title of prince from the place 
where this victory was won, but his soldiers pre- 
ferred to call him "Marshal Forwards." The place 
of this battle was Wahlstadt, not far from Liegnitz. 
Before Dresden, on the same day, Aug. 26, how- 
ever, the allies were defeated by Napoleon with 
great loss ; but this was the last victory obtained 
by Napoleon on German soil. 




NArOEEON's generals were thrown back in cvcr\' 
quarter with great loss on Dresden, where Nap'>. 
Icon remained waiting his opportunit)-. A fresh 
disappointment befel him. The Iku'arian arm\- re- 
fused to fight for him, amj went o\cr to the allies, 
and marched to the Main to stand aeruss Napo- 
leon's path if he attempted to retreat. When the 
news of this disaffection reached Xapnlciui's main 
army at Dresden the German trcnjps in it began to 
waver, and when he ordered a march mi lierlin, 
broke out in miitin\-. A feeling of melanchcily 
foreboding of his approaching fall stole o\er the 
great conqueror, and he remained for some days 
irresolute. Then his spirit revived. On the i6th 
of October, 1S13, began the great battle of Leipzig, 
which is called by Germans "The Battle of the 
Nations," because of the \-arious nationalities rep- 
resented in it, and the number of the troops engaged. 
It was fought on the i6th, 17th, iSth, and 19th of 
October, and was one of the longest, sternest, and 
bloodiest actions of the war, and one of the greatest 
battles recorded in history. Napoleon had an army 



of 200,000 men, and the allies 300,000; but the allies 
had not more than 200,000 the first day, as the 
Northern army was at Halle under Bernadotte, who 
was little inclined to fight his old master, Napo- 

Now let me try to give you some idea of this 
great Battle of the Nations. Leipzig lies in a plain 
where two rivers, the Elster and the Pleisse, meet, and 
two smaller streams, the Luppe and the Partha, also 
meet and unite into one river, which thenceforth 
flows a short way and falls into the Saale above 
Halle. From the East comes the high road from 
Dresden, along which Napoleon marched to Leip- 
zig. From the South comes the road by which the 
Silcsian army was advancing. This road ran along 
the Pleisse, through coppices of scraggy alders. On 
the West were two roads, one from the Saale at 
Weissenfels — /. c. S. W. — the other from Halle — 
N. W. Along this latter the North Army was advanc- 
ing, — reluctantly indeed, — under Bernadotte, Crown- 
Prince of Sweden. The Emperor of Austria, the Em- 
peror of Russia, and the King of Prussia were with 
the main army from Bohemia. With Napoleon ' 
was the King of Saxony, and Murat, King of 
Naples. As the allies drew near they formed a half 
moon, with the left wing on the Luppe and the 
right on the east bank of the Pleisse. Moreover, 
the Silesian army was planted on the road from 
Leipzig to Halle, and the Northern army, which was 
at Halle, ordered to come up quickly and unite 
with it, which it did not do. The object was to cut 



off Napoleon's retreat, and drive him either hack 
on Dresden, or, better still, due north. 

The battle began at S o'clock in the morning. A 
thousand cannon roared ; smoke rolled over the 
extended field. Napoleon planted himself with his 
main body across the south road that enters the 








]t^' azcHONrcLo'~ 

_ ToBreaien. 



1 ]IK llAJTI.E oK I.lill'Zh;. 

tt)\vn from W'achau and Probstheidc. The Polish 
[jrince, Poniatowski, with his Poles was between the 
Elsterand the Pleisse. Another division was placet! 
between the Luppe and the P.lster; another again, 
under Marmont, A\as on the Ilalle road. The bat- 
tle began witli a tremendous fight at W'achau, 
which lasted till 2 o'clock in the afternoon, in 
which the Russians were principalh' engaged ; but 
almost simultaneously it exploded at Lindenau, 
Konewitz, and Mockern ; so that Leipzig was sur- 
rounded on all sides but N. and E. b)' the thunder 
of war. Nothing decisive was done at Lindenau 



and Konewitz, and Napoleon massed his men to 
make a crushing rush upon the right wing of the 
ahies, and turn it at Probstheide. They shook 
and recoiled. Then above tlie booming of the 
guns sounded the merry behs of all the churches 
of Leipzig ; Napoleon had ordered them to be rung, 
believing that the victory was decided. At the 
same time, out of the Elster gate galloped a 
courier charged with a message to Paris of hts suc- 
cess. But just then up came the Russian reserves 
from the South. The Cossacks charged down on 
the advancing wave of French. The allied army 
rallied, and rolled back the enemy. On a mound 
beside the road Napoleon watched the battle all 
day, and the three allied sovereigns stood on an- 
other mound near Wachau. At one time they 
were almost captured, when the tide of battle 
turned. In the mean time Bliicher, " Marshal For- 
wards," was going forwards at Mockern unable to 
wait for the Swedes and their dawdling half-hearted 
leader, and he drove back the French within the 
walls of Leipzig. Darkness fell, and the roar of 
the cannons ceased, leaving the allies in possession 
of the field, and the French ictiring behind Leip- 
zig, so as to hold the roads to Dresden and the 
North. At the moment when victory seemed to 
have declared for the French, Napoleon shouted 
exultantly : " The world turns round for us." 
When darkness settled in he felt that he was a 
beaten man ; but his spirit was not broken. 

Next day only desultory fighting ensued ; but he 
saw that he was in peril, and he ordered that at all 


cost the road to Wcisscnfcls, along \\hicli la\- his 
course to h'rance, should be kept clear. He sent 
to the allies to ask for a truce, but \\as refused. 
(Jn the l8th the battle becjail witli renewed fur\', 
]5ut now the Swedes and Nrirth ami)' came up from 
llalle, and another Russian ffjrce, and a lar^^re Aus- 
trian division. The h'rench ami)', b)- its losses, had 
been i;reatly thinned, and the allies were at the 
same time reinforced. 

Napoleon now resoK-ed on retreat, an(i concen- 
trated liis ami)- on the South. The allies then ex- 
tended their right \\ing to tlie ]'arthe, shutting off 
the road to Dresden, w here the\' were opposetl b)- the 
Saxons. The main column of the allies advanced 
from Wachau to Probstheide, tlri\ing the I'rench 
before them. And now the Saxons \\ent oxer, 
then tlie VViirtemberg cavalr)', to the side of the 
allies. The gap A\'as at once filled, and a tremen- 
dous struggle tool-: place at Sclninewald ; but the 
French held their own. The circle was fast closing 
in on Leipzig. Only one road \\as left open, that to 
Weissenfels. Night settled ilown again on the 
blood)- field, and Napoleon spent it in the triwn, 
into which lie witlidrew ,dl but the cuitposts of his 
arm)', and prepared to break awa)- lionv: for France 
on the morrow. 

The 19th dawned, and with the gathering light 
the allies advanced. The cannon-balls fell in show- 
ers in the streets. Napoleon, finding all was lost, 
quitted the town as the allies entered it on the 
other side. Indeed, it is doubtful whether he would 
ha\'e escaped but for the braver\- of his generals, 



Macdonald and Prince Poniatowski, who covered his 
retreat. When he had crossed he ordered the bridge 
by which he had passed to be blown up. This was 
done whilst his flying army was crossing, leaving 
25,000 of his men behind. Prince Poniatowski 
plunged on horseback into the Elster, in order to 
swim across, but sank in the deep mud. The King 
of Saxony, who, to the last, had remained true to 
Napoleon, was taken prisoner. 

The retreat of the great conqueror to the Rhine 
was a flight. In the " Battle of the Nations " the 
French lost 78,000 men in killed, wounded, and 
captives, 300 cannon, and 1000 standards. The 
loss on the side of the allies was, however, very 

Thus ended this glorious victory. All Germany 
was filled with rejoicing. The yoke of foreign 
bondage was broken. Thenceforth Germany was 
free from the French. 



The allied princes met at I'Vankfort to takccnun- 
scl about a f^eneral peace. They agreed to offer 
Napoleon that tlic Rhine, the Alps, the Pj'renecs, 
and the sea should form the frontiers of France. 
But in his still unbroken pride he refused this offer, 
and the war flared up again. On New Year's night 
of 18 14 Bliicher went " forwards" over the Rhine at 
Mannheim and Coblenz with his arm)'. The main 
ami)' of the allies had crossed a few da)-s earlier at 
Hasle, as well as a Prussi.m arm)' under ]-!ulo\v 
from Holland. The Rhein-bund dissoh'ed ; Hol- 
land, Switzerland, Ital\' fell awa)' from Napiileon. 
Bavaria had alread)- made terms. Jerome, whom his 
brother had made King of Westphalia, packed up 
his valise and ran awa)-. Joseph, who had been 
made King of Spain, also fled, and the English, 
under Wellington, threatened Napoleon from the 

Bliicher won several battles, and again peace was 
offered to Napoleon, but in vain. He would not give 
way. Fortune again seemed to fa\'our liim ; with 
his usual celerity he flew from one advancing body 





to another, and beat them scparateh'. However, 
the host formed against him closed in, and after a 
short resistance entered Paris. The deposition of 
the emperor was decreed, and the brother of Louis 
XVI. was proclaimed kiny. All the efforts made 
by Napoleon to save for liimsell, nr his family, 
some of their former lionours were in \-ain ; his 
marshals fell away from him. He was forced to 
sign his renunciation of the crown, but lie was al- 
lowed to retain the title of Mmperor and hold the 
little isle of Elba as a sovereign princiiJalit}'. For 
the immeasurable injuries and lusses which Ger- 
many had suffered from him, with rare generosity 
no compensation was exacted. This was the FIRST 
Peace OF Paris (i 8 14). A congress was summoned 
to assemble at Vienna to regulate the relationship 
of the States of German)-. 

From Paris the sovereigns of Prussia and Russia 
and the victorious g^enerals proceedctl to London, 
where they, more especially ]51iicher, were receix'ed 
with every demonstration of respect aiul delight. 

In the autumn of 1S14 the European princes 
and their principal ministers and generals assem- 
bled in Vienna as had been agreed ; but soon the 
mutual jealousies began to work among them. 
Talleyrand was there. This utterl)- unscrupulous 
man had served under every government ; imderthe 
Republic, under Napoleon, and was now under the 
restored Bourbons. He \\-as there to offer his per- 
fidious advice to the victors, and to sow the seed of 
discord among them. Soon disputes broke out, 
and the news reached Napoleon in his banishment. 



Suddenly, on the ist of March, 1815, he set foot on 
the coast of France. The whole nation received 
him with acclamations of delight. All the troops 
sent against him went over to his side. On the 20th 
of March he entered Paris. Louis XVIII., deserted 
by his army, fled to the Netherlands. Napoleon's 
brother-in-law, Murat, at the same time revolted at 
Naples, and advanced into Upper Italy against the 
Austrians; but all the rest of Napoleon's ancient 
allies, persuaded that he must fall, drew closer to- 
gether in league against him. The allied sovereigns, 
still assembled at Vienna, let drop their miserable 
disputes to combine for his overthrow. All his 
cunning attempts to bribe them were rejected with 
scorn. Napoleon was proclaimed an outlaw, and 
they bound themselves to bring a force more than 
a million strong into the field against him. The 
French were still faithful to Napoleon. He col- 
lected an army of 150,000 men and marched on 
Belgium, where an English force, under the Duke of 
Wellington, and a Prussian, under Bliicher, were 
about to cross the frontier. 

At Ligny he fought and defeated Bliicher on 
June 1 6th with great slaughter. On the same day 
the left wing of the French under Marshal Ney 
attacked the English at Quatre Bras, and suffered a 
severe defeat. After this, the Prussians retreated 
to Havre, pursued by 35,000 French, and Wel- 
lington, falling back on the position he had chosen 
near Waterloo, awaited the approach of Napoleon. 

At Brussels, in a picture gallery, by a painter 
called Wiertz, is a painting representing Waterloo 


allegorically. A great black lion is tearing to pieces 
an eagle. The eagle represents the French military 
power, and the black lion symbolises the power of 
the Netherliinds. As a matter of fact, all the part 
taken by the Belgian soldiers in this memorable 
battle was to run away at the first discharge of fire- 
arms, and the English opened ranks to allow the 
frightened little men to escape through their lines. 
In this stupendous conflict of the i8th of June, 
the flower of the French soldiery perished in their 
desperate efforts against the obdurate walour nf the 
British. The battle raged from nofni till eight 
o'clock. Blucher and his Prussians made great 
efforts to reach the scene of action , but, marching 
over ground rendered almost impassable b_\- the 
heavy rains that had faUoi, their main bod\' did 
not arrive till the victory was already won. The)' 
undertook the pursuit, and so completed the 
achievement which the ]?ritish had begun. The 
French army was converted into a helpless mob 
of fugitives, incapable of rallying again. Na[io- 
leon returned Ut Paris to abdicate a second time. 
Then, failing in an attempt to escape to Amer- 
ica, he surrendered himself to Captain Maitland, of 
11. M. S. Bellerophon. 

With the concurrence of all the powers, he \Va!; 
conveyed, under the custody of the English, to the 
island of S. Helena, where he died on the 5th of 
May, 1821. Meanwhile Murat, Napoleon's brother- 
in-law, defeated b)- the Austrians at Tolentino, was 
taken and shot, as he was tr\-ing to incite the 
Italian rabble to insurrection. 



After the battle of Waterloo the allies a second 
time entered Paris. Louis XVIII, returned, and 
the Second Peace of Paris (1815) was eoneluded. 
This time the allies did not treat France with as 
much consideration as before. A large part of the 
left bank of tlic Rhine was restored to Germany, 
and France had to pay an indemnification of seven 
hundred million francs. 

In the new partition of Europe, arranged at the 
congress of Vienna, Austria received Lombardy 
and Venice, Dalmatia also, and Tyrol were restored 
to her. Thus, after thrce-and-twenty years of war, 
the monarchy apparently gained a considerable 
accession of strength, having obtained, in lieu of its 
remote and unprofitable possessions in the Nether- 
lands, territories which joined in Ital)'. The an- 
cient German empire was replaced by a German 
confederation of thirty-nine states, and a perma- 
nent diet, or parliament, made up of their repre- 
sentatives, was established at Frankfort. Saxony, 
Wurtemberg and Bavaria, which had been ele- 
vated into kingdoms by Napoleon, were allowed 
to remain kingdoms ; but of all the brothers and 
field-marshals whom Napoleon had exalted into 
kings and princes, not one remained in possession 
of the dignity he had conferred. One only of his 
marshals, Bernadotte, King of Sweden, whom he 
had not crowned, and whom he paiticularly hated, 
retained his position. 



After the fall of Napoleon, the relation between 
the princes and their people went through a great 
change, a change they themselves were not read)' 
to acknowledge. The French Revolution had 
greatly influenced men's minds throughout Europe, 
and men desired more freedom and emancipation 
from the irksome restraints of media^valism. 

Now, in Germany, in former times, the people 
had to a very considerable extent governed them- 
selves. Every little state had its houses of parlia- 
ment, composed of the nobles — that is, the landed 
gentry, the clergy and representatives of the peo- 
ple. But after the Iveformation the great wars, 
especially the terrible Thirty Years' War, had ruined 
the small nobles, and parliamentary institutions that 
existed in the Middle Ages had fallen into disuse. 
Thenceforth the princes ruled absolutely ; they levied 
what taxes they chose, and made war on whom they 
chose, and imposed what religion and what laws the\' 
chose, without consulting the people, who had 
but one duty — to obey and pay. But the freedom 
which France had fought to establish, the declara- 
ation of the rights of men, had set Germans think- 



ng, and they felt that they had these rights, and that 
hey ought to be consulted in matters affecting their 
velfare. However, the kings, and emperors, and 
)rinces, when they recast the map of Europe, had no 
dea of conceding liberty more than they were 
)bliged. They wanted to restore things as they 
vere before the great European war broke out. 

The emperors, Alexander of Russia, Francis of 
\.ustria, and King Frederick William III. of Prussia, 
oncluded between them "the Holy Alliance," and 
)romised to stand by each other, and to advance 
eligion, peace and righteousness in their lands, 
md to rule their people as fathers. Unfortunately, 
hey took a wrong idea of fatherly rule. They 
hought it meant despotic rule, and accordingly, 
nstead of advancing prosperity and giving more 
reedom to their people, they treated them like 
:hildren, devoid of intelligence, or as expecting of 
hem the docility of school-girls. 

William, Duke of Hesse-Cassel, said, " I have slept 
even years, now we will forget the bad dream," 
md he tried to put everything exactly on its old 
ooting. In the congress of Vienna, all the princes 
lad promised to give constitutions to their princi- 
)alities, that is — self-government by means of 
louses of parliament. But none of them, when 
ettled on their thrones, thought of giving 
vhat had been promised. This led to much un- 
lasiness. The people were dissatisfied and clam- 
lured for what had been promised. The stu- 
lents in the universities especially took up the cry 
or liberty and a constitution, and formed theiTi,- 



selves into " Brotherhoods," clubs for the spread oi 
liberal ideas. The young men dressed in short black 
jackets, wore top boots, long hair, exposed their 
throats with falling collars, wore daggers in their 
breast pockets, and drank barrels of beer in honour 
of liberty. They assumed a tricolour ribband, red, 
black, and yellow, as their badge. In October, 1817, 
they held a great meeting on the Wartburg in 
commemoration of Luther, and to express their 
detestation of the formalism and restraint exercised 
by the government. They lit a huge bonfire, and 
burned in it several " pigtails," stiff-neck stocks, and 
other symbols of the iSth century. This was all 
very absurd, and the government ought not to have 
noticed it, but when, shortly after, Kotzebue, the 
dramatic author, who had turned some of the German 
peculiarities into ridicule, was assassinated, they took 
a serious view of the affair, and proceeded to put the 
universities under police supervision, and to break up 
the clubs, and make many arrests. 

Not only did the people want parliaments, but 
also open courts of trial, with juries. Trials were 
condLicted in secret, and carelcssl)-, and much par- 
tiality Avas shown. Strict justice was not alwaj's 
dealt. l*"or instance, in 1820, a jKiinter and a car- 
penter were murdered in Dresden, and the police ar- 
rested an innocent man, and racketl and tortured 
him, to force a confession. To escape the rack he 
did at last confess guilt, and onh' just as he 
was about to be executed did his innocence trans- 
pire. In 1830 a carpenter at Rostock was accused 

38:: Germany struggles for freedom. 

by his apprentice of having murdered his wife. 
He was kept imprisoned for nine years, and only 
then did it come out that the apprentice was tlie 
murderer. In the same year the Danish ambas- 
sador in Oldenburg was assassinated, and his two 
servants, who were perfectly innocent, were kept in 
prison for six years, and so badly treated as to be 
broken in health and spirit by their confinement. 
The people were very dissatisfied, and very justly 
dissatisfied, with the way in which criminal trials 
were carried out. Another cause of complaint 
was the censure on the press. No books might 
be published and sold, no newspapers issued, which 
had not passed under the eye of officers appointed 
to read and approve them. I remember about this 
time, when I was in Germany, that my father 
wanted to buy the memoirs of Baron Trenck, who 
had been imprisoned for many years by the King of 
Prussia. The bookseller replied that he was not 
allowed to sell it, but he winked to my father, and 
when no one else was in the shop led him into a 
back room, and produced the book from a secret 
cupboard. So it was, books that were forbidden 
were sold, but purchasers were put to great incon- 
venience to get them, and if the bookseller were 
found out, he was thrown into prison. 

Spirits were so agitated, that some of the small 
princes gave way, and granted constitutions to their 
subjects. In July, 1830, revolution broke out again 
in France, and Charles X., who had succeeded Louis 
XVIII., was driven from his throne, to which suc- 
ceeded Louis Philippe, his kinsman. This change 



was not without effect in German)-, and led to con- 
siderable disturbance. The penplc cried out fcir 
more freedom, for sounder institutions, a healthier 
form of government ; the}' refused t(^ be any longer 
treated as cliildren ; but the)' did nut rise in a 
body, and it ended in on!)' tile cjrant of a few more 
institutions. Austria and I'russia would not \'iekl. 

William lY., (jf I'lni^laniJ, died in i S^^ without 
male issue. .Since Georye I., the kinys ol England 
had been electors of Ilailiner, but now the union 
ceased, and Ernest AuL^ustus, brother (if William 
IV., succeeded to the kinLjdom of Hamjx'er. A 
constitution had been granted to Ilanox'er in 1S33, 
and this he proceeded to abolish. Tliis created 
general opposition in his land, and an appeal 
against him was made to the Diet of the Bund at 
Frankfort. The confederation, howe\er, declared it 
had no autlmrit)' to interfere, and this com[)letely 
struck down all confidence in the I'Tankfort Diet. 

One good iiistitution, and onl)- one, dates from 
this period, and that was the Zoll-\erein, or Ger- 
man Customs - Union. Hitherto, things made or 
grown in one little princi[)alit\' were subject to duty 
if they passed into amither. The result \\ab that 
smuggling went on very generalh', and that ever)' 
little state was put to great cost to keep its fron- 
tiers guarded. Moreover, trade was terribly crippled 
by the arbitrary duties imposed on things exported 
and imported. Consequently, se\'eral of the German 
states agreed with Prussia to unite in one customs- 
union ; but Austria, and some of the northern 
states did not join it. 



Louis PniUPrE, who, by the July Revolution, 
had come to the throne of France, forgot his prom- 
ises to rule his people through a constitution. 
The welfare of his own family lay nearer his heart 
than that of his subjects. Very likely he thought 
that, as a piece of rare luck had brought him to the 
throne, luck might desert him, and throw him 
down again ; and, as he thought this was not very 
improbable, so he resolved to feather his own nest 
whilst he had the chance. But this the French 
people did not acquiesce in, so they rose in revolt 
against him, as they had against Charles X., in the 
month of February, 1848. Louis Philippe at once 
fled to England, and France received a Republican 
constitution, and Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, a 
nephew of the late Emperor Napoleon, was elected, 
in December of the same year, first president of 
the Republic. 

On December 2, 1851, he forcibly dissolved the 
National Assembly, and assumed absolute power. 
On the 2d of December, 1852, he had himself pro- 
claimed Emperor, under the title of Napoleon III. 


ir//0 WAS XAPOLEOX 11. / 


You ma)- perhaps wonder who Napoleon II. 
was. NaiKjleon I., at the heiyht of his power, tie- 
siring,'' to oljscure as mueli as possible liis humljle nri- 
>^\n, and the i_c;"nobilit)- of liis famil\-, di\-oreed liis 
wife Jfjsepliine, and oblit^ed tile Mmjjeror of Austria 
to give hini his daiii;iiter, Maria Louisa. \\y lier lie 
had one son, born in l.Si 1. When Napole^m had to 
abdicate after the battle ijf W'aterlon, he tried hard 
to get his little son [jroclaimed as Napoleon II,, 
but, of course, in vain. The son died of decline 
\\hcn he ^\■as twcnt)'-one years old. When Napoleon 
proclaimed himself as the third of that name, he in 
fact claimed that the poor hoy had really been 
Emperor, and ignored the kings \\\\u had actually 
governed France, and the decision of Europe. 

Louis Napoleon, the new Emperor, was the third 
son of Louis, the brother of the Grent Napoleon, 
who had been created by the conqueror King of 

The Revolution in h' ranee, in 1S48, was of the 
greatest importance for all Europe, cspecialK- for 
Germany. In a few da)'s e\'er\- German state A\as in 
commotion, and the people loudly and threateningly 
demanded four things: I. Freedom to express 
their opinions by A\'ord or writing, on \\hat was go- 
ing on in the government of their countr\- (free- 
dom of speech, and freedom of the press). 2. Uni- 
versal military service, the right of e\-er)- man to 
bear arms, and at the same time the right of all to 
assemble when and where they liked, for political 
or other purposes. 3. Trial by jur\', and open courts. 
4. The abolition of the Bund-Diet, and the constitu- 



tional re-organization of every state. Most of the 
princes gave way in terror, fearing expulsion like 
tliat of Louis Piiilippe ; tlie King of Prussia and the 
Emperor of Austria only refused to yield. Then 
the people flew to arms, and in Vienna and Berlin 
bloody fights with the military ensued, which ended 
in the success of the latter. However, the Emperor 
Ferdinand had to fly his capital, and take refuge in 
Innsbruck, and them to abdicate in favour of his 
nephew, Francis Joseph, who promised reforms. 
Also in Berlin, after much fighting, a constitution 
was granted. 

In the mean time the people desired that a 
national German parliament should be summoned, 
which should recast the institutions of the whole 
Fatherland. For this end 600 representatives of 
the people assembled at Frankfort to arrange 
preliminaries, and to call together a constitutional 
Diet, or National Assembly, each member of which 
was to represent 50,000 inhabitants. On the 
1 8th of May, 1848, this National Assembly was 
opened at Frankfort, when it sat in the Protestant 
church of St. Paul. It at once proceeded to appoint 
a provisional government, and elected the Archduke 
John of Austria to be president and protector ; the 
Diet handed over to him its powers and then dis- 
solved itself. The decision arrived at was that a 
new law code was to be drawn up applicable to the 
whole of Germany; the German Empire was to 
consist of one Federal body, with only one House 
of Representatives. Frederick William IV., King of 
Prussia, was elected emperor, but he refused to 

jYO uxity yet. 


acccpl the title tlui.^ offered liim, and w^hen he heard 
the decisions of the j\ssenibl\', lie ^aid, " The\- for- 
f;et that there are princes still in German)-, and that 
I am one of them." 

Upon this, yrcat commotions broke out again, 
especially in the South. The peasants rose and took 
arms ; some wanted one thing, some another. The 
students claimed liberty of the press, the peasants 
the burning of the mortgages held by the Jews on 
their propert)-. All these insurrections were put 
down by the military. j\ll attempts to gi\'c Ger- 
many a satisfactory general constitution broke 
down, and in ?ila\', 1851, the old liund-Diet or h'ed- 
eral Assembly was re-appointed. The gox-ernments 
had got the upper hand, but much more libert)- 
was granted, so that the people had gained a great 
deal by thiii re\'olution. That which they realK" 
aimed at was unity, and the time for that was not 
yet come. 



Tup: tvvo duchies of Schleswig-Holstein were sub- 
ject to the King of Denmark ; but a portion of the 
inhabitants were Germans, and the German inhabit- 
ants and the Danes were continually quarrelling, 
and the Germans appealed against their neighbors 
to the sovereigns of Germany. In 1848 the German 
residents in the duchies tried to expel the Danes, 
and to get themselves free from the crown of Den- 
mark, but in vain. There were troubles again in the 
duchies in 1851. When, in 1863, King Frederick 
VII., of Denmark, died without issue, the crown 
passed to Christian X., but the Prussian king 
would not consent to this arrangement, as far as 
the duchies were concerned, and insisted that they 
should go to Prince Frederick of Augustenburg, who 
was descended from a younger son of the same 
Alexander, Duke of Sonderburg, ancestor also of 
Christian IX., the new King of Denmark. Of 
course this was a mere excuse. The real ob- 
ject of Prussia was to get the two duchies 
joined on to Germany. However, the Danes had 
no intention to have a large portion of the kingdom 
torn from them, and so war broke out- Austria 



13 ,; ■::; 



_u S^ 

"^ C 

( ) 

^ S' 





joined with Prussia, because the incorporation of 
the duchies with Germany was popuhir, and Aus- 
tria did not wish Prussia to do a popular thing un- 
aided. Accordingly, these t\\'o giants attack'cd the 
poor little dwarf kingdom in 1864; but the Danes 
fought like heroes, and the war continued in 1865. 
Only then, crushed by the enormous preponderance 
in wealth and numbers of their mJghty foes, did the 
Danes yield. 

But, no sooner was the war over, than Prussia 
showed that it was her intention to annex the 
newly acquired duchies to herself. This Austria 
could not endure, and accordingl)-, in 1866, war 
broke out between Austria and Prussia. Prussia 
sought alliance with Italy, which she stirred lip to 
attack Austria in her Italian possessions. The Aus- 
trian army defeated the Italian at Custazza; but 
the fortunes of war were against them in Germany. 

Allied with the Austrians were the Saxons, the 
Bavarians, the Wiirtcmbcrgers, Baden, and Hesse, 
and Hanover. The Prussians advanced with their 
chief army into Bohemia with the utmost rapidity, 
dreading lest the Southern allies should march north 
to Hanover, and cut the kingdom in half, and push 
on to Berlin. The Prussians hac three armies, which 
were to enter Bohemia and effect a junction. The 
Elbe army under the King, the first army under 
Prince Frederick Charles, and the second army under 
the Crown Prince. The Elbe army advanced across 
Saxony by Dresden. The first army was in Lusatia, 
at Rcichenberg, and the second army in Silesia at 
Heisse. They were all to meet at Gitschin. 



The Austrian army under General Benedek was 
at KoniggrJitz, in Eastern Bohemia. Now, if you 
will look at your map, you \\\\\ see that all the 
north of Bohemia is walled in by mountains, with 
only three tolerable passes through them. What 
the Austrians should have done was to ha\'e flung 
themselves at one army as it entered the mountains, 
beaten it, or at all events crippled it, tlien swung 
about on a pivot and gone li!<;e a hammer at the 
second army, hurt that, and then battered down the 
the third army. But, as in the wars with Napoleon, 
so was it now ; the Austrian generals were half 
asleep, and never did the right thing at the right 
moment. Benedek did indeed march against the 
first army, but too late, and when he found it was 
already through the mountain door, he retreated, and 
so gave time for the three armies to concentrate upon 

The Elbe arm\' and the first met at ^Miinchengratz, 
and defeated an Austrian army there, pushed on, 
and drove them back out of Gitschin on Kciniggnitz, 
where Benedek was rubbing liis e\'es, and think-ing 
it time to begin. 

The Prussians pushed on, and nou- the Elbe army 
went to Smidar, and the first arm)' to Horzitz, 
whilst the second army, under the Crown Prince, was 
pushing on, and liad got to Gradlitz. 

The little river Bistritz is crossed by the high road 
to Koniggriitz. It runs through swampy ground, 
and forms little marshy pools or lakes. To the 
North of Koniggratz a little stream of much the 
same character dribbles through bogs into the Elbe. 
But about Chlum, Nedelist and Lippa is terraced 


high ground, and there Bcnedek planted his cannon. 
The Prussians advanced from Smidar against the 
left wing of the Austrians, from Horzitz against the 
centre, and the Crown Prince was to attack the 
right wing. The battle began on the 3d of July, at 
7 o'clock in the morning, by the simultaneous 
advance of the Elbe and the first army upon the Bis- 
tritz. At Sadowa is a wood, and there the battle 
raged most fiercely. The Austrian cannons 
pounded the Prussians as they advanced, but they 
M'ould not go back, but held on, and there the Aus- 
trians met them, and so exhausted were they at 
noon that they drew off. As yet the Crown Prince 
had not arrived , he was floundering through the 
bogs, unable to make much way. Now was Bene- 
dek's second chance. H^e ought to have gathered up 
his men, and driven them like a wedge into the 
panting, pausing Prussians. But he waited, and 
drew a long breath, and rubbed his hands, and 
thought things were not looking very bad. To 
keep him amused, the Prussians thundered with 
their guns at his positions till they were rested. 
Thus passed two hours. All at once, boom ! boom ! 
then a roar of artillery brought down by the wind 
from the North. It was the signal that the Crown 
Prince with the first army had arrived on the scene, 
was'crossing the brook and assailing the right wing 
and flank of Benedek. Immediately the refreshed 
Prussians of the other two armies charged. The 
King called up the reserves to help. At the same 
time the Crown Prince took Chlum, the key of the 
Austrian position, and the battle was won. 



The battle was fouglit with the utmost bravery, 
but two things were against the Austrians ; first, the 
incompetence of their general, and, secondl\-, the 
inferiority of their guns. The Prussians had M'hat 
are called needle-guns, bruechdoaders, which are 
fired by the prick of a neecUe, and for rapidit\- \\-ith 






SMIDAR ,,W « <> 



which the)' can be fired far surpassed the old-fash- 
ioned muzzle-loaders used by the Austriatis. 

After this great battle, which is cdled b)- the 
French and English the battle of Sadowa iSadowa, 
not Sadowa, as it is erroneoush' pronounced), but 
which the Germans call the battle of Koniggriitz, 
the Prussians marched on \'ienna, and reached the 
Marchfeld before the Emperor Francis Joseph 
would come to terms. 


At last, on the 230! of August, a peace which gave 
a crushing preponderance in Germany to Prussia, 
was concluded at Prague. 

In the mean time, however, a battle had been 
fought at Langensalza against the Hanoverians, in 
which they were defeated, and by rapid marches 
the Prussians had entered Hesse-Cassel and seized 
the person of the Duke. By the Peace of Prague 
a complete change was effected in Germany. The 
Germanic Federation or Bund, was dissolved. Prus- 
sia annexed Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, and Nassau, as 
well as the two duchies of Schleswig-Holstein. Aus- 
tria, Wiirtemberg and Baden were required to pay 
a war indemnity, and in addition to this Bavaria and 
Hesse-Darmstadt were forced to surrender some of 
their territories to Prussia. The states north of the 
River Main were formed into a Northern Federa- 
tion (Nord-Bund) at the head of which stood Prus- 
sia, those south were to form South Germany, and 
Austria was excluded from having anything to do 
with either. She had also to surrender Venice to 
Italy. Thus the war of 1866 led to a division of 
Germany into three parts ; but Prussia had obtained 
such power that South Germany could not resist 
her will ; and everything was ready for the union 
of the North and South, which was soon to take 


Ti;i-;Rii;ij; stric ;(_.!, i: \\ith i-kance. 

The throne of Spain was \-ncant, and Prince 
Leopold of HohenzoUern a candi(Jatc for it. 
This created a profound excitement in France. 
"\'ou \\'ill remember how ]'"rancis I. fouyht against 
Charles \'. because he was at once Kiny of German}- 
and King rif Spain. Nf)W France was alarmeil at the 
prospect of a German king riding Spain, fearing a 
combination against her to crush her, as Prussia 
had combined with Italy against Austria. The agi- 
tation was so great that the Emperor Napoleon IIP 
was forced to proclaim war. The candidature of 
the HohenzoUern Prince had been withdrawn A\hen 
it was seen liow offensive it was t<> P" ranee, but that 
did not content the P'rench, and Napoleon was 
obliged to humour the popular passion and go to 

The French envoy visited the king at Ems, and the 
king, seeing that war was inevitable, hastily re- 
turned to Berlin, and called his ministers about him. 
On the i6th Jidy the North German Federal Council 

' It is now known, and is admitted by German historians, that 
Bismarck helped to brinj on war by altering the words of a message 
from Napoleon III. [1921 edition.] 



met, and decided to prepare for war. On the 19th 
an Imperial diet was called, attended by representa, 
tives of all the North and South German states, 
and all decided on making common cause with the 
King of Prussia. This was a great surprise to Na- 
poleon, who thought that South Germany would 
remain neutral. By the union of North and South 
he had to contend against a vast power, and his 
own force was not even equal to that of the 
Northern Federation alone. 

War was declared, and the fear was lest the French 
should cross the frontier before the German army 
was " mobilized," that is, got together and fitted for 

According to all the traditions of the French 
army, it ought to assume the offensive. It had 
been so with the campaigns of Louis XIV. and of 
Napoleon I., but it was not so on this occasion, 
because the French were not ready. Here was a 
first blunder — they declared war before they were 
prepared to begin it. The French army had 
indeed marched to the frontier, but it was without 
supplies — the requisite munitions of war. The plan 
adopted was this : 150,000 men were to be placed 
at Metz, 100,000 at Strasburg, and 50,000 were to 
act as the reserve at Chalons. Then, the Metz and 
Strasburg armies were to cross the Rhine after 
passing through the Bavarian palatinate, and to 
advance on Frankfort, by Rastadt, where a great 
battle was to be fought against the Northern army, 
on the defeat of which it was expected that South 


German}', Denmark and Austria \\ould take up arms 
and become the allies of France. 

However, nothin;^r ^vas ready. The suldiers re- 
mained inactix'e, ^\-aiting for tlie nii]itai-\- trains a 
whole fortnight. In the mean time, all the railwa\-,^ 
of Germany were conve\-in^- soldiers to the frunt ; but 
no troops "were sent forward till the_\- were tlmr- 
ouglily equipped andreads'to take the field, .\fter 
the second week, the German army lined the fron- 
tier, prepared at all points for the I-'rench- 

There were, in fact, three armies : The first, under 
General Steinmetz, formed the right \\ ing, and was 
stationed on the Moselle at Treves. The second, 
under Prince Frederick Charles, \\'as in the Rhenish 
palatinate. The third, under the Crijw n I^rince of 
Prussia was planted on the right bank of the Rhine, 
from Mannheim to Rastadt. These armies \\ ere ci im- 
posed of 447,000 men. Behind, in German)", le- 
mained ready under arms a reserve of men 
to be sent forward later. Behind theiri, again, a 
second reserve of 160,000 men, also 226,000 men to 
be kept to fill up the gaps made by war. 0\\ July 
28th the French Emperor, along with his son, the 
Prince Imperial, a bo\' of fourteen, went to Metz to 
assume the command. On August 2d he attacked 
Saarbrijcken, which contained only 1300 men, and 
drove them out, after a fight of three hiiurs, but 
they retired in good order, and \\-ere not pursued, 
neither was Saarbriicken occupied by the French. 

Now the Germans adx'anced. Tlie leading idea 
in the mind of Moltke, who directed operations, was, 
"Let the armies march separately, and concentrate 



to fight." That was, as j-ou may remember, the 
way in which the battle of Leipzig \\'as won. It 
was the way, later, in which the battle of Sadowa 
was won. 

A little below Rastadt the Lauter runs into the 
Rhine from the west. The third army began its 
forward march on August 4th and crossed the 
Lauter, which was then the frontier. It came upon 
the French at Weissenberg, and after a battle that 
lasted five hours, drove them back. These French 
were not the main army, but a division thrown out 
in front, and MacMahon, the French general, with 
the army behind ought to have known that the 
Germans who attacked and took Weissenberg were 
not a division, but an entire arm)'. He did not. 
He had no idea how and where the German armies 
were disposed. 

The army of the Crown Prince pushed on, and 
presently discovered the French in force at Worth, 
and routed them on August 6th, with the loss on the 
German side of 10,642 men. That on the French 
side is not accurately known, but cannot have been 
less. The French fought with splendid bravery, 
but were outnumbered. This victory opened to 
the Germans the passes of the Vosges, and the 
road to Nancy- 

The very same day a victory M'as gained at Spich- 
eren, about three miles from Saarbriicken, by the first 
and second armies, which had united. General Fros- 
sard commanded the French, and he had entrenched 
himself on a height with steep coppice wooded sides. 
The storming of the heights of Spicheren was one 


of the most difficiilt and blnod\- iiLjlits in the whcjlc 
course of tlic wai'. ISad f^rencralship was the cause nf 
the defeat of tile ]-'rencli — tlirriu'^hout the Vjattle se\"- 
cral divisions of this arni\- were heft in inactinn. Tlie 
heicjhts were taken as darkness fell, and h'ro^sartl 
fell back under the protection of the fire of his ar- 
tillery, towards < )ettincjen. All ih.rec dix'isions of 
the German army were now mi h'reneh si.iil, and 
set forwartl under directions frnni headquarters, 
which was in the rear, 'idle third arnn' wow 
crossed the VosL,'es. ( )n tlie lotli a telegr.un frr>m 
hcadc|uartcrs at Saarbriieken announced, " The 
I'leiich army is retreatinL,^ tni the IMoselle at all 
points, pursued by our ca\alr_\-." h'rom this time, 
the use and importance of the ca\-alry as a most in- 
valuable branch of the serxice was recognized. It 
v,'as sent before the main body of the arm\% gather- 
ing information as to the moN^ements cif the cnem_\% 
and masking those of the Germans. It swept o\'er 
large districts, attacked and cut off trains of trans- 
port and convoj's of proxdsions, ceillected food and 
exacted contributions, \\dien a battle -was to be 
fought it was called in and was ready to take part in 
it with effect. 

On the 14th of August the w hole of the first army 
under Steinmetz was cast of ;\Ietz, and the nati\-es 
informed the general that the French troops, en- 
camped on the right bank of the Aloselle, were lea\-- 
ing their quarters. Marshal Bazainc now com- 
manded in place of tlie Emperor, who was back in 
Paris, wdiere great agitation broke out at the news 
of the successes of the Germans and their forward 



march. Napoleon sent orders to Bazaine to retire 
on Chalons, where was the reserve, and whither the 
remains of MacMahon's army had retreated. The 
marshal accordingl)-, on the 13th, had thrown bridges 
over the Moselle, sent some of his trains to Gravelotte 
the same da)-, and intended to lollop' on the morrow 
with all his army, leaving only sufficient men in 
Metz to hold the fortress. When, however, the 
Germans saw that the French were in retreat they 
attacked them, at the village of Colombe)', on the 
14th of August. 

I must try to give you some idea of the position 
of Metz that you may understand the events that 
followed. Metz was the capital of old Lotharingia, 
or Lorraine, and is situated on the river Moselle 
which here flows through a broad valley from three 
to four miles wide. The hills arc close to the river 
on the east side, but stand back from it with ab- 
rupt fronts on the west. Just by Metz, however, 
they draw together. Metz stands on rising ground 
on the east side of the river, that is, its right 
bank, but the ground rises behind it, though not to a 
great altitude. On the west side the hills are higher, 
and one opposite Metz, crowned by a fort, stands up 
immediately above the river. The range of hills 
that runs north and south of the valley of the Mo- 
selle is broken through at several places by streams. 
Nine or ten miles south of Metz the Gorze stream 
flows in from the north-west. Three miles nearer, 
another stream, the Mance, enters the Moselle, at 

Now the road from Metz to Verdun and Chalons 



is an old Roman road. It turns under the hill with 
Fort S. Quentin, opposite Metz, and then crosses 
the highland and the two streams one after the 
other. There is also a third stream, also running 
from the north-west, which enters the Moselle just 
under the hill and fort of S. Quentin. Now Mar- 
shal Bazaine had, as you have heard, received orders 
to retire from Metz by Verdun to Chalons, and he 
was beginning to do so on the 13th when the cav- 
alry, who flew about spying all the proceedings of 
the French, discovered what he was about. So on 
the 14th the Germans attacked his rear guard with 
their first army. The battle lasted seven hours. 
The French occupied the ground from Grizy to 
Savigny, with their centre at Colombey. They 
were driven back on Metz, and in the evening the 
Germans occupied all their line. The great import- 
ance of this battle was that it delayed Bazaine's re- 
treat nearly two days, and gave the second German 
army time to come up and cross the Moselle some 
miles above Metz. 

And now you must try to understand the very 
masterly plan and movements that followed, the 
jatter of which have scarce been surpassed in any 
war. Directly the king heard of the victory of 
Colombe}^, he ordered the second army to cross 
the Moselle where the Gorze brook enters it, ad- 
vance up the Gorze valley and occupy the old 
Roman road to Verdun, so as to cut off Bazaine's 
retreat. The Moselle was crossed at 3 o'clock in the 
evening of the 15th, that is, the day after the battle 
of Colombey, and the army advanced on Vion. 


villc. The French were discovered to be in force all 
alon.L,^ the \\'vg\\ table-land or terrace from Mars-la- 
ToLir to Re/.fjnville, and to liold tlie valle\' of the 
Gorze and the hill between it and tlie Mance. On 
the morning of the i6th the battle began \\\V\\ tlie 
advance of the 3d corps between \'ii.)n\-illc and 
Flavigny. ]<'or five hours tliis gallant corps held its 
own against overwhelming (idds till it -was reliex-ed 
by the coming up of the loth corps and Prince 
Frederick Charles, " the Red Prince," as he was 
called. The principal fight was on the left wing, 
which was mostly composed of cavah)-, who tried 
to turn the flank of the French at Mars-la-Tour. 
About 5000 horsemen on either side were engaged 
in the fight, which finall)- ended in the success of the 
Germans. The right wing was also successhil. It 
drove the F'rench from their positions and gained the 
top of the hill between the two streams. ]^y this 
victor)' the road was taken and the retreat of the 
French by it was cut off. 

Next da)- the French retired to the line ijf hills 
on the Mctz side of the jMancc. The position ^\•as 
very strong b)' nature, and the\- fortified it b)- dig- 
ging trenches, and throwing up embankments. The 
left wing of the P'rench rested on the ^Moselle at 
Vaux, and the right was at S. Marie-aux-Chenes on 
the main road from Metz to Longu)-on and Sedan. 

The Germans at once ach'anced and occupied 
Gravelotte. The first arm)' was engaged here on the 
iSth. The Saxons and the guards \vere sent north 
to turn the flank of the French at S. Marie. Also 
the left wincf was attacked at \'aux. The centre 


was at Gravelottc, but opposite this the position 
of the French was too strong for much to be ef- 
fected. The hardest fighting and the most hfe lost 
was about S. Marie and S. Pri\'at, where the wing of 
the French was successfuhy turned and they were 
driven back in confusion, and fled to Metz in wild 
rout. The left wing, however, held its own all night, 
but retired on Metz on the morning following. 
That same morning the German cavalry cut the 
railway north to Thionville, so that now the French 
army was enclosed in Metz. 

A new arrangement of the army was at once 
made. Hitherto there had been three forces, now 
four were made, the fourth being called the army 
of the Meuse, and was made up of some of the corps 
belonging to the others and of the reserves which 
began to arrive. The first and second armies were 
left under the Red Prince to hold Bazaine in the 
trap into which he had been driven, and the third 
and fourth were sent on to meet MacMahon, who 
was supposed to be with his broken army and the 
reserve at Chalons. No time was lost. On the 
19th, the day after the battle of Gravelottc, it began 
its advance. 

Presently the cavalry discovered that Chalons 
had been deserted. MacMahon had gone north. 
What was his object ? Was he going to retreat to 
Paris, or was he aiming at a flank movement 
against the advancing Germans ? Forth went the 
cavalry, like a cloud of mosquitoes in all directions, 
and presently they found out where he was. He 
had not gone to Paris ; he had retired on Rheims. 


The Germans pushed after him. Next thcv ascer- 
tained that he had gone away with his arm\' to Re- 
thel, north-east. Now his object was clear. Me 
wasgoingto the jVIoseHe, to reHe\-e ]]azaine in ATetz. 
If he had been cjuick in his movements he might 
have done it, but he wasted ten precious da)-s in 
crawHng from Rheims to Beaumont on the Aleuse, 
which gave the Germans time to catcli up w ith him, 
and spoil his plan. 

Dircctl)' the Germans saw what he ^\■as after, witli- 
out losing a moment they marched north, and sent 
out detachments from the armies enclosing Aletz to 
stop him if he came o\-er from the Meuse to the 
Moselle valley. 

On the 28th of August MacAIahon was between 
Vonziers and Stenay on the Meuse. The Germans 
came up from the south, to the disnia\- of the 
French, and began to advance on them, and dri\e 
them back. On the 30th, Beaumont and the 
heights behind it were stormed, and ^MacMahon 
was obliged to retire beyond the ri\xr to Carignan, 
and next day to fall back on Sedan, although by 
this time he saw that neither in generalship nor in the 
quality of his soldiers, was he a match fcir the Ger- 
mans, }'et he \\-ould not }'ield without a blo\\-. As 
you see, if you look on the map, he had allowed 
himself to be driven into a corner, and now, as in the 
battle of Leipzig with the first Napoleon, so was it 
with Napoleon III. at Sedan. The Germans con- 
centrated on him from all sides except that \\hich 
was towards the Belgian frontier. Graduall_\- the\' 
closed in, dri\-in<z the French before them. ]\Iac- 


Mahon was wounded at the beginning of the battle, 
and the command was taken by Wimpffen. But it 
mattered not who commanded ; no general was 
equal to saving this army driven into a trap, as Ba- 
zaine's army had also been driven. The French 
were crowded about Sedan, unable to make effect- 
ive resistance, with 500 cannon plaj'ing on them. 
Then the Emperor Napoleon, \\\\o was in the town, 
seeing that everything was lost, hoisted the white 
flag. One of his adjutants brought King William 
a letter, in which the Emperor said, " As I have 
not died at the head of my troops, I hand over my 
sword to your Majesty." 

The king replied that he would accept his sword, 
and would send an officer with full powers to treat 
about a capitulation. Next morning (2d Sept.) 
early. Napoleon left Sedan to meet the German 
chancellor. Bismarck met him in the house of a 
poor weaver at Donchery, but no decision was come 
to, as the Emperor would not treat of the conclu- 
sion of peace. Then King William met his prisoner 
in the little chateau of Bellevue, near Frenois. The 
arrangement for the capitulation was concluded 
between the war minister. Von Moltke, and General 
Wimpffen. The army was to surrender itself as 
prisoners of war. Every officer who would pass his 
word not to take up arms again during the war 
against Germany was to be set free. All the weapons, 
standards and war material in Sedan were to be de- 
livered over. Thus fifty generals, 5000 officers, 
83,000 men, 558 cannon and 6000 horses fell into 
the hands of the Germans. About 28,000 prisoners 

(After Franz von Lenbach.) 



had already been taken ; 14,000 wounded lay in Se- 
dan, 3000 men had escaped over the Belgian frontier, 
where they were disarmed. Thus, an army of 135- 
000 men was annihilated. The Emperor was sent to 
the castle of Wilhelmshohe, near Cassel, the summer 
resort of the Dukes of Hesse-Cassel. 

And now, consider the rapidity with which these 
splendid results had been attained. On the 4th of 
August the German army had made its first onward 
movement to the Lauter, and on September ist 
the battle of Sedan was fought. On August 2d, 
Napoleon had directed the first operations against 
Saarbriickcn, — the first guns had been fired and 
the swords drawn. On the 2d of September he 
handed over his sword and his army, and became a 
prisoner of the Germans. The news of the defeat 
and surrender of Napoleon caused a revolution to 
break out in Paris ; and a republic was proclaimed 
on the 4th, with a " Government of National De- 
fence " to conduct the war, composed for the most 
part of lawyers who knew nothing about war. 
Hopes of peace, founded on the surrender of the 
Emperor, fell. The war must be prosecuted to the 
end. The Germans did not let the grass grow 
under their feet. Next day they entered Rheims, 
and on the 15th were before Paris, surrounding it 
like a half-moon. Paris is defended by a number 
of forts which crown the hills around it, allowing a 
good open space between them and the city walls. 
This allowed the French to form and fling themselves 
between the forts, in sorties, upon the Germans, 
unperceived. None of these sorties, however, 



were successful. Fresh German troops came up 
and completely encircled the cit\', so that no pro- 
visions could get into it. On October 5th the King 
of Prussia made the Palace of Versailles his head- 


The siege of Paris could not be prosecuted with 
energy, because the Germans had not, at first, a 
siege train, that is, heavy cannon and other articles 
necessar_\- for a bombardment ; consequently the 
German arm)- at first assumed a purel\- defensi\e 



attitude, driving back the various sorties attempted 
by the French. 

Now a number of fortified towns in Elsass sur- 
rendered ; Strasburg had made a gahant defence, and 
after a terrible bombardment yielded on September 
27th. Marsal, Vitry, Toul, Soissons, Schlettstadt, 
all capitulated. On October 27th Marshal Bazainc 
surrendered Metz. His army, consisting of three 
marshals, 6000 generals and officers, 173,000 men, 
and 1340 cannon, fell into the hands of the victori- 
ous Germans. Thus the second French army was 
annihilated ; and the army under Prince Frederick 
Charles was set free for further operation. 

Just before Paris was surrendered some of the 
members of the new Republican government had 
fled to Tours. Gambetta, a French-Italian lawyer, 
with some cleverness, and an overweening opinion 
of his own abilities, escaped from Paris in a balloon, 
and joined the members of the government at 
Tours, where he took on himself the direction of 
the war, and acted as a dictator to France. He 
called out all able-bodied men in the country to arms, 
ordered war material from, abroad, and the newly- 
formed troops to be drilled into order. We can see 
how absurd it was to suppose that such raw recruits 
could effect anything against armies of such tried 
and splendid quality as the Germans, but we must 
acknowledge the heroism of these men who would 
not yield when two of their armies had been de- 
stroyed. The result was, however, infinitely disas- 
trous to France. It increased the misery fiftyfold, 
and led to useless loss of life. 


A large army was formed on the Loire under 
General Aurelle de Paladines, which might ha\-e 
effected something if Gambetta liad not meddled 
and tried to o\'erridc the authorit}' of the general 
in command. The Germans \\ent at once against 
it, as it "was menacing their army about Paris, and 
beat it at Orleans and 13eaunc. General Aurelles 
had been forced by the dictator Gambetta to tnght 
against his judgment. After his defeat he resigned. 
and the army of the Loire was divided into two. 
One, under Bourbaki, was concentrated at ]k)urges. 
The other, under Chanzy, was further down the 
Loire at Beauzency, between Orleans and Jilois. 
The Germans soon found that the latter had the 
largest army, and the Red Prince went at Iiim and 
defeated him, and drove him back on X'endi'jme. 
The government finding Tours no longer safe, ran 
away to Bordeaux. Chanzy then retreateil to 
Le Mans. On the last day of that disastrous year 
Chanz)' made an attempt to strike a deadl}- blo\\- 
at the army of the Red Prince which pursued him, 
but this also failed. 

hi the mean time an army had been foi'med in 
the north of Prance, under General P\iidherbe ; 
and against this the first German army, under Gen- 
eral Manteuffel, was sent, attacked this arm}- at 
Amiens on November 27th, and beat it, driving it 
away in confusion to Arras and Lille. 

Another division of the north army was at 
Rouen, and now Manteuffel turned against that 
and dispersed it, and occupied Rouen. Then he 
went back atrainst Paidherbe to finish him off. He 


efeated him at Hallue and Bapaumc. Another 
attle at S. Ouentin completed the ruin of Faid- 
erbe'sarmy. This last battle was on January i8th. 
'he same day General Trochu who commanded 
1 Paris, made an attempt to burst out, but was 
eaten back with great loss. 

Thus every attempt made to relieve Paris by 
dling on the rear of the besiegers had failed. 

Gambetta now formed a new plan of operation. 
[e determined to carry the war into the enemy's 
Duntry, and so force them to send back their 
■oops to the protection of Germany, and so relieve 
le pressure on Paris. Between Vesoul and Basle 

a very strong fortified place, Belfort, which had 
ot as yet surrendered, though it was closely be- 
eged. Gambetta resolved that Bourbaki should 
larch to the relief of Belfort, and thence cross 
le Rhine, and fall upon Baden and Wiirtemberg. 

The Germans speedily discovered what was in- 
;nded, and formed a new army, called the south 
rmy, to follow Bourbaki under Manteuffel, who 
as recalled from the north when he had crippled 
'aidherbe. The Red Prince was, in the mean 
hile, driving Chanzy back ; and on January I2th he 
efeated him at Le Mans, taking prisoners 20,000 
len, and completely breaking his power. The 
rench army of the west fled in confusion to Laval 
nd Mayenne, pursued by the Germans. Chanzy 
as never again able to collect an effective force ; 
) now his army was dissolved, as well as the army 
f Faidherbe. 

In the cast was General Werder at the head of 


a German army engaged in the sieges u[ Belfort 
and Langres. Direct!)' he heard of tlie niarcli d' 
]5ourbaki, lie threw liimself in his wax at Ileri- 
court. He had only 35,000 men at his commanLJ, 
whereas the French army numbered nearl\- 100,000. 
Moreover, in the rear of the Germans was Bel- 
fort, and they were in danger of an attack thence. 
However, for three whole da\-s, the 15th, 16th 
and I /til of Januar)', they held Bourbaki at ba)-. 
The weather \\'as bitterl)' cold, snow was on the 
ground. On the iSth the French retreated. The 
little band of Germans liad defeated an arm_\' three 
times its size. As King William trul\- said of this 
battle, " It is one of the most remarkable feats of 
arms of all times." 

Now Manteuffel was hastening up, and Gam- 
betta again meddled, throwing Bourbaki rmt of his 
arrangements. Ashamed of his ill success, mad- 
dened by Gambetta, he shut himself, but though 
severe, the wound did not pro\'e mortal. General 
Clinchant was appointed in liis place, but it was 
merely the substitution of General Naught fur Gen- 
eral Nothing. All he could do ^vas to retreat on 
Bezanijon, and from Bezancon on the S\\ iss frontier, 
wdiich the defeated army crossed, ga\'e up their 
arms, and disappeared. Thus another army \\as 
annihilated, and France was left \\ithout one to 
defend it, except only that enclosed in Faris. 
Resistance was impossible. On the 24th February 
the preliminaries of peace were prepared, and on 
the 15th ^larch peace was concluded. France was 
to surrender all Elsass and part of Lorraine (Loth- 


ringen) with Metz, and to pay a heavy war indem- 
nity, and till this indemnity was paid the German 
army was to hold in occupation certain portions of 
the French territory. Some of the forts about 
Paris were to be held by the Germans till the 
money had been paid. A congress was to meet at 
Brussels to settle particulars. 

Thereupon, the greater part of the victorious 
army returned to Germany, and the Peace congress 
met at Brussels on March 28th. Proceedings were, 
however, delayed by the breaking out of a new rev- 
olution in Paris. The Commune took possession of 
the capital and several of the forts vacated by the 
Germans, and established a government of their 
own. And now the Republican government had 
to lay siege to Paris, and bombard it, whilst the 
Germans looked quietly on from the forts they still 
held, watching the Parisians " stew in their own fat," 
as Bismark said. The Republican government called 
the remains of its armies together, and so Paris had 
to undergo a second siege, which left it in a more 
disastrous condition than the first. When the Com- 
munists saw that the place was taken, they tried to 
set fire to all the public buildings and churches, so as 
to bury themselves under its ruins. 

Only on the loth of May was peace definitely 
concluded at Frankfort, which was substantially the 
same as the preliminary agreement arrived at on 
March ist. 



The war had drawn all the states of Germany- 
together, had brok-cn down the dislike of the South 
for the North, and had united all German hearts. 

The time was come, Pro\idence seemed to have 
declared it, when at last the lesson of the past, 
which had been ^^■ritten and rewritten in blood, but 
Avhich had been unheeded, should be laid to heart 
and acted upon. That lesson A\'as — Unit)'. All 
the miseries of Germany had been due to petty 
rivalries and jealousies. Now God had given Ger- 
many victory over the power that had been her 
deadliest enemy — the busy hand that had sowed 
strife in her fields, and that \'ictor3' had been gi\-en 
only because she had acted unitedl}\ 

The several states took counsel together, and 
agreed to offer the imperial crown to the King of 
Prussia. The proclamation declaring the founda- 
tion of the restored empire was made on January 
1st, 1871, and on the i8th William, King of Prussia, 
was saluted as Emperor of Germany, in the Palace 
of Versailles, by the rcpresentati\'es of the states 
of German}-. 

The capitulation of Paris followed on Jan. 2Sth. 



The preliminaries of peace were decided on, on Feb. 
26th, and peace was concluded definitely on May 
lOth, at Frankfort-on-Main. The re-union of Elsass 
and German Lorraine with Germany was a military 
necessity, because of their fortified capitals, Strasburg 
and Metz, and was in accord with the general wish 
of the German people. 

The first diet of the Empire assembled at Berlin 
on March 21, 187 1. 

The present German empire comprises twenty-six 
states. Of these twenty-two are monarchical, and 
three (Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeck) are repub- 
lican. One, Elsass — Lothringen, is an imperial 
province, under the sovereignty of the German 
empire. The other states are kingdoms, grand 
duchies and duchies. 

Imperial power is lodged in the hands of the Con- 
federated States, represented by the Bundesrath, of 
which there are fifty-eight members. Prussia is 
represented by seventeen, Bavaria by six. Saxony 
and Wurtemberg each by four, Baden and Hesse each 
by three, and Mecklenburg and Brunswick each by 
two. All other States combined send one member. 

The Bundesrath is summoned annually to meet, 
by the Emperor, and its function is to prepare the 
laws promised to the Reichstag for acceptance. It 
further has to see to the execution of the laws. 
It forms committees to deal with foreign affairs, 
the army and the fleet, taxes and duties, trade, the 
railways, the post, etc. Prussia must be represented 
on each of these committees, and possesses the right 
of veto. 

(From a photograph by Keichard and Lindner.) 




The Kaiser presides at the Bundesrath, he being 
also King of Prussia. The Emperor represents the 
Empire in all external matters, he receives and 
accredits ambassadors, concludes treaties, and de- 
clares war when the Empire is supposed to be in 
danger. But all customs and commercial arrange- 
ments with foreign powers has to be approved by 
the Bundesrath and the Reichstag. The Imperial 
functionaries are appointed in the name of the 
Kaiser. He is the head of the army and of the 
navy, and opens and closes the Bundesrath and 
the Reichstag. All decrees of the powers and laws 
of the Empire are promulgated by him. 

Next to the Bundesrath is the Reichstag in 
importance as the law-giving body in the Empire. 
Without its consent no law can be promulgated. 
As the Bundesrath represents the German states 
in the Empire, the Reichstag is the representative 
of the German people. The election of members is 
by ballot, and every man over the age of twenty-five 
and possesses citizen rights, and is not receiving poor 
relief, has a vote. Such as are, however, on active 
service, either in the army or navy, whilst under 
colours cannot exercise their right to vote. 

Such, roughly, is the constitution of the Empire. 
Bavaria and Wlirtemberg retain certain reserved 
rights beyond the others. The constitution of one 
empire out of what was a congeries of states, having 
different laws and different coinages, has proved of 
enormous value to the country. 

Former!}', the traveller up the Rhine had to obtain 
Prussian coins at Aachen or Cologne, and change 
them into South German coins at Mainz. At 

CwL N 1 \i.'-\ M' '1.1 1-;K. 
(AlUr l-i.ini voa Ltiibach.) 



Cologne he had thalers, groschen, and pfennige. 
Twelve pfennige made a silver groschen, and thirty 
silver groschen made a thaler. At Mainz the coinage 
was different. There one had kreutzers and gulden. 
Sixty kreutzers made a gulden. In Hamburg the 
coinage again was different. There thirteen shillings 
made a mark, and the value of a shilling was under 
an English penny. Now throughout the German 
Empire there is but one currency. 

In different states there were different laws. In 
Bavaria no young people might marry till the mayor 
of the parish had been satisfied that they had suffi- 
cient means to maintain a family. This had a most 
disastrous effect on morals. Now the same freedom 
to contract marriages prevails throughout Germany. 
Much difficulty existed in bringing criminals to 
justice, where, as in small states, it was possible 
for the criminal to skip over the frontier from, say, 
Baden into Hesse, then into Wurtemberg, and so 
constantly encumber the procedure of justice in his 


AFTKK 1871. 

The first result of the foundation of the German 
Empire was the letting loose of all those economical 
and commercial forces which had been ham[xred 
hitherto. This, together with the pouring into the 
country of the French five milliards, gave an enor- 
mous impetus to industry and manufactures, resulting 
in over-production. In 1873 occurred bankruptcies 
all over the country, anrl business reeled and trade 
was crippled. The German manufactiu'es also suf- 
fered from the influx of English and hVench 
products into the land, and in 187S Bismarck 
abandoned the polic}- of free trade in favour of 

Turkc)', incapable alone among the European 
states of assimilating modern culture and of gi3\ern- 
ing with justice, pro\'oked disturbances in the 
Herzegovina, and in 1876 Montenegro threw its 
sword into the scale against the Sultan and the 
Crescent. So also did Ser\ia, craving for inde- 
pendence, and finall}- Bulgaria rose. W'hen the 
insurrection had been put down with massacre and 
atrocities of unspeakable horror, Russia stepped in, 
and her armies crossed the Danube on June 27, 


422 AFTER iSjr. 

1877. On the advance to the Shipka Pass the 
Russians met with unexpected difficulty in Plevna, 
that stubbornly resisted, and would never have been 
taken by them but for the assistance of Prince 
Charles of Koumania. Plevna was at length taken, 
and the Russians crossed the Balkans to Adrianople 
and marched upon Constantinople. 

Also in Armenia the Russians had been successful, 
and had taken Kars. Thessalj', Epirus, and Crete 
were in insurrection. Now England, under the 
mischievous guidance of Lord Beaconsfield, and 
Austria-Hungary, under that of Count Andrassy, 
interfered to save Turkey. The dawn of an 
European war was averted by Bismarck in the 
Congress of Berlin, the i8th of June to the 13th 
of Jul}', 1878. It was therein agreed that Roumania 
and Servia should become independent states. The 
former conceded Bessarabia to Russia, and in return 
received the Dobrutscha. Servia was increased in 
territory to the south, and Montenegro in the south- 
west. Russia obtained the port of Batoum on the 
Black Sea. The government of Bosnia was passed 
over to Austria. Greece received Thessaly and 
South-East Epirus. Bulgaria north of the Balkan 
was constituted an independent principalit}- under 
the supreme sovereignty of Turkey. 

Crete was promised reforms never executed, and 
this led to fresh risings. 

But with all this we have no further concern 
than in so far as they affected the foreign policy of 

Since 1871, in the interests of peace, Bismarck 
had been disposed to draw into close bonds of 

(Fru:ii a photogr;iph by Reich;ird and Lindner ) 

4^4 AFTER iSjI. 

alliance with Austria and Russia. The provinces 
of Alsace and Lorraine were so reluctant to join 
Germany that the whole of their Deputies fled to 
P'rance and protested against the union. Not less 
severe was the loss to France, and a "war of revenge" 
was to be expected. On this account Bismarck 
sought Allies, and Austria was induced to join 
with Germany on the 15th of October, 1879. Italy, 
which had a tradition of resentment against France 
because the French had for years prevented the 
unification of Italy, joined Germany and Austria, 
thus constituting the Triple Alliance, in 1883. 

France had rapidly recovered, and had secured 
an alliance with Russia. From this time onward 
Germany seemed to be threatened with a " war 
on two fronts," in which the aid of Austria would 
not avail much. It is probable that Bismarck was 
quite content with the large Germany he had built 
up, and sought only to secure it. New processes 
of steel-making had been invented since 187 [, and 
the immense bed of iron-ore in Lorraine had turned 
out to be of far higher value than any person had 
dreamed at the time of the Franco-German War. 
The feeling of large industrial loss was added to 
the patriotic feeling in France, and more than once 
it seemed as if the war would recommence. 
Bismarck, to please Austria, had thwarted Russian 
ambition in the Balkans. At the Berlin Congress, 
which had followed the Russo-Turkish War (1877-8), 
he had baulked the Russian statesmen, and had 
left them in a hostile mood. In 1884, however, 
he secured a secret treaty of benevolent neutrality 



with Russia, and for the time he was able to lay 
aside his anxiety. 

But while Bismarck's " blood and iron " policv, 
allied with a diplomacy of the most unscrupulous 
character — he used to say that " a man going 
through life with principles was like a dog trying 
to get through a wood with a stick in its mouth" — 
won this apparent security and prosperity for the 
German nation as a whole, he reaped nothing but 
trouble in attempting to apply the same metiiods 
to internal policy. Almost as soon as the Empire 
was created, he entered upon a bitter seventeen- 
years' struggle with the Roman Catholics — a third 
of the new nation — and he passed from that only 
to engage in a struggle with Poles and Socialists, 

The mcorporation of Alsace-Lorraine, ]3aden and 
Bavaria into the new Empire had ver}- greatly 
added to the strength of the Roman Catholics. 
Bismarck particularly disliked the South-German 
Catholics. To their preference for Catholic Austria 
he attributed the long opposition of the southern 
kingdoms to German unit)'. Moreover, he was 
chiefly supported by the Liberals. There was, of 
course, no genuine Liberalism in his polic\-, but 
he at least agreed with the Liberals in their jealousy 
of Church-power, and they took alarm at the 
growth of Catholicism. The secession of Professor 
Bollinger and others after 1871, to form the group 
called "Old Catholics," who rejected the infallibility 
of the Pope, gave them a prete.\t for intervention. 
They protected the Old Catholics, and in the course 
of the year 1S73 there opened the long and violent 

426 AFTER iS/I. 

conflict to which the Liberal Professor Virchow 
gave the name of the Kultitr-Kainpf. 

It began in Baden, soon spread over Bavaria, 
and within a year or so raged throughout the 
Empire. Bismarck took the opportunity to crush 
or modify what he regarded as religious divisions 
which weakened the Empire, and, with his usual 
ruthlessness, he disregarded all rights and scruples. 
He expelled the Jesuits from Germany and forbade 
certain religious bodies to teach in the schools. In 
Prussia itself the Diet enacted a series of laws, 
known as the " May Laws," of the most drastic 
character. Priests were compelled to study at 
secular universities, and could be appointed or 
dismissed by the civil authorities. Bismarck 
appointed in Prussia a Minister of Public 
Worship, Falk, who applied the laws so severely 
from 1873 to 1875 that Catholic organisation in 
that country was nearly ruined. 

But the more numerous and powerful Catholics 
of the other German provinces took up the challenge. 
Directed from Rome, they refused to obey the 
laws, as an encroachment upon spiritual rights, 
and they energetically organised their followers. 
One of the chief results of Bismarck's lamentable 
policy was the creation of the famous Catholic 
parliamentary party, the Centre Party, in the 
Reichstag. They won sixty-three seats at the 
1874 election, and grew continuously in power. 
Bismarck retorted with extreme measures, which 
had the usual effect of fanning heated sentiment 
into a white-hot zeal. When Catholics saw such 


venerated leaders as the Cardinal-Arclibishop of 
Posen and the /Xrchbishop of Cologne sent to jail, 
they united in an opposition to the State, which 
was gravely dangerous. France was now talking 
loudly of " revenge," and France was still a Catholic 

This great and futile struggle filled the first decade 
of the history of the new Empire, and its final 
abandonment by J5ismarck was not clearly under- 
stood imtil years afterwards. In 187S the Pope 
died, and he was succeeded by Leo XIII. To 
the anger of the Liberals, Bismarck opened 
negotiations with him, and the laws were gradu- 
ally relaxed or abolished. Falk was dismissed 
in 1879, ^'id in the following year lierlin and the 
Vatican both announced concessions. Presently 
a Prussian envoy to the Vatican was appointed, 
and the struggle was slowl)' extinguished. 
One reason for the change of front was apparent. 
Bismarck had been compelled in 1S79, partly to 
conciliate the Agrarians and partly to raise money 
for militar)' expenditure, to adopt Protection. The 
Liberals, who were then P'ree Traders, strongly 
resented this, and weakened in their allegiance to 
Bismarck. At the same time the oppressed Poles, 
Alsatians, and Lorrainers, combined with the 
Catholics generally and the Conser\'atives, made a 
very formidable parliamentary opposition to the 
Chancellor. He sacrificed the Liberals — most of 
whom would rally to him and accept Protection in 
1S84 — and conciliated their opponents. We now 
know, in addition, that he came to an understanding 

428 AFTER iS"/!. 

with Leo XIII that the Catholic Church should 
assist the Government in meeting a new enemy 
that had appeared on the horizon. Socialism was 
making alarming progress in the Empire. 

Marx and Engels had founded a Communist 
Party in 1S46, and it had been shattered after the 
abortive "revolution" of 1848, After a time their 
followers began again to organise, and in 1863 the 
romantic figure of Lassalle appeared at the head of 
a separate Socialist movement. Lassalle met his 
death in the following year, and in the same year 
Bebel and Liebknecht founded the Marxian Social 
Democratic Labour Party. At the 1874 election 
they polled 340,000 votes, and in the following year 
the followers of Lassalle united with them. At the 
1877 election the Socialist vote rose to 493,288. 

In 1878 there were two attempts on the life of 
the aged Emperor. Neither of the would-be assassins 
was a Socialist, or had any connection with the 
Socialists, but Bismarck was never restrained by 
delicate considerations of that kind. He declared 
war on Socialism, and passed a law i^Ausnahniegeselz) 
which deprived Socialists of the right of public 
meeting or of a press. Until 1890, when this law 
expired and the new Emperor refused to renew 
it, all Congresses had to be held, and all periodicals 
printed, in foreign countries. At the same time 
an effort was made to conciliate the workers b)'' 
passing social legislation. In 1884 a scheme of 
compulsory insurance against sickness and accident 
was passed, and a certain measure of factory 
inspection was secured. For a time these measures 



thwarted the growth of Sociah'sm. But liismarck 
remained long enougli in power to see that this 
poh'cy was as futile as his Kultur-Kampf At the 
1887 election the Socialist vote rose to 76^,128. 
More social legislation was devised. The work 
of women and children in factories was restricted, 
and Sunday labour was curtailed. We shall see 
later that all this was of no avail for its main 
purpose. The new movement, an open enem\' of 
the State, advanced steadily. 

During all these years the Poles and Alsace- 
Lorrainers added to ]5ismarck's trouble. In Posen the 
blood and iron method was applied in an attempt to 
stamp out the Polish language, but Pjismarck found 
once more that it was sound only for large armies 
and "ruthlessness" in the field. lie then tried the 
method of buying out Poles and installing German 
settlers. Millions of pounds were spent in purchasing 
farms from Poles. William II continued this polic}-, 
and by 1907 the Government had accijuired 815,000 
acres in Posen, and put 100,000 Germans on its soil. 
The Vatican also was secretly engaged to help, and 
the Poles learned with anger, at the death of 
Leo XIII, that an attemfjt had been made to secure 
their " obedience " in this way. Posen remained the 
Ireland of the German l-",mpire, and refused to the 
end to sacrifice its nationalit)'. 

In Alsace and Lorraine the trouble was ecjually 
grave and equally chronic. Althoug;h the over- 
whelming majority of the people sj)oke German 
only, and a German poet had jo\'full\' sung 
that " a nation's soul is in its tongue," the 

430 AFTER 1871. 

hostility to Germany remained sullen and general. 
Nearly a hundred thousand of the inhabitants 
refused to live under the German flag, and went 
to France. Their places were eagerly taken by 
Germans, and every effort was made to cajole 
or corrupt the townsmen. It was all generally 
fruitless, and as late as 191 3 a series of events at 
Zabern apprised the whole world that a German- 
speaking population still detested and resented the 
German flag which floated over them. 

Bismarck had created an Empire, and, after a 
period of depression in the early seventies, he saw 
it prosper. There is no doubt that he did much to 
increase its prosperity. He embarked on a great 
canal-scheme in 18S6, and in the following year 
began the work of making the Kaiser Wilhelm 
(or Kiel) Canal. He endeavoured to nationalise the 
railways, though the jealousy of the separate States 
which owned their railways made this a slow and 
incomplete achievement. Early in the seventies he 
had secured uniformity of weights and measures 
and coinage throughout the Empire, and a Customs' 
Union which embraced all Germany except Hamburg 
and Bremen ; and these cities were forced to enter it 
in 1 888. He tried also to bring about a reform of 
the finances, but here he was hampered by his 
political situation. There was, as yet, no income 
tax in Germany, and the taxes on landed property 
were ridiculously light. The taxation was mainly 
upon articles of general consumption. Junkers 
(land-owners) and the new manufacturing class 
resisted every attempt to alter this, and the 


finances of the Empire remained profoundl}- un- 

An important but incidental issue of Bismarck's 
difficulties was that he was compelled to turn to 
colonial adventures. At first, thinking nervousl)' 
always of the security of the new Empire, Bismarck 
refused to embark on colonial ad\'enturcs, lest the\' 
should lead to foreign complications. He loathed 
and dreaded h^njland. But the new prosperit}- had 
checked emigration, and the population was growing 
out of all proportion to the means of li\'clihood. A 
colonial party arose, and in 18S3 a German merchant, 
Luderitz, established a trading station at Angra 
Pequena, in South Africa, and acquired extcnsi\e 
territory. In the following year he ceded this to 
the Imperial Government. 

The colonial polic}' was adopted, and, in the same 
stealthy way, tracts of territor\' in various parts of 
the world began to be converted into German 
colonies. Land was secured from native chiefs, and, 
after negotiation with unsuspecting England and 
Portugal, the limits of German South-West Africa 
were fi.xed in 1886 (and again in 1890). In East 
Africa the work had to proceed even more cautiousl)', 
on account of England. The German Colonisation 
Society obtained land there in 188.J., and in the 
course of time it, as usual, grew and became a colon)-. 
In 18S8 the Sultan of Zanzibar ceded his possessions 
on the mainland to Germany ; and England thought 
that it made a most favourable arrangement b)', 
in 1S90, granting Germany what it regarded as the 
worthless island of Heligoland in exchange for some 

432 AFTER 1 87 1. 

of its African territory. In 1884 the German flag 
had appeared in New Guinea, and it soon spread to 
the Caroline Islands, which were purchased from 
Spain, and other Pacific islands. In 1885 Bismarck 
secured a subsidy of 4,000,000 marks a year for 
German ships that sailed to Australia and the 

All this was a preparation for events of which 
the aged Chancellor and Emperor had no foresight. 
Profoundly unscrupulous as Bismarck was, he had 
the blunt common sense to be content with much, 
and not continually ask for more. But a generation 
which he never understood grew up about him. 
These merchant-adventurers were the forerunners 
of the insatiable manufacturing and commercial class 
which would give a different application to Bismarck's 
creed. Neither Emperor nor Chancellor thought of 
further expansion, and none knew until late that the 
heir to the throne, the son-in-law of Queen Victoria 
and the friend of scholars and Liberals (in the best 
sense), was doomed. William I died on March 9, 
1 888, and a gloom fell upon the reactionaries and 
adventurers. Within a few weeks it became known 
that the new Emperor had an incurable disease. 
Frederick III, who might have changed the course of 
history, died, of cancer in the throat, on June 15th. 
William II, grandson of Queen Victoria, but educated 
by the Bismarckians in a hatred of England, made 
his fateful entrance into history. 



VVlLlTAM II had, as it is well known, been afflicted 
from birth with some nervous malady which betrays 
itself in a complete paralysis of his left arm. Bnt 
he had eliminated the taint from the rest of his 
constitution by splendid ph)'sical education and 
avoiding the excesses of young German officers- 
He mounted the throne with a clear head and a will 
of iron. Did he foresee 1914? \\'e have not yet all 
the documents which the historian of the future will 
iia\-e, but tiiere are k\v outside German}' who now 
doubt that he mounted the throne with a megalo- 
maniac dream of enlarging German}' at any cost, and 
an e([ually firm determination to conceal it until the 
hour struck. 

His first important act was to "dro[i the pilot." 
He desired to rule himself Pretexts were easily 
found. Bismarck wanted to renew the Anti-Socialist 
Law of 1S7S, and William saw, or affected to see, 
that it was futile. His early polic}- was to conciliate 
and bind all sections of the nation. He refused to 
identify himself with the Junkers, patronised the 
Liberals, and professed a deep paternal interest in 
social reform. Bismarck tried next to insist on the old 

433 2ii 


rule that the Emperor must communicate with otiier 
Ministers only through the Chancellor. To this re- 
striction William II flatly refused to submit, and on 
March 20, 1890, IMsmarck resigned. Mis successor 
was General von Caprivi, a more accommodating 

People talked in Germany of the " New Regime," 
but for several }'ears there was no conspicuous 
innovation. William II travelled much and talked 
very much, which led to prosecutions for " treason " 
(that is to say, ridicule of the Emperor) on a scale 
never known before. Some social legislation was 
passed. In I S90 the inspection of factories \\'as 
made complete, and old-age pensions were granted. 
We may add briefly that, as these measures made 
no difference to the growth of Socialism, William II 
abandoned social reform, and in a few years entered 
upon a life-struggle against Socialism. But the 
Socialist vote mounted before his e}'es. It was, 
1.8/6,738 in 1893: more than 2,000,000 in 1898; 
more than 4,000,000 in 191 2. It should, however, 
be understood that only a fourth or a fifth of 
these voters were Socialists. The majority were 
Radicals who had no candidate of their own. Social 
Democracy never had 2,000,000 followers, men and 
women, in German)'. 

The colonial policy was vigorously supported. 
Sensible Germans pointed out that their colonies 
were not worth the sacrifice. The climate was 
generally unsuitable for settlement, and the natives 
were poor buyers of German goods. When, in 1904, 
the Hereros and Hottentots rose against their brutal 

A'/?ir NAVAL POL/' V. 435 

masters in South- West Africa — when a two xx-ars' 
war cost the Empire £10,00:1,000, aiul i,'a\'c the 
world the appaUing infcjrination that tlic Hci'enjs 
had been reduced hom io:i,o;o to i i ooo — tlie 
murmurs were loud. There was a risin;^ in German 
]'2ast Africa in 1905. There were cases trans[3iring" 
constantly in the world's court of shocking brutality 
and depravity even of aristocratic Germans in the 
colonies. In 1906 the Reichstag rehiscd an ad- 
ditional sum for colonial purposes, and had to be 
dissoK'ed. TfUt the h'.mperor clung to the colonial 
polic)'. It was the beginning of an Empire un which 
the sun would never set, and it was a good excuse 
for naval demands. 

Arm)'-seri.'ice made more stringent, and in 
1895, when the Kiel (Janal was opened, the I'^mperor 
started upun his naval polic\-. A new naval pulic}' 
was inevitable, and no foreigner coukl regard it with 
suspicion. The German commerce aiiiJ mercantile 
marine ha(J grcjwn to such proportions that the state 
of the weak and small German n.'i\-y was quite an 
anachronism. In 1872 the German exports were 
^^124, 700,000 ; by 1905 the\' had increased to 
/,"292,ooo,ooo. In 1872 German industry had been 
content with 29,000,000 tons of coal a )-ear ; in 1905 
it required 121,000,000 tons a year, and vast stores of 
goods were being distributed o\'er the markets of the 
world. The cr_\' for a fleet \vas plausible, and in a 
few )'ears it conquered the national slowness to incur 
a vast new expenditure. A powerful Xa\_\- League 
was formed, and it received full Imperial encourage- 
ment. A large building programme was put before 


the Reichstag in 1897, and was passed. Germany 
was to have a fleet more consonant with her dignity 
and power by 1904. 

It is a matter of recent history how the Emperor 
merely used this triumph as a stage from which to 
advance further. The Navy League deluged the 
country with propaganda. University professors 
were enlisted, and found the work an avenue to 
promotion. Every village in Germany was supplied 
with lectures and cinematograph shows on the fleet. 
The " trident " — the rule of the seas — was to pass 
to Germany, the Emperor now openly said. In 1905 
he had a still more formidable programme put before 
the Reichstag, and it was so popular in the country 
that few dare oppose it. As the Emperor took care, 
simultaneousl}', to increase expenditure on the army, 
the world began to take alarm. 

Quite early in his reign William II began to emit 
the occasional sparks which, as transpired later, ought 
to have warned the nations of Europe of the volcano 
within him. In 1896 occurred the Jameson Raid in 
South Africa. The Emperor flouted every sentiment 
of international propriety by sending to President 
Kruger a telegram of congratulation in which he very 
plainly hinted at " the aid of friendly Powers." The 
German historian, Count Reventlow, has since shown 
in his history of Germany's foreign policy that, so far 
from this being an impulsive act of the new ruler, the 
telegram was coldly framed by William II and Baron 
von Marschall in the presence of the naval chiefs of 
the Empire. Anglo-German relations began to feel 
a strain. The Emperor's act virtually endorsed the 

THE GERMANS l\ iH/XA. 437 

I'uii-German doctrine that Dutch, IJelgians, Swiss, 
etc., were fragments of a greater German nation. 
The German people wildly applauded what the}' 
regarded as an act of defiance to Britain. 

[n tiie same year, I S96, two German missionaries 
were murdered in China. William II used this as 
a ground to e.\act from China, which hail hithcrt') 
been the market of h'rench and English goods, a 
foothold for his own merchants. He (-lemaiided part 
of the peninsula of Kiao-Ciiao, with a harbour, and 
sent out his brother, Prince Henry, to take possessiijn 
of it. The l?o.xer Movement and the assassination 
of the German ambassador followed in a few \'ears, 
and Germany sent forces with the international 
e.\;[;edition. It had, as the Eniperor claimed, at last 
a voice in the affairs of the world. The na\)' was 
doubled. It was in sending out his troops to China 
that the Em[)enDr made the famijus speech, in which 
he recalled " the Huns of a thousand years ago," and 
urged his men in unambiguous language to make 
themselves similarly dreaded. The speech was made 
at Bremerhaven on July 27, igoo. 

By this time the Boer War was in progress, and 
anti-British feeling in Germany was intense. The 
Emperor had, however, either from policy or timidity, 
not persisted in his attitude. He had refused to 
see President Kruger, who came to Europe, and he 
scrupulously observed his neutralit)' to England 
during the war. In 1904, in fact, King Edward 
was ver)' honourabl)' received at Kiel, and a German 
squadron visited Pl\'mouth. The internal situation 
gave the German authorities some uneasiness. To 


please the Junkers (or land-owners generall)'), a more 
severe tariff liad been imposed on foreign food in 
igo2. The Sociah'sts had warmly opposed it, yet 
they came out of the election of 1903 with more than 
3,000,000 votes, and 81 members of the Reichstag. 
The Junl-cer Party was heavily beaten. 

But the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 changed the 
situation. It is now known that Germany egged on 
the Russians to undertake what they represented 
as an easy task, probably in order to distract them 
from the Balkans, and certainly with a view to 
weakening the Ally of France. Russia was igno- 
miniously vanquished, and within a few months 
of the close of the war, in the early part of 1905, the 
Emperor sailed to Morocco and brought Europe 
nearer to war than it had been since 1S71. He 
publicl}' proclaimed himself the friend and protector 
of the Sultan of Morocco, and spoke of " German 
interests " in what the whole world regarded as a 
French sphere. It is probable that the Emperor 
sought to test the Entente Cordiale which King 
Edward, clearly realising the ambition of Germany, 
had promoted with France. England stoutly sup- 
ported France, and the dread rumble of war seemed 
to break on the ears of many. The matter was, 
however, adjusted at a Conference, at Algeciras, in 
1906. Europe was drawing nearer to danger. Austria 
fully supported Germany, and England was not less 
plainly determined to sustain France. 

During the next few years the Emperor ruled 
Germany by means of what was called a "blue- 
black block ' in the Reichstag : a combination of 


the Agrarians, Conservatives, and Catholics. It stood 
for an agcjressive spirit abroad and the protection of 
the rich from aderjuate taxation at home. At the 
1907 election the Socialists had hi^t ground, and 
the reactionaries had attained power. When, in 1909, 
the Chancellor von Bulow prrjtested that it was 
impossible to run the country with so light a 
taxation on the \vcaUli\-, and proposed that they 
be compelled to contribute more, they united against 
him and compelled him to resign. It was then tiiat 
Ilerr von Bethmann- 1 loll weg, the Chancellor \v!io 
superintended the preparations fjr the war and 
opened it with the invasion of Belgium, came to 

Meantime Europe harl had one more proof of the 
rising and dangerous power of German)-. Piosnia 
and Herzegovina had some years before been taken 
from Turkey and put under the tutelage of Austria. 
The Austrian iMnperor always desired to annex 
them, and in 190S the German Emperor secretly 
advised him to do so, and promised his suj^port. 
This was a flagrant violation of the decision of the 
other great European Poyvers, but the act had to 
be overlooked. Serbia and Russia, indeed, began 
to look to their arms. Germany at once announced 
that it was prepared to support Austria's act, e\-en 
to war, and tlie other Powers sullenly acquiesced. 

The next few j-ears were spent in unostentatious 
preparation, diplomatically covered by friendly visits 
to England and loud assurances to the world that 
Germany desired above all things peace. Russia, 
England, and P'rance now stood in alliance over 


against the Triple Alliance, and there were few 
serious people in Germany who really expected Italy 
to support them in case of a conflict. Italy was, 
in fact, pledged only to give help in case of aggres- 
sion upon Austria and Germany. England, more- 
over, had responded with even greater exertions to 
every enlargement of the German fleet, and it was 
understood that France would keep pace with every 
increase of her army. 

The Germans themselves, in fact, now began to 
regard the Emperor as too pacific. In 1890, two 
years after his accession, the Emperor had "re- 
modelled " — some of his own most eminent professors 
said " prostituted " — the educational system of the 
country. From that date it was steeped in Chau- 
vinism ; and Navy League, Colonial League, and 
Fan-German League had taken care that there was 
a similar education of the adult. The German people 
was debauched with aggressive Imperialistic senti- 
ment from 1895 to 1914. The)' travelled far beyond 
the public attitude of the Emperor, though how far 
this was a mere matter of prudence is left to our 

There was a curious issue of this in 1908. On 
October 28th the London Daily Telegraph published 
an alleged " Interview with the Kaiser." It breathed 
the most devoted friendliness to England in every 
line. Not only was there a storm of indignation in 
Germany, but on November 17th the Reichstag 
deputed the Chancellor to visit Potsdam and admonish 
the I'^mperor I The incident was without precedent- 
From that time, at least, William II was of one 


mind with his people. German)' must overlord 

In 191 1 it seemed for a time that the hour had 
struck. A German cruiser was sent to Morocco, 
as if to restrain the T^rench in their work. The 
trouble was again adjusted, France ceded to 
Germany 112,000 miles of its Congo territor)-, and 
was recognised as paramoimt in Morocco. The 
German people were angry at what the\' regarded 
as a timid withdrawal, and it was during this mood 
of truculence that General von Bernhardi's famous 
book appeared and secured a very large circulation. 

In the following year the triumph of the Socialists 
at the polls seemed to some an augury of better times. 
The "blue-black block" was shattered. The Socialists 
secured i lo seats and 4,238,000 votes. But the 
Socialists had only held their Radical friends, to 
whom the majority of the \'otes were due, by a grave 
compromise on Imperialist questions, and the steady 
progress of Germany towards war was maintained. 
The Catholics were conciliated by the removal of their 
remaining grievances, Radicals were appeased by 
the adoption of an income tax and heavier taxes 
on property. The ranks were drawn closer, and 
from the beginning of 191 2 almost the entire nation 
was, as the French ambassador secretly reported 
to his Government, and President Roosevelt warned 
the British Government, ready to welcome the out- 
break of war. The Crown Prince fanned the flames 
by repeatedly opposing his apparently peacedoving 
father. The flood of debasing war-books and 
pamphlets rose to several thousands a }-ear. 


The year 191 3 was the centenary of the revival 
of Germany against Napoleon. The land rang with 
Chauvinistic oratory, but army and navy were not 
}-et ready. So great was the change that when 
another large increase of the army was asked of 
the Reichstag, and ^^50,000,000 were demanded for 
unspecified "military purposes," the Socialist members 
agreed, and the next Socialist Congress exonerated 
them. Only Liebknecht and a very kw colleagues 
protested. It was the last act of the preliminary 
drama. In the summer of 1914 occurred the dark and 
now impenetrable murder of the Austrian Archduke. 
The hour had struck. It may be that we shall never 
know positively the facts about the murder, but 
Germany thwarted every endeavour to keep the 
peace, and let loose her vast hordes. And they 
who took the sword perished by the sword. 


Ab'Uration (soconfl) c)i Napoleon 

1., J77 
A(-lall)ert, archbishop of Dromon, 

the grand court of, 117 
Aotius defeats the Huns, 27 
Africa, colonies in, 426, .151 
A'jnes, empress, at Kaiscrs\\'crth 


Afines of Mansfield, 252 

Agnes, queen of Hungary, cruelty 
of, 152 

Agriculture encouraged by Fred- 
erick the dreat, 2rj6 

Aix, Charlemagne dies at, 62 

Aix, peace of, 2S7 

Albert of l^.randenburg, 266 

Albert interferes in Switzerland, 

Albertine and Ernestine, houses, 

Alexander of Russia \-isits Berlin, 

Allernani, the, burst upon Clovis, 

and are beaten, 39, 40 
Allernani, the, why so named, 29 
Alliance, the " Holy," 380 
Alps, the, crossed by Nafioleon, 

Alsai'C, see Elsass 
Altenburg, atrocities at, 163 
Aha, in the Netherlands, 232 
Anabaptists in Miinster, 213, 214 
Angles, home of the, 9 
Angra-Pequena, 426 
Anno, archbishop of Cologne, 95 
Aspern, battle of, 347 
Assemblv, National, at I'rankfort, 

Architecture of German towns, 

19-. I9.> 
Ariovistus meets Casar, 15 
Army of Cut-and-Run, the, 295 
Attila, or Etzel appears, 26 

Attila breaks cam]) at P.mla, 27 
Attila dies, 28 

Attila marries K'rirnihild, 1 ] =; 
Angsburg, battle of, SN 
Angslnirg, beauty r/f, 193 
Augsburg, diet at, 222, 223 
Augsburg protected, frum the 

Hungarians, 8(. 
Augsburg surrenders to Maurice, 

Augustus informed that hi; ,irniy 

has been lost, 20 
.Vurelian visits Clotilde, 37 
Aurelles, de I'aladines, general, 

Ausnahmegeset/., the, 428 
Austerlitz, \ictor\- < i| 

at, 34-: 
Austria cleared of the H.uarians 

and the l-'rcneh, 28'> 
Austria devastated b\- Turks, 166 
Austria in commotion, 206 
Austrians defeated at Prague and 

Leuthen, 295 
Austria in a ferment, 310 
Austria obliged to evacuate the 

Tyrol, 357 
Austria and Prussia against 

France, 324 
Austria and Prussia attack Den- 

nrark, 3<)0 
Austria takes up arms against 

Napoleon, 34G 
Austria, war against, l.iv Napoleon, 

Battle abo\-e the clouils, 332 
Ban of the empire pronounced 
against the Smalkald league, 

Barbarossa, Frederick, 120 
Barons, occupations of the, 139 
Barons, how they held lands, 72 




Ba?;le, council of, 163 
B^stile, the, stormed, y,2T 
Bavaria given, to Otto of Wittles- 

bacb, 122 
Bazaine at Melz, 402 
Bazaiue surrenders Metz, 410 
Bebel. F. A., 428 
Belgium annexed to I'rance, 329 
Belgium declares itself inde- 
pendent, 310 
Belgrade relie^'ed by peasants 

under Capistran, 166 
Benedek, general, 391 
Beowulf, romances of, 142 
Berg Isel occupied by the 

Tyrolese, 35 3. 354 
Berg Isel, second battle at, ^=^7 
Berg Isel, third battle at. yj 
Berlin, reception of Napr>U'on at, 

Berlin, Congress of, 422, .124 
Bernadotte at the battle of 

Leipzig, 368 
Bernadotte, status of, after Napo- 
leon's fall, 378 
Bertha, queen, spins, 80 
Bertha married to Henry IV., qS 
Bianca Sforza, of Milan, wife of 

IMaxiniilian, 174 
Bible, the, printed, 180 
Bible, translations of, ig8 
Bigamy authorized by law, 259 
Bingen, Henry IV. conliiied in 

castle of, 105 
Bismarck meets Napoleon III., 
the prisoner, 406 ; policy of, 
422, 425-31 ; is dismissed, 43 [ 
Bishoprics seized, 233 
Bishops in armour, 188 
Bishops, power of the, 183 
Bishops, secular princes, 95 
Black Hoffman, 207, 209 
Blenheim, battle of, 272, 273 
Blockade of continental harbours, 


Bllicher advances over the Rhine, 

Bllicher, against Napoleon, 365 
Bliicher at tlie battle of Leipzig, 

Bliicher defeated at Ligny, 376 
Bliicher late at Waterloo, 377 
Blundering reforms, 307 
Bluster of Frederick II., 2S1 
Bockelson, John, a tailor of 

Lcyden, 213 

Boer war, 436 

Bohemia, toleration in, 2^4 

Boniface, archbishop of Mainz, 

Boniface killed bv Pagans, 51 
Books formerly written, 179 
Bosnia-Herzegovina, 439 
Bourbaki followed by Manteuffel, 

Bourbaki shoots himself for 

shame, 413 
Bourbons, the, restored in France, 

3 75 
Brandenburg, elector of, 265 
Bremen, archbishop of, 97 
Breimer Pass, the, 350 
Brenner Pass, Lefebvre at, 336 
Brescia besieged, 154 
Brod, terrible atrocities at, r62 
Buda, a seat of the Niebelungen 

roniances, 145 
Biilcjw, Chanc. von, -130 
Bull, the, of Leo X. burned by 

Luther, 2or 
Bull, the Golden, 154, 15G 
Bundesrath, 418 
Buren, Frederick of, 11^ 
Burghers, the hereditary, 116 
Burgkmair's " Triumph of Maxi- 
milian," 172 
Burgundians, home of the, 31 
Burkhard of Swabia, 86 
Butchery at Weinsberg, 207 
By/ an tines deposed from power 

by Leo, 65 

Cesar, Julius, meets the Marco- 

manni, 15 
Campo Formio, treaty of, 333 
Caaossa, visit of Henry IV. to, 


Calixtines, the, 160, i6i 
Calmucks, the (or Huns), 2.1, 26 
Calvin and Luther, hostility be- 

tweeti, 221 
Calvin ists and Lutherans at war. 

Canal, Kaiser Wilhclm, 430 

Caroline Islands, the, 432 

Castles plundei"ed by peasants, 209 

Castles, the ruined, 136 

Catholics driven out by Wallen- 
stein, 250 

Catholic League and the Pro- 
testant Lnion, i;>,.\ 

Catholic priests driven out, ziz 



Cathnlir i-iii alxjlisliod in ccrt?iii 
Cc'.tholii ism furLOi.! upon EoIiciiim, 

Catliolir isrn, pf-asartts rr-\'olt 

aj2;ainst, 205 
Centre Partv, tlic, .',26 
Chalons, dc-feat ot th'.- Huns at, ::/ 
(h. lions taken Ijv Lothair, 6S 
Chaniillv, staiuls on a bridge at 

Basle, 261 
Cliarlemagne, rarni'ai,L;ns of, 52 
Cliarlemapne crowned at Rome, Tn 
Charlemagne dexastates the 

Saxon territories, sO 
Charleniagne dies at Aix, C,2 
Charlemagne foresees tmalilr, 73 
Charlemagne's good go\ernment, 

Cliarles Albert, elector of Ba^■aria, 

Charles I\Iartel, son of Pepin, pi 
Charles IV. endeavours to 

aggrandi/,(- his faniil\', iS''^ 
C harks IV., of Luxemburg, 

chosen emperor, 136 
C harles X. dri\'en from his throne, 


( haides V., character of, 201 
C harles \'. dies, 2 v>, -.U 
Charles V., the greatness of, I'V) 
Cliarles VII., short reign of, 2^6 
Cliarles the l"at, de[>osed, 73 
(diatti, the, -i 

Chikleric III. sent to a mon- 
astery, 44 
China, the (iermans in, 4^^; 
Chivalry and kniglithoud, iii 
Chronicles, the earh', 104 
Christianity al)i>lishe<l and re- 
stored in I'ram.i.-, 340 
Christianity br<jiig!it to the Ger- 
mans, 48 
Christianitv introduced to Rome, 

Christian of Hen mark, 2 (.4 
Church, si>lit in the. 1S2, i^(\ 201 
Church, the \\'esterii, disorder in, 

Cimbri and Tentones invade 

Italv. I, 6 
Cities gain [^ower. 146 
Cities, importance c»f, iSg 
City-building b>' plan, 302 
Ci\'ilization begun by \\'inifred, 
(Boniface), 50 

Clergv, the, ridn uled ia b'rance, 

* Icrmont, i'_"\\w \\ nf, 109 
*. hm hant defr.itrd. 41 ^ 
eiiiirjiant take^ Bouri>aki's place, 

Clcidui-, tiie <aia.- as CL->\i^, 

Louis and I udwiL;, ■',4 
Cl.jtilde woo.-d \<\ C1m\is, -.7 
(dniids, batth- abMX,;. the, 132 

LV<\\~. l..ipll/rd, 41 

C lo\w' dir. at I'.uas, .^2 

Clo\is, kin- o|" the Lranks, 31 

Clo\-is liM-rt-^ the Allemaiii and 

tiie \'o>gc^ ;io 
Clo\ds pravs to the <jod of 

i Clcj\-is wooes Clcjtilde, 37 
C'.)alition, the first, 328 
Coalition, the second, 31^7 
Coalition, the third, 341 
Cologne and Mainz, archbishojis 

of, 95 
Cologne, I'Kipf r factories at, 180 

Colonies, 4 2' I, 4 :; I 

Columbanus, S., in P.urL;und\3 46 
Commune, thf. in I'ari:^, 411 
Congo, the, 44 i 
Constance, Cnunril of, 160 
Constantine makes the Roman 

empire Christian, 63 
Constantia of Arragon becomes 

wife of Frederick 11. , 127 
Constitution of the empire, 417 
Constitutions ]iromised, 380 
Conrad, chosen king, 71) 
Conrad of Hohen^taufen chosen 

king, 1 14 
Conrad 11. , first of Salic kings, <,4 
Conradui, emperor, 131, 133 
Cossacks at the battle of tiie 

nations, 370 
Crown Prince, the, 441 
Cruelties at \'ienna, 309 
Crusade against Saladin, 124 
Crusade, a, headed bv Conrad, 

Crusades, effects of, iii 
Crusades, the, 109 
Crusade under L'rederick IL, 132 
Cultivation nearly extingni?lied, 

Currency, 411) 
Custozza, defeat of the Italians 

by Austria at, 390 
Cut-and-Run, army of, 296 



Daily Telegraph, interview in, 440 
Danube, navigation of, iq6 
Danzig (Dantztic), duke of, 355 
Darmstadt rebuilt, 304 
Denmark attacked, 391 
Desiderius, the Lombard king, 57 
Despotic views of government, 

Detmold, terrible battle at, 56 
Dettingen, battle at, 286 
Devil's Walls, the, 23 
Dialects in Germany, 197 
Diet, imperial, at Ratisbon, 258 
Diet-Bund, reappointed, 387 
D.iUinger, de, 425 
Donar the thunderer, 12, 50 
Dream, the bad, of the duke of 

Hesse-Cassel, 3S0 
Dresden, princes lectured by 

Napoleon at, 358 
Dress in the rococo time, 276 
Duchies, the, of Schleswig-Hol- 

stein, 388 
Dwellings in former times, 192 

Eagle, the two-headed, 119 
Economical difficulties, 421 
Edmund, king of England, 92 
Education, prostitution of, 440 
Egypt invaded by Napoleon, ■3,^7 
Elba given to Napoleon, 375 
Electors, number of, 156 
Elector, the Great (Erederick 

William), 266 
Elector of Saxony, the, 203 
Elector of Saxony protests against 

the decree of "the diet of Spires, 

Elsass given to France, 257 
Elsass and Lorraine given to 

Prussia, 4r6 
Emperors, the, hated in Italy, 131 
Empire, a division of, 70 
Empire, dissolution of, 345 
Empire, crushing weight of the, 

Empire, dreams of a \vorld-\\'ide, 

Empire, glory of, passes away, 136 
Empire (new) diet of, at Berlin 

(1871), 416 
Empire, the ancient German, 
replaced by a German con- 
federation, 378 
Empire, the, organized by Maxi- 
milian, 175 

Empire, the Roman, idea of, 

Emperor, who is an ? 65 
Engels, E., 428 
England, dialects of, 19S 
England harasses the French 

navy, 3.^8 
En£;land, kings of, 383 
" Enoch and Elias " at Munstcr, 

Enzio, last of the Hohenstaufens, 

134, 133 
Ernestine and Albertine houses of 

Saxony, 226 
Etzel or Attila appears, 26 
Eugene, Prince, 269 
Europe emancipated from the 

tyranny of Napoleon, 362 
Europe, new partition of, 378 

Eaidherbe, General, in the north 

of Franco, 4rr 
Faith, salvation bv, 187 
Falk, 426 

Fatherland, indifference to, 260 
Faust, Goethe's work, 314 
Eaust, story of, 181 
Eerhellin, battle of, 267 
Ferdinand of Austria, flees from 

his capital, 38^'i 
Feudal laws of Joseph IL, 308 
Feudal system, the, 72, 73 
Eire brigade, the first, 192 
Flemii^gs rebel against the house 

of Hapsburg, 170 
Fontenay (Burgundv), battle at, 

France, copied by Germany, 301 
France, cultivation in, 302 
France declares war prematurely, 

France humbled by Prussia, 406 
France named, 33 
France, revolution in, 382 
France, revolution of 1848, 385 
France, wretched state of aiTairs 

in, 318 
Francis IL announces the disso- 
lution of the empire, 345 
Francis Joseph of Austria promises 

reforms, 386 
Francis of Waldeck, inclined to 

Lutheranism, 211 
Frankfort, parliament at, 38*3 
I'Yankfort, council at, after the 

battle of Leipzig, ^y^ 



I'raiikfort, pf;,rf ^rltlcM ut (i"7i), 

1 1. 1 

Irank-, 'cnilMrN- .if thr, ^., 
I i-'-'liTi' k I (l!arl.,ii-.,--, i|, i;o 
I la.kTi. k I., anililli.Mi .,t. I -o 
iTr.l.-ri. I; I, Mii.l.-r III./ l.ali of 

till- '-nil '"''■' ^ ~- 
I'ri'.l.n.k II . Ii.irn, i j =; 
Irril'Ti. k i I .'x. oniiiiiini' at.-.l, 

I U 
l-rc.lcriik II. (.if l'nis,ia, tlic 

(jrcat) di-^. ril.i.l, j.s.,, _^.,,-,, ;.in 
l-rclfri.k tlic dr.Mt, iiilri^iics ..f, 

1 rc.l.-rii k the (.real, frij^li Ini.'.I lii 

l.attif, jS2 
I'l'c.lerick tlio Great as a jiriin .•, 

kr.-.U-ri. k tho (ircat ili.s, -,oo 
kri-.I(--ii. k III. of Hai.sliin-),', l"n^' 

n.-i(;ri (if, lf.4 
I'Vo. Icri.k 'jf Austria, s<>ii rif 

Alhrrt I., iss 
I'lT.lcri.k William, the Great, j(ii 
lae.leriik W'iliiaiii III. c.imes to 

the throne, im 
I'retlerick William I\'. of I'russia, 

chosen em]iei-..'r, v"^!. 
I-'reilerick III,, 4^2 
I'reemeii .''.ii.l sla\'es, i r 
kreii.-h, the ciiemies of Geriiiari\', 

17.=., 177 
I'l-eneh, thr, ^vaste the Rhine Ian. Is 

,i^,iiii, 2(11 
1-ienrh^na^e, earliest spe.i- 

men of, 70 
rri.l.ilin at Se.hinKen, .|.S liurned, 2.SI 
I'risian cycle of roinan.X'S, 142 
l-'ritz, the iialatine, rebels, 1C17 
hust ami Seh .Iter ai.l Gutenliertr, 


(.al.or, Bethli'ii, re\'..Its in Hnn- 

i;ar\', J,5.s 
l_iall, S., makes his home in 

Switzerland, 46 
Gambetta escapes from Paris, 410 
GanI, a capital c>f, .^t 
(iebhard of Spires hnnrbles Henrv 

IV., los 
Gebhard of Wal'lbnrj:;, ar.h- 

bishoi"! of Colo.^nie, J u 
Georse of Pojebra'l, in Bohemia, 


Geore'' IT. of En-laml at the 
Ihm'I "f an arni\-, \\nis a \ 1. t"r\- 
at I)' ttin-.-n. i.S'i 
Ge.irL..'nb. irn built. -,o: 
G.-rman . . inf.. I'.-r.iti. m, the, /-S 
G'Tm.iii emoir'', tie- n'-\e irs_|,si, 

>, iS'. 

G'-rman .■mpi'-'', '. .mi....siii. .n ..f 

tlw jn\\", j 10 
G.. ■nil, in in.I.p. ii.l.'iii .■ \\..n bv 

Ili-rni.imi, 2.. 
German, miMiimi; .if the w..r.l, .) nli-ion ni carlv times, 

I r 
Germans think ab'int their ri-hts, 

Gerrnatn- ,aL,'itate.l on acconrit r.f 

H'Tiry I\'., ',6 
('<erni:in\' aojiiscl against Xap'j- 

leon, iro 
<ierniany deserilje.l, 7 
Germany devastated by rival 

emperors, 120 
r,erinany, di\isi':ins of, r')^, 1.16 
Gerniany, forces of, in the l"raii.:o- 

I'russian war, 3.^7 
G.ermany free from I-Vance, ^72 
Germany freeil frijni the K.".mans, 

Germain', her sail'lest time, i v, " 
Germain- in commotion 'l-'^-i-'^), 

Germain- in'le|.en.lent ijf Iranee, 

Germany inllueu'e'l b\- l-ramv, 

Germany loses something Viy 

suceessi\e treaties, 263 
Germany o\'errnn b\' Huns, 27, 76 
Germany sees that the pope is 

her enemy, 182 
Gessler in IVi, 151 
(iiron'lists e.xecuted, 32.1 
Godfrey de Bouill.:'n the 

first Crusade, 1 10 
Goethe, John Wolfgang \-on, 3T3 
Goethe appreeiate.l in Englan.l, 

Goctz v\ith the Iron Hand, 20'j 
Gosjiel Brotherh':i'3d, the, 206 
Gospel, the, prea'-he.l in Germanv, 

Goths, p'iisiti'jn of the, 3r 
{«o\-ernment tiy the p.eop-le prom- 
I ise'.l, 3S0 



Lio\"criniU'iit, a catechism of, 30S 

Grauhuiiden, confederacy of, 166 

Gravelotte, battle of, 404 

Gravelotte occupied by the Ger- 
mans, 403 

Greek magnificence, 92 

Gregory \'II. deposed by Henry 
iV.; 103 

Gregory \\l. summons the em- 
peror to Rome, qq 

Gregory IX. sees Frederick 11. 
start on a crusade, 132 

Grisons, the, why named, 166 

Gross-Beeren, battle at, 365 

Guilds, beginnings of, 146 

Gundebald, king of Burgundy, 37 

Gundebak! oyercome, 3S 

Gunther and Kriemhild, 143 

Gustayus Adolphus appealed to 
by the Protestants, 247 

Gustavus Adolphus beats TiRy, 

Gusta\'us, death of, 255 

Gustayus described, 251 

Gustayus forced to retreat from 
Nuremberg, 254 

Gustayus Adolphus joins the 
Protestant League, 244 

Gutenberg, John, prints, iSo 

Gyer, Florian, 207 

Hammerstein, castle of, 104 
Hanseatic League, the, 1^7 
Hapsburg, the family of, 148 
Hapsburg, house of, 164 
Hapsburgs, ambition of the, 17S 
Hatto, archbishop of Mainz, 79 
Heidelberg, castle of, 302 
Heidelberg, the Catholic League 

at, 245 
Helena, S., Napoleon sent to, 

Helfenstcin, count of, 207, 208 
Heligoland, 431 
Henry U., called the Saint, 93 
Henry IV. (Hohenstaufen), 125 
Henry IV., childhood of, 96 
Henry IV. excommunicated, 100 
Henry IV. goes to Rome, 102 
Henry IV., humiliation of, at 

Canossa, 102 
Henry IV. married, 98 
Henry V. marries Matilda of 

England, 106 
Henry the Fowler chusen king, 


Henry the Lion fights Otto IV., 


Henry the Lion furious, 122 
Henry of Luxemberg (Liitzel- 

berg) chosen emperor, 154 
Herero war, the, ^135 
Hermann, chief of the Cherusci, 

a captiye in Rome, 15 
High (iermany and Low, 196, 197 
High and Low Germany, 7 
Hildebrand ( Gregory \'II.), 

Hofer, Andreas, the Tyrolese hero, 

Hofer betrayed and shot by 

Napoleon, 357 
Hohenlinden, battle of, 338 
Hohenstaufen dynasty, tlie, 11^ 
Hohenstaufen, the hill so-called, 

Hohenstaufens, the, 114 
Hohenzt'Uern described, 265 
Holy Alliance, the, 3S0 
Homogeneit}' of manners to be 

forced, 307 
Houses first built of stone, 192 
Houses of timber, 189 
Huntsman, the Wild, 12 
Hungarians defeated at Augsburg, 

Hungarians, plans for protection 

against, 80, 81 
Hungary, formerly Daria, 26 
Hungary, revolt in, 238 
Huns, the, apoear m Germany, 

Huns defeated, 27 
" Huns' Graves," the, in North 

Germany, 8 
Hunvadi, John, king of Hungary, 

Husbands carried by wives, it8 
Huss, John, and his views, 160 
Huss, martyrdom of, 160 

Ida lea\'es Weinsberg with her 

husband on her back, 118 
Imperial crown goes a begging, 

Imperial idea, the, 131. (See 

Imperial idea, trouble from, 79, 

Indulgences offered for sale, 183 
Innds:eepcrs among the nobility, 




Imi^l>rui k in the hamU of tlie 

I:{a\'ariaTis^ 3,s 3 
Innsbruck orrupieil bv Lffeb\Tc 

Innsbruck taken by Maurice, 2Z<j 

Irene, empress, 64 

Irmgard, the empress, 67 

Irish missionaries, 48 

Irish, the, first preach the Gospel 

in Germany, 46 
IseJ, Mount, occupied by Hofcr, 

Speckbacher and Haspinger, 

353, 354 
Islamism, idea of, 64 
Italy, Prince Eugene in, 272 

Jacobins at Paris, 7,2 1 
Jameson Raid, the. 4.-;'') 
Jemmapes, Austrians licfcatrd at, 

Jena, defeat cjf the Prussians at, 

Jerusalem entered bv bredcrick 

It,, 13a 

Jerusalem stormed and taken by 

the Crusaders, 1 10 
Jesuits obnoxious to Joseph II., 

Jesuits, the, expelled, 426 
Joanna, daughter of b^erdinand 

and Isabella, 177 
Joanna torn by the hounds of 

Wenreslas, 159 
Josejih II., a g<:)od prince, 

Joseph TI. dies, 31 1 
b''^^'"phine, divorce of, ^,^5 
Jury-trials demanded, 3.S1 
Jutta, the einiiress, 6.H 

Key to the ids tor y of media:\*al 

(ierniany, 66 
Kiao-Chao, 437 
Kiel Canal, the, 430 
i-ving, the, elected by the great 

vassals, 78 
Kiopstock and Wieland, 312 
Knighthood, rise of, 1 1 
Knighthood, ndes <^:', ■?3 
Knipperdolhng, the draper, 211, 

KnylYhauser Mountain, legend 

about, 1 1\ 
K'>niggr'itz. situation of, -.,1 
K()t7cbue assas^inal'xl. 381 
Kiugcr, Pres,, 437 

I 1: 
1 p 


KiiUur-Ka-1-ipf, the, 423-7 
!\>bnrg, rYMuit, \v\/.-/.h.i the Hun- 
garians, .^6 

Land tenurf, 72, 7 ^ 
I.asalle, 4 30 
Laurin the dwarf, i j 2 
Laws, equalisation nf, 
League, the Hanscati- 
Learning srorncd l>\- 

William L, ^89 
Lerh, Tillv beatr-n in 

the, 2V'> 
Lefcbvrr;L;rrieral, ^^ S 
Lcfelivrc 'U^featr^d, \^y 
Legends, thr .jM 1 .iTnian. \ \2 
Leipzig, battle of, -,'17, -,7:: 
Leo XIIL, 427 
Leopold rhosen eni|>frc»r, i^>) 
Leopold r.f Hohen/ollrrn, viS 
Leo III. crowns Charlemagne, 6n, 

Leo X. ex( ommunicates Luther, 


Leopold of Tuscany, made king, 

Lessing opposes sen timeri tali t\', 

3 I 2 
I.ibertv. fries fe)r, 381 
Liberty, ideas i>f, in b'rance, 310 
Liebknei lit, \V., 4:18, 44J 
Lignv, battle at, ^,76 
Literature in earl\' time-. I'C 
Literature, in the eighteenth 

eentnr\', "i i : 
Literature, the earlv, iij4 
Little Abb..t, a 'nii kname of 

I 'iiiK (.■ l'!uL;enc, :Hi', 
I.e.nibard rities take the side of 

the Wclf-. I ih 
Lombard cities re\r:ilt, 1^2 
Lombard cycle of romam es. i 1 :• 
Lombards chastised b\* Pepi;i, 

Lombards, early humc of the, 

10, 31 
Lombards o\'errun Italv, 64 
I.onibardy, Xapoleon in, 338 
Lorraijic, 4J0 
Louisa of Prussia opposes X'ai^o- 

Ifon L, 34s 
Louis the Baxarian, 155 
Loui< and l-'rederii k rule together, 

Louis Philir>pc flees to lui-laiid, 




Louis Philippe forgets good 

resolutions, 384 
Louis, sou of Charlemagne, 67 
Louis the German, 70 
Louis XI\^ builds Versailles, 301 
Louis XIV. tries to bribe Prince 

Eup:enp, 270 
Louis XVL arrested, 323 
Louis XVL executed, 326 
Louis XVIII. flees to the Nether- 
lands, 376 
Louvois, Lrcnch minister of war, 

Low Germany and High, 7 
I.iideritz, 431 
Lupfen, countess of, her orders to 

the peasants, 206 
Luneville, peace of, 339 
Luther, Martin, at the diet of 

Worm!^, 203 
Luther, commemoration of, 381 
Luther excommunicated by the 

pope, 201 
Luther hostile to Calvin, 221 
Luther, influence of, on the 

German dialect, 198 
Luther writes to the archbishop 

of Mainz, 185 
Luther, protectors of, 204 
Luther rabid against the peasants, 

Liitzen, battle at, 254 
Liitzen, victory of Napoleon at, 


MacMahon cornered, 405 

MacMahon takes Weissenberg, 

Magdeburg, terrible scenes at, 248 

Magyars invade Germany, 76 

Mainz and Cologne, archbishops 
of, 95 

Malplaquet, battle of, 275 

Man, rights of, 379 

Mannheim made the capital 
instead of Heidelberg, 303 

Marcomanni, the, 10 

Margraves (march-counts), 58 

Maria Theresa, character of, 2S1 

Maria Theresa flees to Hungary, 

Maria Theresa sovereign of Aus- 
tria, 279 

Mario Antoinette comes tc) the 
throne, 319 

Mario .\ntoinctte executed, '^^I'j 

Marius defeats the Teutones, 4, 6 

Marlborough and Prince Eugene, 

Martinitz and Slawata, 234 

Marx, Carl, 428 

Marv of Burgundy, wife of 
Maximilian, 168, 170 

Massacres at Paris, 324 

Maurice declares for the Protes- 
tants, 228 

Maurice of Saxony, reftises to 
join the Smalkald league, 227 

Maurice turns against the em- 
peror, zzy 

Maximilian of Bavaria attacks 
Prague, 238 

Maximilian, the handsome, 168 

May Laws, the, 426 

Mayors of the Palace, the, power 

of. 43 

Meissen, margrave of, 96 

Mehmcthon draws up the Augs- 
burg Confession, 223 

Merovingians, the, are weak 
creatures, 43 

Merscburg, great battle at, %z 

Merseburg, imperialists cut to 
pieces at, 250 

Metternich meets Napoleon, 364 

Metz, battle of, 400-404 

Meyerbeer's opera of the Prophet, 

Michael, the angel of victory, 83 

Military strength of Germany, 424 

Mincio, defeat of the Austrians 
at the, 338 

Moltke, directs the Franco- 
Prussian war, 307 

Moltke, general, after Sedan, ^06 

Molwitz, battle of, 282 

Monks butchered, 230 

Montaigne on Augsburg, 193 

Moors, Charlemagne goes against, 

Morat, battle of, 153 

Morgarten, battle of, 153 

Morocco, the Germans in, 438, 441 

Moscow entered by Napoleon, 359 

Moustaches first worn, 277 

Miihlberg, battle of, 226 

Miihldorf, battle of, 155 

Munster taken after a long siege, 


Miinster, in Westphalia, 211 
Murat at the battle of Leipzig, 




Murat ;:,'.'iius victorv at Toh.-ntino, 

Music, birth of, 278 
Music and eJucatiou under Charle- 
magne, 59 
Music springs into perfection, wj 

Napoleon T,, appears, 3^0 
Napoleon 1. advances to Italv, 

Napoleon as a reorganizer, i-pi 
Napoleon at hi'; highest point, ;,_vS 
Napoleon crowned emperor by 
the Pope, 341 

Najioleon defeated at AsprTn, 347 
Napoleon deserts his own arni\', 

Napoleon enters brance again, 37r» 
Napoleon enters Prussia, 364 
Napoleon enters Rubsia, 3sS 
Nnpoleon gives governments to 

relatives, 244 
Napoleon in Lombardy, 338 
Napoleon, insolence of, 316 
Napoleon lectures princes, 3=18 
Napoleon outgencralled at Mos- 
cow, 360 
Napoleon prorlairned an outlaw, 


Napoleon retr(^ats from Leipzig, 

Napoleon threatrni-d by AVelling- 

ton, 373 
Napoleon II., who was he ? 38s 
Napoleon III., president oi the 

French republic, 384 
Napoleon III., a prisoner, 406 
Napoleon III. proclaims war with 

Pruisi;i, VIS 
NationalAi-U'inbly, the, in b'rance, 

Nations, battle of the, 367 
Nations, migration of, 2() 
Navy of Germany, 425, 435 
Navy League, the, 435 
Necklace, a dangerous, 79 
Netherlands, a revolt in the. 170 
New Guinea, colony in, 428 
Nev, Marshal, at (.^uatre Bras, 

Niebelungen Lied, the, 26, 142. 

Nimweg, Reissweg and rnrerht. 

Nobles, manufacture of, 278 
Nobles, po.ver of the, 129 

Noble--., tlv;. elect the king, 7.~^ 
Xobility, the, dving out, 2~7 
Nobility, the, in France refuse to 
bear burdens of taxation, 321 
Xord-Bund, the, V)\ 
North Germany flat, i',7 
N<>rth[uen, incursions of, 7s 
Nothliurga, the peasant i;rirl, 12 
Nuremburg, situation of, i^z 

Old Catholics the, 425 
Orrhcstra, the, drxelni-eil, 317 
Orders, religious, to be made to 

work, lyO') 
Ottacar of Bohemia defeated near 

Vienna, 148, 149 
Otto the Great, character of, 00 
Otto I., state of, 1,2 
< )tto IL, court of. •>! 
(.>tto IV. hglits Heiu-v the Lion, 

Oudenardc, batth- of, 275 

Paris, Clo\-is dies at, 42 
Pari-^i, rc\olution in (1870), 408 
Paris, siege of (1870), 4o>j 
Paris, second peace of, 378 
Paris surrounded b^- the (iermans, 

Paris, first peace of, 375 
Paris, second siegf of, 414 
Paris bombardei! bv the I'rench, 

Pacifications of N'imwegen, Rys- 

wi'-k and L'trecht, 2'>2 
Palestine conquered by the Seb 

juks, ro9 
Papal sovereignty, br^innin;; of, 44 
Paper, slips "f, on the ri\t-r liui, 

Paper, watermarks of. 179 
Parlianifut, the, in IVance, 43 
Parliaments demanded, 3S1 
Pa^sau. pacLtication of, 229, 245 
Paul IV. opposes Charles \'., 230 
IVace of Paris (tirst), 375 
Peace of Paris (second), 378 
Peace of Vienna, 347 
Peasants, the German, 8 
Peasants, the, aroused, 205 
Peasants in arms again (1848), 

Peasants in the Rlioetian .Mps 

rise. 166 
Peasants, plan of Joseph 1 1, for, 



Peasants rise throughout Franco, 

Peasants of the Tyrol, action of, 

People, relational to their princes 

after Napoleon's fall, 379 
Pepin the Short, as mayor of the 

palace, 43 
Pepin fights his foes, 44 
Pepin dies, 45 
Peter the Hermit preaches the 

first Crusade, 109 
Philip II. becomes king of Spain 

and the Netherlands, 230 
Philip II. persecutes Protestants, 

Pius II. on the German cities, 

Pius VI. alarmed by the measures 

of Joseph II., 309 
Pius VII. crowns Napoleon, 341 
Plague, the, 127 
Poems, the old German, 60 
Poetry cultivated, 141 
. Poles, the, 429 
Pomerania occupied by the 

Sclavs, 32 
Poniatowski at the battle of 

Leipzig, 369 
Pope, the, against Germanv, i7(>, 

Pope, the, does Pepin a good turn, 

Pope, the, an enemv to Germany, 

Pope, the, in want of money, r82 

I-*opes against emperors, 106 

Popes harmed by Ihe imperial 
claims of the German em- 
perors, 133 

Popes uneasy, 131 

Population, decrease of, during 
the Thirty Years' War, 239 

Post office, the, organization of, 

Potato, enforced culti\'ation of 
the, 297 

Pragmatic Sanction, the, 279 

Prague attacked by Maximilian of 
Bavaria, 23B 

Prague, battle of, 295 

Prague blockaded, 286 

Prague, Hussite troubles in, 161 

IVague, imperial castle at, at- 
tacked, 235 

Prague, peace of, 394 

Press, censure of the, 382 

Pressbm'g, peace of, 344 

Prince and people, relations of, 

Princes almost independent, 258 
Princes and cities in constant 

feud, 138 
Printing, invention of, 179 
Protection adopted, 427 
Protestant League takes the place 

of the LTnion, 244 
Protestant princes weakened by 

dissensions, 225 
Protestant Union broken up, 239, 

Protestant LTnion and the Cath- 
olic League, 234 
Protestantism, origin of, 182, 186 
Protestants erect new churches, 

Protestants, how named, 222 
Protestants in Miinster split, 213 
Prussia chastised, 345 
Prussia forced to war with France, 

Prussia, forces of, 397 
Prussia, a great arsenal, 364 
Prussia meets reverses, 346 
}*russia wins the duchies, 394 

Rack, the, used hi modern times, 

Ramilies, battle of, 275 
Rastadt, convention at, 335 
Rastadt, treaty of, 275 
Ratisbon besieged, 255 
Redress of grievances, 430 
Reformation in Switzerland, 221 
Reforms by Joseph 11. , 307 
Reichstag, an Imperial to sit at, 

Ratisbon, 258 ; new, 418 
Reign of Terror, end of, 330 
Religion, innovations in, for- 

bielden, 222 
Remigius, bishop of Rheims, 35 
Remigius teaches Clovis, 40 
Revelations, the, of the Ana- 
baptists, 217 
Revolts in various quarters, 310 
Rheims, cathedral of. spoilccl, 35 
Rheims entered by the Germans, 

Rhein-bund, the, 344 
Rhein-bund, the, cowed i)y Napo- 
leon, 3'):: 
Rhein-bund dissolved, 373 



Rliriiisoer};', ' ir-tlf of, lifr- of 

I rfdfrii k II. in, 20:; 
Riw'il kings, 153, thr, i -.6 
Rolilicr-knight'^, rlr-prfdatioiis of, 

Robespierre elei tod to tlicX;iti<"'ri;il 

Assembly, -■,z\ 
Robespierre guillotined, ?,;o 
Korrxo, delinitioTi of, 27C1 
Kolisbarker, j.'i.kk-iii, 207 
Kuiiiatifes, tin- Hiirgiindiaii. 1.12 
R..irians def.-at.-d by tli<- Tm- 

Inni-S, 2 

Ro^c ( jardf'ii, the, i^ 2 
Rossba<"'h, battle of, 294 
Rfittniaim pi'i-a'hes against Cath- 

iilirisni, 2 I 2 
Rudolph of Hausburg, i.pS 
Rudolph of Swabia elrrted em- 

jicror in the -tead of Henry 

I\'., TOO 

Rud.^lph of Swabia defeated bv 
Henry IV., 103 

Kuiiis repoireil by "()ld brit?," 

Russian-Turkish war, 422 
KussM-J.'ipauesi; war, the, 43S 

Saarbriirken, battle of, -,07, 408 

Sadowa, battle of, 302, y)^ 

Salic l"i"anks, tin-, 3^ 

Saladin, crusade against, 12. 124 

Saudwirth, the mS 

Saraerns defeated bv Charles 
Martel, ^3 

Saracens, wars with the, mn 

Saxons, campaigns of Charle- 
magne against, 54, 5') 

Saxons cle\'astate Rrauee, 56 

Saxons, end of the dynasty of, 


Saxons forcibly bapti/ed, 36 
Saxrjns, home of the, <) 
Saxons, situation of the, 20 
Saxonv wasted bv the Hussites, 


Saxon \', dukes and electors t>f, 

Saxony, the Elector of, 203 
Saxony, two d\ical houses of, 226 
Sehlick, Caspar, advice of, 164, 
S( hiller, Christopher brederick, 

31 3 
Schiller's works. 316 
Schism in the Church, 182, 1J6 

Schleswig-Holsteiu diftnultv, the, 

explained, 3SS 
Schloss VAz, 100 
Schools started, 50 
Sela\s in Pomerarna, 33 
Scla\- population, the, of South 

' icrmanv, s 
Seidlit/. Lr-Mt ■ li.uj^e of, m^ 
Si'dan, Xapoleon IH a'. 40s. 40^ 
Serfs, the, in olden times, h 
Sermons, distributed liy t. harle- 

Sc\en Ve,n>' War, terrililc suffer- 
ings in, 2')i'> 
Sir anibri, the tribe of Clu\ is, 11 
SiegLiert. king of tin- Ki]ai.iri,ui 

I'ranks, ., :; 
Siegfried killed, r.14 
Sigismund sei/e> \\'en<cslas. 1^9 
Signs of ijin-houses. i ]u 
Silesian War, the Third. i')\ 
Sin, liow atoned fo;-, 1S3 
Sin, pardon for, 1.S7 
Singing in earh' times. 103 
Slaves and freemen, 11 
Slawata and Martinit/., 234 
Social Democrac\', 42')-3<i 
Spa, near biege, home y.A I'epin of 

Heristal, 4^1 
Spain, claims for the erown of, 271 
Spain, quarrel about tlie thri.>ne 

of. 3'bS 
Speckbacher, the Ixx* )lcs,- hero, 

34 S 
Speicheren, terrible battle at, lu^^ 
Spires, diet at, zzi 
Smalkald, Rrotestant League at, 

Sobieski, king of Poland, rescues 

\'iemui, 263 
Socialism, rise of, -)2S, ^34 
Soissons, a capital of Clo\is, 35 
Soldiers, burden of the, in 

Germ.any, 420 
So\'ereigns, too man\' in (ierman\', 

Strasburg bombarded, 410 
Strasburg seized bv the ITench, 

Street fights in early times, 104 
Strub Pass, the, defended by the 

Tyrolese, 351 
States of the Church, begimdng 

of, 4 \ 
Students < ry for liberty, 3S1.1 
Suevi, or Swabians^ home of, ro 



Swahia, duke of, 113 

Swabia, imperial dynasty of, 113, 

Swabia invaded by the French, 

Swedes, cruelties of the, 250 
Swedes repulsed by the Great 

Elector, 268 
Swiss, determination of, to be 

free, 153 
Switzerland, languages of, 2 
Switzerland not able to sustain its 

population, 2 
S\vit7erland overrun by the 

brench, 334 

Tabagic, the, of Frederick William 
1,. 289 

Tacitus on the career of Her- 
mann, 2 ^ 

Talleyrand at the congress of 
Vienna, 375 

Talleyrand at Rastadt, 236 

Taxes fall heavily on the middle 
classes in France, 319 

Taxes, power of levying, 379 

Tell, William, why named, 131 

Tell, the story of, 152 

Tennis Court, the, at Versailles, 
place of meeting of the Nation- 
al Assembly, 321 

Tetzel arrives in Germany, 183 

Teutoberger Forest, the, 18 

Teutones and Cimbri invade 
Italy, I, G 

Teutones described, i 

Teutonic knights, Grand Master 
of the, 204, 205, 266 

Thassilo of Bavaria, 57 

Theoderic, the Hun, masters 
Italy, 31 

Theophania of Constantinople, 
married to Otto II., 92 

Third Estate, the, 319 

Thusnelda, Hermann's wife, 22 

Tilly, Jean Tzerclaes, count of, 

Tilsit, conference at, 346 

Tolbiac, battle of, 39 

Tolentino, Austrian defeat at, 377 

Tournay, a capital of Gaul, 34 

Tours, the temporary capital of 
Gambetta, 410 

Torture in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, 381 

Trade, the course of, 196 

Trade freed from arbitrary rules, 


Trade under Charlemagne, 60 
Treaty of Campo Formio, 333 
Trenck, baron, memoirs of, feared 

by government, 382 
Trent, Council of, 225 
Tribur, Charles the Fat, deposed 

at, 75 
Tribur, diet at, 98 
Tribute paid to the Hungarians, 

Triple Alliance, the, 424 
Trochu attempts to break out of 

Paris, 412 
Troubadours, the, 141 
Truce of Go:l, the, 138 
Turks, the, give trouble, 176, 310 
Turks, the, overrun Hungary, 222 
Turks, the, repulsed by Prince 

Eugene, 270 
Turks stirred up by Louis XIV., 


Turks, the, threaten Germany, 1G6 
Turks, the, trouble Charles V., 229 
Turn-u-Taxis, Counts of, manage 

the post, 176 
Tyrol, fighting in the, 351 
Tyiol, the, to be given up to 

Bavaria, 355 
Tyrol, heroes of the, 348 
Tyrolesc, the, victorious, 357 

Ulm captured by Napoleon, 342 
Ulphilas translates the Bible into 

Gothic, 31 
Ulrich, bishop of Augsb\irg, 85 
Ulrich, count of Lin/gau, carried 

off, 76 
Ulrich returns, 77 
Unity, the advantages of, 420 
Unity of Germany put away, 387 
Urban II. encourages the Cru- 
sades, 109 
Uri, Gessler ruler of, 151 
Utrecht, treaty of, 275 

Varus sent to Germany, 16 
Vassals, growing power of the, 175 
Vendee, La, rising in, 328 
Verdun, treaty at, yi 
Versailles occupied by the Prus- 
sians, 409 
Vicious fashions in France, 316 
Victoria, queen, a Welf, 116 
Vienna, beauty of, 193 



Vir-nna brsir^ced by th^ Turks, 26^ 

\'ioiina, congress of (1^14), ^y^ 

V'if-iiria, Napoleon's entrance to, 

Vienna, peace of, 347 

Vienna, IV.ace of, 357 

Vienna surrounded by the Bo- 
hemians, 2 j6 

Virchow, Prof., 426 

Vosgcs, the, appear, 39 

Wapr Tn, battle r^f, i, \ 7 
Wahlst.idt, battle of, 3^6 
Waiblin!<er family, tin-, 116 
Wallenstein, Albert of, 21,^ 
Wallenstein appealed to Ijy r>r- 

flinand, 251 
Wallenstein d-ismissed frurn his 

command, 256 
Wallenstein, magnificence of hi^ 

establishment, 252 
Wallenstein retires to Bohemia, 

Wallenstein murdered, 2^6 
Wallenstein's soldiers the dread 

of Germanv, 240 
Walls about cities, 189 
War of the Austrian Succession, 

War between Prussia and Austria, 

War, the Se\en Vears', 294 
War, the Thirty ^'ears', 232, 233 
War, the Thirty \'ears', ile\'as- 

tation of, 238 
Wars, the three Silesian, 282 
Wartburj^, the, commemoration 

of Luther on. 381 
Waterloo, battle of, 377 
Watcrlcxi, alle(;in-ic;il picture of. 

Water-marks in paper, 179 
Weavers, the, of Auesbur^, 88 
Weimer becomes the L.erman 

Athens, 314 
Weinsberg against the Welf-^, 1 1(> 
\\"einsberg, scenes at, 207 
Welf, count of Bavaria, 68, 73 
Welfs, the, of Bavaria, 116 
Welfs, the pacified, 120 

! Wellington opposes Napoleon, 

Wellington threatens Xai'Mleuii, 

Weu' eslas, and his wild acts, 158 
\\'erder's great skill, 413 
Wesel seized bv Napoleon. ^,15 
Westphalia, Peaee ..f, 237 " 
Whirligig, the. of a bishop, ^,os 
White ^^.lutltain, battle of, 238 
Wieland, and Klopstock, ^12 
William II., 4^,2-42 
William I\'., death of, 3S ^, 
William of I'ruvsi.i < rowiie.l at 

X'ersaille-^, 41s; dies, 4 \z 
Wilhehnshohe, castle nf, the 

prison of Napoleon III , 408 
Wimpffen, general, at bed, 111, 4'.)6 
Windows glazed, I'l ^, 
Winifred, S,, finds a [•'."'V i"|ualitv 

of Christianity in ( term any, 4S, 

Winter king, the, 2 v» 
Wissenberg^ battle of, 3^8 
Witteki'Kl, the Saxon,^ his West- 

phalian home, S4 
Wittekind bapti;:ed, 57 
Wittemlterg, < hureh.-s dest roved 

at, 2o^ " 
Wonr.s, a diet at, 17S 
Wr.rnis, diet .ailed at, bv Charles 

\'., ~^o', 
W'.inns, ecinveiition of bishops at, 

I (_'0 

W'irth, tlie I'rcnch routed at, 3'-)8 
Wrede, general, at the Strub pass, 

Wue)tan. god of the Teut^ inr>, 2, I r 
Wilrtembcrg entered -by the 

I'rench, 336 
Wurzburg, palace of. 304 
Wurzburg taken and the monks 

butchered, 250 

^'elltjw breeches, a man in, 262 

/iska, count John, 161, i'i3 
Znavm, truce of, 333 
Zoll-vcrein. the, 383 
Zwingli at Zurich, 221 

Printed in Great Britain hy